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Printed lor Cabsll andBAvis^; T. Payne; J. Walkeh'; R« Lea; Vernor, 
Hood, and Sbareb ; J. Nonn ; CoTHSLt and Maatih ; Gray and Son ; £. 
Jeffeky; Johh Ricrardboh; J. M. Richardson;- J. and A. Arch; \V. 
SfTEv/jOLT ; J. Carpenter ; W. Phiclips ; R. Floybr ; J. Booker ; J. Mvrray ; 
.S. Bagster; B. Crosby ; R. H. Evans ; J. Harding; J. Macieinlay ; and 
CoNiTABLB, Hunter, Paric and Hunter. 

' 1809. 


JF*rt*nfix/'it^rt' A* ^5*7. «J. ■• 



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Hfi account of the cruei manner in which book 

the Pope had been treated, filled all Europe 
with astonishment or horror. To see a Chris- „ ^''*^'!\ 
tian Emperor, who, by possessing that dig- dignwioii 
nity, ought to have been the protector and against th« 
advocate of the holy see^ lay violent hands on ^"*p^^' 
him who represented Christ on earth, and d^ 
tain his sacred person in a rigorous captivity, 
was considered as an impiety that merited the 
severest vengeance, and which called for the 
immediate mterposition of every dutiful son^of 
the church. Francis and Henry> alarmed at 
the progress of the Imperial arms in Italy, had, 
even before the taking of Rome, entered into a 

Vot. lih A 



closer alliance; and, in order to give some check 
to the Emperor's ambition, had agreed to make 
^^^^' a vigorous diversion in the Xrow Countries. 
The force of every motive, which had influ- 
enced them at that time, was now increased; 
and to these was added the desire of rescuing 
the Pope out of the Emperor's hands, a mea- 
sure no less politic, thanr it appeared to be pious. 
This, however, rendered it necessary to aban^ 
don their hostile intentions against the Low 
Countries, and to make Italy the seat of war, 
as it was by vigcroiis operations there they 
might contribute most ^effectually towards de- 
livering Rome, and setting Clement at liberty. 
Francis being now sensible, that, in his system 
with regard to the affairs of Italy, the spirit of 
refinement had carried him too far; and tbat^^ 
hy an excess of remissness, he had allowed 
Charles to attain advantages which he might 
easily have prevented, was eager to make re- 
paration for an error, of which he was not often 
guilty, by an activity more suitable to his tem- 
per. Henry thought his interposition necessa- 
ry, in order to hinder the Emperor from becom- 
ing master of alt Italy, and acquiring by that 
taeans such superiority of power^ as would ena- 
ble him, for the future,^ to dictate without con- 
troul to the other princes of Europe. Wolsey^ 
Whom Francis had taken care to secure by flat- 
tery and presents, the certain methods of gain- 
ing his favour, neglected nothing that could 
ittcense his master against the Emperor* B&* 



sides all these public coiisideration&, Henry i^is *^^^ 
influenced by one of a more ptifate nature; 
having beguiy, about this time, to form his great 
scheme of divorcing Catherine of Aragon, to- 
wards the execution of which he knew that the 
sanction of papal authority would be necessary^ 
he was desirous to ac<|tiire as much merit as 
possible with Clemient^ by appear mg to be the 
chief instrument of his deliverance. 

The ilegodiationj betweert princos thus di<- confede- 
posed, was not tedioua Wolst-y himself con- S"^*^ 
ducted itj on the part of h\9 sovereign, with un- ^^^ *** 
bounded powers. Francis treated with him in 
person at Amiens^ Where' the cardinial appeared^ 
»nd was received with rdya! magnificence. A 
marriage between the duke of Orleans and the 
princess Mary was agreed to as the basis of the 
confederacy ; it was resolved that Italy should 
be the theatre of war ; the strength of the army 
which should take the field, as well as the ooh- 
lingent of troops or of money^ which each 
ptince should furnish, were settled ; and if the 
£mperor did not accept of the proposals which 
they were jointly to make him, they bound 
themselves immediately to declare war, and to Ao^. i«r 
begin hostilities. Henry, who took every reso- 
lution with impetuosity, entered so eagerly in*- 
to this new alliance, that, in order to give Fran* 
cis tftre strongest proof of his friendship and re»- 
spect, he formally renounced the ancient claim 
of the English monarchs to the crown of Francej 





which had long been the pride and ruin of the 
nation; as a full compensation for which he ac- 
cepted a pension of fifty thousand crownSy to 
be paid annually to himself and his succes- 
sors *- 

The i^oren. The PopCy being Unable to fulfil the condi- 
T«r their tiOHs ot uis capitulatiou^ Still rcmamed a pn- 
*^®^^™* soner Under the severe custody of Alarcon. The 
Florentines no sooner heard of what had hap- 
pened at Rome, than they ran to arms in a tu- 
multuous manner ; expelled the Cardinal di 
Gortona, who governed their city in the Pope's 
name ; defaced the arms of the Medici ; broke 
in pieces the statues of Leo and Clement ; and 
declaring themselves a free state, re-established 
their ancient popular government. The Vene- 
tians, taking advantage of the calamity of their 
ally the Pope, seized Ravenna, and other places 
belonging to the church, under pretext of keep- 
ing them in deposit. The dukes of Urbino 
and Ferrara laid hold likewise on pq^rt of the 
spoils of the unfortunate Pontiff, whom* they 
considered as irretrievably ruined f . 

The Impe- 
rial troops 

Lannoy, on the other handy laboured to de- 
rive some solid benefit from that unforeseen 
event, which gave such splendour and superiori- 
ty to his master's arms. For this purpose he 
marched to Rome, together with Moncada^ and 

* Herbert, 83, &c. Rym. Foed. xiv. 203. 
t Guic. 1. xvlii. 4t53. 


the marquis del Guasto, at the head of all the 
troops which they could assemble in the king- 
dom of Naples. The arrival of this reinforce- 
ment brought new calamities on the unhappy 
citizens of Rome ; for the soldiers envying the 
wealth of their companions, imitated their li- 
cence, and with the utmost rapacity gathered 
the gleanings, which had escaped the avarice 
of the Spaniards and Germans. There was 
not now any army in Italy capable of making 
head against the Imperialists ; and nothing 
more was requisite to reduce Bologna, and the 
other towns in the ecclesiastical state, than to 
have appeared before them. But the soldiers 
having been so long accustomed, under Bour- 
bon, to an entire relaxation of discipline, and 
having tasted the sweets of living at discretion 
m a great city, almost without the controul of 
a superior, were become so impatient of milita^ 
ry subordination, and so averse to service, that 
• they refused to leave Rome, unless all their ar- 
rears were paid ; a condition which they knew 
to be impossible. At the same time, they de- 
clared, that they would not obey any other 
person than the prince of Orange, whom the 
army had chosen general. Lannoy, finding 
that it was no longer safe for him. to remain 
among licentious troops, who despised his dig*- 
nity, and hated his person, returned to Naples ; 
-soon after the marquis del Guasto and Mon- 
cada thought it prudent to quit Rome for the 
sanjie reason. The prince of Orange, a general 




•^^* only in name, and by the most preearioiis flrf 
all tenures, the good will of soldiers, whom buq* 
cess and licence had rendered c^priQibiiB, was 
obliged to pay more attention to their humours^ 
tban they did to his commands. Thus the Em* 
peror, instead of reaping any of the advantages 
which he might have expected from the reduc* 
tion of Rome, bad the m(H*tification to see the ^ 
most formidable body of troops that be had 
ever brought into the field, continue in a state 
of inactivity from which it was impo^ible td 

ne French Xjug g^ye the king of France and the Vene# 
parches tiaus leisure to form new sqhemes, and to entef 
^* into new engagements for delivering the Pope, 
and preserving the liberties of Italy, The new* 
ly-restored republic of Florence very impru« 
dently joined with them, and LautreCt of whose 
abilities the Italians entertained a much more 
favourable opinion than bis own master, wa^ 
in order to gratify them, appointed generalisst* 
mo of the league. It was with the utmost re* 
luctance he undertook that ofl^ce, being unwil*? 
ling to expose himself a second time to the 
difllculties and disgraces, which the negligence 
o{ the K,i«^gf or the malice af his favourites* 
might bi^g upon hiju. The best troop$ in 
Fiance marched under his command; and the 
King of England, though he had not yet de* 
ciared war against the Emperor, advanced ^ 

* Guic. 1. xviii. 454. 


considerable sura towards carrying on the expe- book 
dition. Lautre^'s first operations were prudent, ^^^^^^ 
vigorous, and successful By the assistance of *^^''' 
Andrew Doria» the ablest sea officer of that 
a^e, he rendered himself master of Genoa> and HisQ|»eiai- 
re-established in that republic the faction of 
. the Fregosi, together with the dominion of 
France. He obliged Alexandria to surrender 
after a short siege, and reduced all the country 
on that side of the Tesino. He took Pavia, 
which had so long resisted the arms of his so^ 
vereign, by assault, and plundered it with that 
cruelty, which the memory of the fatal disaster 
that had befall^en the French nation before its ^ 
walls naturally inspired. All the Milanese, 
which Antonio de Leyva defended with a small 
body of troops kept together and supported by 
his own address and industry, must have soon 
submitted to his power, if he had continued to 
bend the force of his ar^s against that country. 
But Lautrec durst not complete a conquest 
^ which would have been so honourable to himi- 
self, and of such advantage to the league. 
Francis knew bis confederates to be more de-r 
sirons of circumscribing the Imperial power in 
Italy, than of acquiring new territories for him; 
and was afraid,that if l^orza were once re-es- 
tablished in Milan, they would second but 
coldly the attack which be intendt^ to make 
on the kingdom^ of Naples* For this reason 
he instructed Lautrec not to push his oper- 
ations with too much vigour in Lombardyj; • 


and happily the in)pv)rtunities of the Pope^ 
and ihe solicitations of the Florentines, the 
^^^^' one for relief, and the other for protection, were 
so urgent as to furnish liim with a decent pre- 
text for marching forward, without yielding to 
the intreaties of the Venetians and Sforza, who 
insisted on his laying siege to Milan*. 

TheEmpe- While Lautrec advanced slowly towards 

ror sets the _. . 

Pope at Rome, the Emperor had time to deliberate con- 
ibeitjr. cerning the disposal of the Pope's person who 
still remained a prisoner in the castle of St. An- 
gelo. Notwithstanding the specious veil of 
religion, with which he usually endeavoured to 
CO er his actions, Charles, in many instances, 
appears to have been but little under the in- 
■Quence of religious considerations, and had fre- 
quently, on this occasion, expressed an inclina- 
tion to transport the Pope into Sp^in, that he 
might indulge his ambition with the. spectacle 
of the two most illustrious personages in Eu- 
rope successively prisoners in his court. But 
ithe fear of givmg new offence to all Christendom, 
and of filling his own subjects with horror, 
obliged him to forego that satisfaction f. The 
prof^ress^of the confedeiates made it now ne- 
cessary, either to set the Pope at liberty, or to 
remove him to some place of confinement more 
secure than the castle of St. Angelo. Many- 
considerations induced him to prefer the for^ 

. nier, particularly his want of the money, requi- 


* Gnic. 1. xviii. 461. Bellay, 107, &c. Mauroc. HisU 
Venet. lib. iii. 238. t ^^ic. 1. xviii. 457. 




Site as well for recruiting his army, as for pay- BpOK 
ing oif the vast arrears due to it. In order to 
obtain this, he had assembled the Cortes of 
Castile at Valladolid about the beginning of 
the year, and having laid before them the state Felt n, 
of his affairs, and represented the necessity of 
making great preparations to resist the enemies, 
whom envy at the success which had crowned 
his arms would unite against him, he df^mand- 
ed a large supply in the most pressing terms; 
but .the Cortes, as the nation was already ex- 
hausted by extraordinary donatives, refused to 
load it with any new burden, and in spite of all 
his endeavours to gain or to intimidate the 
members, persisted in this resolution*. No re- 
source, therefore, remained, but the extorting 

i from Clement by way of ransom, a sum sufli- 

ciept for discharging what was due to his 

! troops, without which it was vain to mention 

t to them their leaving Rome, * 



' ' Nor was the Pope inactive on his part, or 

his intrigues unsuccessful tovvirds hastening 
such a treaty. By flattery and the appearance 
of unbounded confidence, he disarmed the re- 
sentment of Cardinal Colonna, and wrought 
upon his vanity, which made him desirous of 
shewing the world that as his power had at 
first depressed the Pope, it could now raise hira 
to his former dignity. By favours and promises 
he gained Morone, who, by one of those whinir 
i^ical revolutions which occur so often in his 

* Sandor. i. p. 814-. 


i^ooK lif4e, and which so strongly display bis charac^ 
s-»-v^ ter, had now recovered his credit and authority 
imi, ^j^jj i^j^g Iraperialists. The address and influ* 
- ence of two such men easily removed all the 
obstacles which retarded an ^commodati.on« 
and brought the treaty for Clement's liberty to 
a conclusion, upon conditions hard indeed, but 
not more severe than a prince in his situation 
had reason to expect. He was obliged to ad* 
vanpe in ready money, an hundred thousand 
crowns for the use * of the army ; to pay the 
same sum at the distance of a fortnight ; and, at 
the end of three months, an hundred and tifty 
thousand more. He engaged not to take part 
in the war against Charles, either in Lombardy 
or- in Naples ; he granted him a bull ol cruz^sidoji 
and the tenth of ecclesiastical revenues in 
Spain ; and he not only gave hostages, but put 
the Emperor in possession of several towns, as 
a security for the performance of these arti- 
cles*. Having raised the first moiety by a 
^ale of ecclesiastical dignities and benefiices, 


and other expedients equally uncanonical, a 
day was fiixed for delivering him from imprison- 
jDec. 6. pjent. But Clement, impatient to be free, afc 
ter a tedious confinenient of six months, as 
well as full of the suspicion and distrust natu^ 
ral to the unfortunate, was so much afraid that 
the Imperialist might still throw in obstacles to 
put off his deliverance, that he disguised him» 
self, on the night preceding the day when he 
was to be set free, in the habit of a merchant, 

♦ Guic. 1. xviii. 467. &c. 


Wfkd Alurcon hftving remitted somewhat of bis 
vigilance upon the conclusion of the treaty, be 
made his escape undiscovered. He arrived be* ^^^' 
fore next morning at Orvietto, without any 
attendants but a single officer ( and from thence 
wrote a letter of thanks to Lnutrec, as the chi^ 
instroment of procuring him liberty^. 

During these transactions, the ambassadors <>«'wtiii« 
of France and England repaired to Spain, in perorto 
consequence of the treaty which WoUey had S^yf "^ 
concluded with the French King. The Empe- 
tror, unwilling to draw on himself the united 
forces of the two monarchs, discovered an in* 
clination to relax somewhat the rigour of the 
treaty of Madrid, to which, hitherto, be had 
adhered inflexibly. He offered to accept of the 
two millions of crowns, which Francis had pro- 
posed to pay as an equivalent for the dutchy 
of Burgundy, and to set his sons at liberty, o& 
condition that he would recal his army out of 
Italy, and restore Genoa, together with the 
other conquests which he had made in that 
country. With regard to Sforza, he insisted 
that his fate should be determined by the judr 
ges appointed to inquire into his crimes. These 
propositions being made to Henry, be transmit- 
ted them to his ally the French King, whom it 
more nearly concerned to examine and to an- 
swer them ; and if Francis had been sincerely 
solicitous, either to conclude peace or to prcr 

* Gaic. 1. xviii. 4^7. &C, Jov, Vit Colon. 1^9i Mauroc, 
|iist. Venet. lib. iii. 252. 


BOOK serve consistency in his own conduct, he ought 
v-^-N^^ii*/ instantly to have closed with overtures whicH 
'^^^' ' differed but little from the propositions which 
he himself had formerly made *. But his views 
w ere now much changed ; his alliance with 
Henry, Lautrec's progress in Italy, and the su- 
periority of his army there above that of the 
Emperor, hardly left him room to doubt of the 
success of his enterprise against Naples. Full 
of tiiose sanguine hopes, he was at no loss to 
find pretexts for rejecting or evading what the 
Emperor had proposed. Under the appearance 
of sympathy with Sforza, for whoSe interests 
he had not hitherto discovered much i^olicitvide, 
he again demanded the full and unconditional 
re-establishment of that unfortunate prince in 
his dominions. Under colour of its being im- 
prudent to rely on the Emperor's sincerity, he 
insisted that, his sons should be set at liberty 
before the French troops left Italy, or surren- 
dered Genoa. The unreasonableness of these 
demands, as well as the reproachful insinuation 
with which they were accompanied, irritated 
Charles to such a degree, that he could hardly 
listen to them with patience; and repenting 
of his moderation, which had made so little im- 
pression on his enemies^ declared that he would 
not depart in the smallest article from the cou-^ 
• ditions which he had now offered. Upon thi$ 
the French and English ambassadors (for Uen-i 
ly had been drawn unaccountably to concui? 

« * Recueil des Trahez>u. 2^^. • 


with Francis in these strange propositions) de* book 
manded and obtained their audience of leave ^. v^»^v^^^ 


Next day, two heralds, wliQ had accompa- 1528. 
nied the ambassadors on purpose, though they ''*"""^^^* 
had hitherto concealed their character, having 
assumed the ensigns of their office, appeared in 
the Emperor's court, and being admitted into 
his presence, they, in the name of their respec^ 
live masters, and with all the solemnities cus- 
tomary on such occasions, denounced war 
against him. Charles received both with a dig- ^h^ j^^ 
nity suitable to his own rank, but spoke to each c**"* ^^r 

. 1 1 1 . • . I'll a^inst the 

in a tone adapted to the sentiments which he Emperor. 
entertained of their sovereigns. He accepted 
the defiance of the English monarch with a 
firmness tempered by some degree of decency 
and respect. His reply to the French King 
abounded with that acrimony of expression, 
which personal rivalship, exasperated by the 
memory of many injuries inflicted as well as. 
suffered, naturally suggests. He desired the 
French herald to acquaint his sovereign, that 
he would henceforth consider him not only as . 
a. base violator of public faith, but as a stranger 
to the honour and integrity becoming a gentle- 
man. Francis, too high-spirited to bear such 
an imputation, had recourse to an uncommon 
expedient in order to vindicate his character. Francis 
He instantly sent back the herald with a cartel t^* Em^ 
of defiance, in which he gave the Emperor the rortosingie 

♦ Rym, xiv. 200. Herbert, 85. Guic. 1, xviii. 471. t 

14 TBE fcEieN or tttfi 

^<><>^ lieisfbtsm, chaUen^er) him to single eomhAi^ 
Ktf'^.^'m^ requiring him to name the time and place of 
^^^ the encounter, and the weapons with which he 
chose to fight. ^Charles, as he was not inferioi* 
to his rival in spirit or bravery, readily accept- 
ed the challenge ; but, after several messages 
concerning the arrangement of all the circum-^ 
stances relative to the combat, accompanied 
with mutual reproaches, bordering on the most 
fadecent scurrility, all thoughts of this duel, 
more becoming the heroes of romance than the 
two greater monarchs of their age, were en- 
tirely laid aside*. 

The effect Xhe example of two personages so illustri- 

of this m \ • . , . * 

promoung ous drew such general attention, and carried 
©tdueiiin^ with It SO much authority, that it had consi- 
derable influence in producing an important 
chancre in manners all over Europe. Duefe, as 
has already been observed, had long been per* 
•mitted by the laws of all the European nationi^, 
and forming a part of their jurisprudence, were 
authorised by the magistrate, on many occa* 
sions, as the most proper method of terminat- 
ing questions with regard to property, or of de- 
ciding those which respected crimes. But sin^ 
gle combats being considered as solemn^^ appeals 
to the omniscience and justice of the Supreme 
Being, they were allowed only' in public causes, 
according to the prescription of law, and cai^ 

* Recueil des Traitez, 2. Mem. de Bellayi 103, &c. San- 
ior, Hisu I. d37. 


ried on in a judicial form. Men accustomed 
to this manner of decisions in courts of juglice, 
were naturally led to apply it to personal and ^** 
private quarrels. Duels, which at first could 
be appointed by the civil judge alone, were 
fought without the interposition of bis authori-*> 
ty, and in cases to which the laws did not ex* 
tend. The transaction between Charles and 
Francis strons^ly countenanced this practice. 
Upon every affront, or injury, which seenie<l 
to toneh his honour, a gentleman thought him^ 
self entitled to draw bis sword, and to call on 
his adversary to give him satisfaction. Such 
an opinion becoming prevalent among men of 
fierce cmirage, of high spirit, and of rude man« 
ners, when offence was often given, and re- 
l^enge was always prompt, produced^ most fatal 
eonsequences. Much of the b^st blood in 
Christendom was shed ; many useful lives were 
sacriftced; and, at some periods, war itself hath 
hardly been mor6 destrnctive than these private • 
contests of honour. So powetful, however, is 
the dominion of fashion, that neither the ter» 
for of pena} laws, nor reverence for religion, 
have been able entirely to abolish a practice 
tmknown among the ancients, and not justifia« 
We by any principle of reason j though at the 
same time it must be admitted, that, to this 
absurd custom, we must ascribe in some de- 
gree the ' extraordinary gentleness and com- 
plaisance of modern manners, and that respect- 
ful attention of (Hke man to another, whicb^ at. 


Jiresent, render the social intercourseis of life 
far more agreeable and decent, than among the 
most civilized nations of antiquity. 


Retreat of While the two itionarchs seemed so eager 
riSiltefrom ^o terminate their quarrel by a personal com-*^ 
FebMni^ bat, Lautrec continued his operations, which 
promised to be more decisive. His army, 
which was now increased to thirty-five thou- 
i^and men, advanced by great marches towards 
Naples. The terror of their approach, as well 
as the remonstrances and the entreaties of the 
prince of Orange, prevailed at last on the Im- 
perial troops, though with difficulty, to quit 
Rome, of which they had kept possession dur- 
ing ten months. But of that flourishing army 
which had entered the city, scarcely one half 
remained; the rest, cut off by the plague, or 
wasted by diseases, the effects of their inactivi- 
ty, intemperance and debauchery, fell victims 
. to their own crimes *. Lautrec made the great- 
4 est efforts to attack them in their retreat to- 

wards the Neapolitan territories, which would 
have finished the war at one blow. But the 
prudence of their leaders disappointed all his 
measures, .and conducted them with little loss 
to Naples. The people of that kingdom, ex-* 
tremeLy impatient to shake off the Spanish 
yoke, received the French with open arms, 
wherever they appeared to take possession ; 
and, Gaeta ■ and Naples excepted, hardly any 

^ * *Guic.l.'xvin. 47a 


place oiF importance remauie'i m the hands of 
the Imperialists, The presei varion of the forr 
iiier was owing to the strength of its fortifica- 
tions, that of the latter to the presence of the 
Imperial army. Lautrec, however, sat down French be- 
before Naples ; but finding it v^in to think of piea. 
reducing a city by force while defended by a 
whole army, he was obliged to employ the 
slower^ but lefss dangerous method of blockade; 
and having taken measures which appeared tp 
him effectual, he opnfidently assured his mas- 
ter, that famine would soon compel the be- 
sieged to capitulate. These hopes were strong- 
ly confirmed by the defeat of a vigorous at- 
tempt made by the enemy in order to recover 
the command of the sea. The gal lies of An-* 
drew Doria, under the command of his nephew 
Philippino^ guarded the mouth of the harbour. 
Moncada, who had succeeded Lanoy in the 
vice-royalty, rigged out a number of gallies su- 
perior to Doria's, manned them with a chosen 
body of Spanish veterans, and going 'on board 
himself, together with the marquis del Guasto, 
attacked Philippino before the arrival of the 
Venetian and French fleets. But the Genoese 
admiral, by his superior skill in naval opera- 
tions, easily triumphed over the vaiour and 
number of the Spaniards The vicerqy wai^ 
killed, most of his fleet destroyed, and Guasto, 
with many officers of distinction, being taken 
prisoners, were put on board the captive gaflies^ 

V0I„ HI, B 

tl THE WION or T?g. 

^%^^ tud seat by Pbilippino »p Xr^gUf^ ^f W§ WtQ^ 


ry to his uncle *• 

Orcum- NOTWITHSTANDINQ this flatt^riog prospect 

wiuciiM- of success, many circuoist^nce^ CQncurr^ Xq 
pn^grem fnistrate Lautrec^s e^pect^'tioi^s, Clement^ 
^^ though he alwaya »cknq»'Jed^ed hi^ fe^iilg ifitr 
debted to Fpattcia for tba recovery pf his liberty, 
land often coo) plained of t^be cruel treatment 
which he bad met with frorn the l^j^p^ror, wf^s 
not influenced at ibis juaclure by prineiples pf 
gratitude, por, which Is more extraordinary, 
was he swayed by tfae desire of revenge. Hitf 
past misfortunes rendered him n>ore «autioi^$ 
than ever, and bis FeeoH^ciion of the erfors 
which he had committed, increased the paturtil 
irresplution of his mind While he (^inusefl 
{"raneis with promises, be secretly neg'Qeiatedl 
with ChaHes5 and being sobcitQu^s above aU 
things, to Ye-estahlish bijs family in Florence 
with their ancient authority, which b9 could 
not expect from Francis, who bad entered into 
strict alliance with the new republic, be leaxied 
rather to the side of bis ei^my ih^xx to that of 
bis benefactor, and garve Lautr^o no assistaiica 
towards carrying on bis ^operations. The Ver 
netians viewing with jealoiiay tbe progress of 
the Frenoh arms, were intent ooly wpQn recover* 
ing such maritime to>wn$ in Hm Neapolitan do- 
mimoniii as were to. be possessed by their repub- 
be, wfeile they were altogether careless about 

* Gaic. L xix. iS?. P. Heuter. lib. x. c* 2. p. 231. 


Itie naiiiiiicti^p of Naples, on wi>ich the mceeBs >^ok 
<^ theNcoimpfm cauae depeqded^* Thie King b^^/^a^ 
pf Etijglan^ fiiiistie^Kl of l?eing pW^, «6 had been ^^* 
|)(ro}eote4, to ei^b^rP95s ti^e ^nperor by ^tiack- 
jng bis .teri*iiorie$ in :the JLo<wHCountries» fynn^ 

^jbich would b9^^ wi#)^ ithe l^^ide of tb£ DUitiQiay 
ihait in pr4er tp ^jjence iTiheir clamoMf^^ ^d (h^ 
^ stop to tfbe ifia4rA?ijC|tio^6 i:^dy W break out 
jB^mopg thero, :be yve^ coiapejled to concljqde ft 
imfie for (Bi(gbt ^iMPiDrths wiih tbe governess lof thp 
KetJI^rlftn^^f . Francis b^nsiself, with t^e sam^ 
M9p»rdQ0able inaiteul^ pf iwhicb bi^ bad {qsh 
m^^y ibeosi g)Mi^ty, ,^d £wr wbjch he bad siM&ri- 
^ so ^eirerely> neglo^ed jtoinake profiler remi,4- 
imce^ tp I^utr^ foritbe ^pppprrt of Aiis uroiyf. 


TmEW wnexipeoterf events retw^^ (the pr^ ^'t <^ 
^ff^^ihe French, discowaging both the ge- Dona from 
^eri^ wi b*s troops i hyt tfee ney<?lj; of Andreiv ''""^ 
I>(>ri|t. pr^ived fit fat^l ^l^w tQ all their ipq^^sure^. 
Tbftt gjPiJaw* offioefj the ^ritiyew of tt>lic, 
judd toiijaad up frpw »his infancy iri ,tbe ^eorser- 
yiiee, retniii^d tfee spirit of i^detpe/^deiiice patu- 
jcal to tbe former^ ItQgetber witb th^ plaiia libered 
mmwm p^c^m to jtbe Jia4:Aer. A strangeyr 
^0 jth^ ar^ (o/ ^subnijssit^A <w (flattery necesi^aiy 
fkin pourtfi, \^xA conscious at tbe^same i'lme of bis 
fQwn m^'^t ^t)4 ij»poftaiipe» be always o0eraA 

im M^vi^ wM^(i fr^oedovi^ i«ndx>ften pDc^rred ^ 


*XJwc. I. xix. 49 K 
* t Herbert, 90. Rymer, l*. 258. • 

{ Guig. I. xviii. 478. 

so TJ?E HEIGN of Titfi 

BOOK conlplaints and remonstrances with bdldnes^* 
vi^-v^'i-^ The French ministers, unaccustomed to such 
^^^^' liberties, determined to ruin a man who treated 
them with so little deference; and though Fran- 
cis himself had a just sense of Doria's services, 
as well as an high esteem for his character, the 
courtiers^ by continually representing him as a 
man haughty, intractable, and more solicitous 
to aggrandize himself, than to promote the in- 
terests of France, gradually ilndermined the 
foiindations of his credit, and filled the King's 
mind with suspicion and distrust. From thence 
proceeded several affronts and indignities pUt 
upon Doria^ His appointments were not regu- 
larly paid; his advice, even in naval affairs, was, 
often slighted ; an attempt was made to seize 
the prisoners taken by his nephew in the sea- 
' fight off Naples; all which he bore with abun- 
dance of ill-humour. But an injury offered to 
his country, transported him beyond all bounds 
of patience. The French began to fortify Sa- 
vona, to clear its harbour, and, removing thithe^ 
some branches of trade carried on at Genoa, 
plainly shewed that they intended to render 
. :that towiii which had been long the object of 
jealousy and hatred to the Genoese, their rival 
in wealth arid commerce. Doria, animated with 
a patriotic zeal for the honour and interest of 
his country, remonstrated against this in the 
Ijtighest tone, not without threats, if the measure 
were not instantly abandoned. This bold ac- 
tion, aggravated by the malice of the courtiers. 



and placed in the most odious lights irritnted 
Francis to such a degree, that he commanded 
Barbesieux, whom he appointed admiral of the 
Levant, to sail directly to Genoa with the 
French fleet, to arrest Doria, and to seize his 
gallies. This rash order, the execution of 
\^hich could have been secured only by the 
most profound secrecy, was concealed with so 
little care, that Doria got timely intelligence of 
it, and retired with all his gallies to a place of 
safety. Guasto^ his prisoner, who had long ob* 
served and fomented his growing discontent, 
and had often allured him by magnificent pro- 
mises to enter into the Emperor's service, laid 
hold on this favourable opportunity. While 
his indignation and resentment were at t|;ieir 
height, he prevailed on him to dispatch one o^ 
his officers to the Imperial court with his over- 
tures and demands. The negociation was not 
Jong; Charles, fully sensible of the importance 
of such an acquisition, granted him whatever 
terms he required. Doria sent back his con>- 
mission, together with the collar of St. Michael, 
to Francis, and hoisting the Imperial colours,, 
sailed with all his gallies towards Naples, not to 
block up the harbour of that unhappy city, as 
he had formerly engaged, but to bring thenji 
protection and deliveranpe. 



His arrival opened the communication With ^retchea 
the sea, and restored plenty m Naples, which the French 
yv^s now reduced to the last extremity s and i^L. ^"^ 


THE lt£l0N OF THE 



^^J^^ tlwr Fretichy hm'mg I<y9t ^helr stiperioiHty dt ^ea^ 
were S0011 redriced to great straits for wawrt of 
pYdvJsidus- The prifnce of Oratige, wha suc- 
cei^ed: the viceroy in the con^miand at the Im-^ 
fet\a\ wnsy, shewed Mmseif by his praderit cow-» 
Afiict Worthy of that hoDour which his good 
f&ftun^ dfnd the death of hrs genersds had ivrittf 
^qt^it^d hifi*. Beloved by the troops, wh6 re^ 
^mberhug the pros?p^rty whi^b they bad eHw 
^yed ttfictef hh eomvtimik^ sdrved hitti with the 
iBtrtiost alacrity y he let sirp no o?ppor<umty of 
h^rassfn^ the enfemy, aiid by contimtal aAarmif 
©r sallies fatigtied and weakefiiied them;^. AS' 
^n addition to aM» these misfortoties, the diseasefit 
<$ommon vns that country daring the «ul<ry 
Alonttoy begacn to break out among tbe Frenekl 
pfbop^. The pri'soneri? coiiMianicated to tbeM 
the f>e^til^ttce which the llnp^Hal army had 
l^fousfhf fo Napless frofin^ Roitie^ arid it raged 
^Itb such viofenteer tShatt few^ either officers 01^ 
Aifi5*dtws, eseaped the mfection Of the whole 
a^f my, A^ot fd^tir thougan^ toen, a tm^wber hard}/ 
sdfficient t<y defend the eampr, were capable <rf 
dbi\i^ duty f; aid being #kjw besieged in theif 
tttrnj they siTfFered all the nfisends from \^bictl 
ttie IimperisfcHsCs w^te delfvered. Lautreo, 9t^ 
tfer striig^gling lon^ v^ith so many disappdinfr* 
meats and calamiti.^s^ Whieh pireyed on Ym 
mind at the same time that the pestilence wast- 
ed his bo^y, died^ lameritfng the negligence of 


* Jovii Hist. Ub. xxxvi. p. 3*1, &c. 
p. USD. Bellay, 114, &c. 
'■ t Bellay, 117, &c. 

Sigonii ViCa Dprisj 



his sotereig^d, and the infidelity of his alliesi to ^^^^^ 
Which mo mttfiy brar^ men bad fallen victifiis *. ^ ^ m^ 
By his death and the tedispdsitldtt of the citliet ^^^^'' 
g^ner^lsi the commslhd devolved on the mar^ 
quis de SdlUG6s^ stn oil^eef altogether nneqttSLl 
til stteh ^ If fast. He, with troops ito less dis- «*^ ^»»« 
pirited thftti redtided> retreated in disorder to 
Atersaj Which t^^n being io^e^ed by the? 
|>fin6e of Orange, Saloces^ Wad und^r the He- 
G^^ity 6tf eonseiitiftg, that b^ hiftlself i^hould re- 
ta^\n a firi^isoner ef wstt", that his troopi^ i^houlci 
Jay down fheif' arm^ arid eoldt^rt, give \ip their 
baggage, and inatdh Under ai gnartl to the fron- 
tiers of France. By tbi^ igriominions eapitiili- 
tion, the Wretched remains df the french iiftny 
were sav^ed ^ arid the Empefof, by his own |>eT- 
s^vefattfce^ dnd the godd conduit of his generally 
^c^uired once mere the sdperiority in Italy f . 

The loss of Genoa followed immediately up>- Genoa re- 
on the riiin 6f the army in Jf apled. To deliver Se^/^ 
his GOtiritry frdta the dottiiftioin of foreigners 

yftts Do^ia's tegh^st afnbitiori, and bad been 

his principal induoeflverit to ^ait the service elf 
f'^arice, and enter into thai of the* Btafpefdr, 
A most favourrffcl* op^yorlanity for ei^eiiting' 
itik hdndnrafele efnt^rprist? ndW pr^setite^d itself 
Ttte cMy of Genoa, afflicted by the' pestitenee; 
#a!& arniott deserted hjr H§ iflhabitenis; th^^ 
Freneh garrison, feeing Mither regularfy pItJd 
jiror recrnited', wto rediieed lo an^ Jtfe^i^ndiderabKf 

* P. Heuter. Reram Austr. lib. x, c. 2. 231. 
f ©ellay, 1 17, ^c. Jovii Hist lib. xxy. xxyu 


^^^^^ number; Doria's emissariejj found that such of 
v«*-v^*i*/ the citizens as remained, being weary alike of 

^^^•' the Frenph ^nd Imperial yoke, the rigour of 
which they hq,d alternately felt, were ready to 
welcome him as their deliverer, and to second 
all his measures. Things' wearing this promise 
ing aspect, he sailed towards the coast qf Ge- 
noa ; on his approach the French gallies retired ; 
a small body of men which he landed, surprised 
one of the gates of Genoa in the night-time ; 
Trivulci, the French governor, with his feeble 
garrispn, shut himself up in the citadel, and 

Sept 12. Doria took possession of the town without 
bloodshed or resistance. Want of provisions 
quickly obliged Trivulci to capitulate; the 
people, eager to abolish such an odious monu« 
ment pf th^ir servitude, ran together with a tu- 
multuous violence, and levelled the citadel with 
the ground. 

I . ■ s 

^intCTcrt- jt Was now in Doria*s power to have ren- 

ed conduct ^ 

of Doria: dcrcd himsclf the sovereign of his country, 
which he had so happily delivered from oppres- 
sion. The fame of his former actions, the sue- 
cess of his present attempt, the attachment of 
his friends, the e^ratitude of his countrymen, 
together with the support of the Emperor, all 
conspired to facilitate his attaining the su- 
preme authority, and invited him to lay hold 
of it. But with a magnanimity of which there 
are few examples, he sacrificed all thoughts of 
^^grandizing himself to the virtuous satisfag^ 



ticwa of establishing libtTty in his country, 
the highest object at which ambition caii 
aim. Having assembled the whole body of 
the people in the court before his palace, he 
assured them, that the happiness of seeing 
them once more in possession of freedom, was 
to him a full reward for all his services ; that, 
more delighted with the name of citizen than 
of sovereign,, he claimed no pre-eminence or 
power above his equals ; but remitted entirely to 
them the right of settling what form of govern- 
ment they woiM now chuse to be established 
among them. The people listened to him with 
tears of admiration and of joy. Twelve persons 
were elected to new-model the constitution of 
the republic. The influence of Doria*s virtue 
and example communicated itself to his coun- 
trymen ; the factions which had long torn and 
ruined the state, seemed to be forgotten ; pru- 
dent precautions were taken to prevent their 
reviving; and the same form of government 
which has subsisted with little variation since 
that time in Genoa,^ was established with uni- 
versal applause. Doria lived to a great age, 
beloved, respected,* and honoured by his coun- 
trymen; and adhering uniformly to his profes- 
sions of moderation, without arrogating anjjr 
thing unbecoming a private citizen, he preser- 
ved a great ascendant over the councils of the 
republic, which owed its beiiig to his genero- 
sity. The authority which he possessed was 
loor^ flattenne, as w^dl a$i zx^ore satisfacto^ry. 


il<)d k than tbat derived from sovereignty > a dotriimon 
v ^v '^fc^ founded in loire and in gratitnde , and upheMI 
^>^ by veneration for his tirtned^i not by the dreacl 
of hi» power. His memory i» still reverenced* 
by the Genoese^ and he ii» distiiftguiriied in their 
pnbtic monmnents'y and celebrated m the werka 
of their historians^ by the most honourable of 
all appellations, THE FATHER OF HI* 

>52f. Francis, ih wdet <o recovfil*the repiitsitioii 

operations ' ^ 

intheMi- of his aritis, discredited by so mmy tosses, 
made new efforts in the Milanese. But the 
count of St. Pol, a rash and nnexperi^noed offpi 
cevys to whom be gave the' eoikimand^ was'no^ 
match for Antonio de Ley va, the ablest of tbo 
Imperial ^enerats. He, by his superior skill \n 
war, checked, with a baiidfal of tn^n, the^ brisk 
but ill-concerted motfons of the French; and 
tiKmgh so infirm himself that be was carried 
constantly in a Htter, he surpassed tbeni, leben 
occasion required^ no less in activity^ than in 
prudel>ce. By an mi^expected march he snr^ 
. prised, defeated, and took prisotier the count of 
St. Pol, raining the Freffch army in the Mtla^ 
nese as entirely as the Prince o€ Oran^ had 
ruined that which besieged Naplcsf . 

* Guic. 1. xix. p. 498."*Sigbnii Vita 'iJoriaB, p. 1146. •fovii 
. Bist. lib. xxvi. p. 36, &c. 

t Guic. 1. xi3t. 520. P. Heot^r. TLer, Ausftf. lib. t* c. j*. p.* 
^3. Men^ de Bf )iay^ 121.. 

£ffF£t«JR CHMLtff V. f7 

AMltrsT these vigorous o|>eratiorw itf tfc^ toon 
fiefl^y each party discov^r^ »ft' ifinpatfeiit desir^' ^^^^^^^^ 
«f peace, and eotttitfiial Bfegooiatiofts weft'e cair- ^ep^'. 
tied ottf for that pui^pose. The Frewjh kiifg di**- tw^sbe- 
#cm raged, and ah)^ost exhai^f efd! \^ so many charies uA 
t^ttc^e^sfai eiilet*prii^es, was peduced uovi^ t^ '"°*^ 
Ibin^k of obtaiirinfg the releai^e of \Ap s^^ias by con^ 
^e<^or»s, tiol by the terror ^ liii^ arttfs. iThW 
Pope hope<J to recover by a treaty vt^^hateter he 
held lost in the war. The Emperor, ndtwith^ 
fliatiAtig tke advantages whioh he had gained, 
had many i^^as6B^o make him wish' for alft ae-^ 
commodation. Solyman, having over-run Hun- 
gary, tras reSkiy fo breaifc m upofi the Austrton 
ferrifctt^icrs With the whrfe forc^ of th^ Easl. The 
Itefdrm^io^ gd^^ ground Am\j \n Oerm-atiiy, 
the pffftcfes who &Ve«ired it had ^mered i*ito a 
eonfeAeto^y whifc* Chai^a^ thought daflgeroafs 
to tl^ f faif^iltity iA the' fk«(|!yt#e. The 8pa* 
^tdd idurm^ureii at a war of stick unuduat 
fength^ the wei'ght of whidh rested chiefly oft 
tt»6«. llttJ tai^iety and extent of Ib^ Ettiperrfr'sr ' 
<>petafioilfrfa!' e«eeeded what his refveivofes cotrtd 
sti^orf : hy Stidc^sfe hitherto had been owitt^ 
*lritffiy it ht& 0wft ge>od for tune»aiid te the abi- 
Mm ctf his .g€»€*rtlsy nor cottid he flatter himself' 
thit they, with tr<>op& destitute of eVcty thing 
fi^tmAtfi i^<^uld always trit<rtiph over enemies 
*M itt ^ ^, f eneW their attiw&ks^ All 
^Mi^Sj however. Were at eqtial paifis to ^oncfe^I 
pf t<]^dfesembl€f their real i^ntimerlts. The Eitt- 
pt^fi^ that hfish-ihability to (iarry oti the Wd# • 




?^^^ might not be suspected^ insisted on high terms 
in the tone of a conqueror. The Pope, solicit- 
ous not to lose bis present allies before he came 
to any agreement with Charles, continued to 
make a thousand protestations of fidelity to tbe 
former, v^hile he privately negociated with the 
latter. Francis, afraid that his confederates 
might prevent him by treating for themselves 
with the Emperor, had recourse to many dis- 
honourable artifices, in order to turn their at- 
tention from the meiasures which he was taking 
to adjust all differences withIRs rival. 

Jn this situation of affairs, when all the con* 
tending powers wished for peace, but durst not 
venture* too hastily on the steps necessary for 
attaining it, two ladies undertook to procure 
this blessing so much desired by all Europe, 
May. These wpre Margaret of Austria, duchess dowr 
ager of Savoy, the Emperor's aunt, and Louise, 
Francis's mother They agreed on an interview 
at Cambray, and being lodged in two adjoining 
houses, between which a communication was 
opened, met together without ceremony or ol>. 
servation, and held daily conferences, to which 
no person whatever was admitted. As both 
were profoundly skilled in business, thoroughly- 
acquainted with the secrets of their respective 
courts, and possessed with perfect confidence, 
in each other, they soon made great progress 
towat-d^afinal accommodation; and the ambasr 
§^dors of all t)ie confederates y^aited in anxious 


iSta^pense to know their fate, the determtfiati(Hi *<^^^ 
jof which was entirely in the hands of those il- v-i^-vW 
lustrious negociators*. ^^^^' 

Bui* whatever diligence they used io hasten separate 

^ ^ treaty be- 

forward a genefal peace, the Pope had the ad- tween the 
dress and industry to get the start of his allies, chari«° 
by concluding at Barcelona a particular treaty ^^^^^* 
for himself. The Emperor, impatient to visit 
Italy in his way to Germany ; and desirous of 
re-establishing tranquillity in the one country, 
before he attempted to compose the disorders 
which abounded in the other, found it necessa- 
ry to secure at least one alliance among the 
Italian states, on which he might depend. That 
with Clement, who courted it with unwearied 
importunity, seemed more proper than any 
other. Charles, being extremely solicitous to 
make some reparation for the insults which he 
bad offered to the sacred character of the Pope, 
and to redeem past offences by new merit, 
granted Clement, notwithstanding all his mis- 
fortunes, terms more favourable than he could 
have expected after a continued series of suc- 
cess. Among other articles, he engaged to re- 
store all the territories belonging to the eccle- 
siastical state ; to re-establish the dominion of 
the Medici in Florence ; to give his natural 
daughter in marriage to Alexander the head of 
that family; and to put it \n the Pope's power to 

P. Heuter. Rcr. Austr. lib. x. c. 3. 133. Mem. de Bel- 
^y>?' 122* 

99 THIS ftEfSN Of THt 

^o^^ ^i^]tiei i>omfirm^g the fete of SSoFm, 9nd iki 

|)t06ses^.to(9 of ti^ ^Wsx^ese. In neitjurii for tbe^ 
^^^ ample concessions, Clemeot p^e t4*e Eiapec^ 
the investiture of Naples without the reserve of 
<^y .tri]i>ute» b^txhe present of a wJiiite steed, in 
ju^knawledgeojjefit of his soy,eri^giUy ; ^$Qlve4 
^U who hi^ beeo copcerji^d m ^^nhmg sttki 
;pijaMeri9g Kome, and permitted Charjki^ ap4 
^s fa|i:9tber iF^4inand to levy the fourth of the 

T^J' The afCdQMi(it of .tbi^ .transaction qojckeaecl 
l^^y th^ jjbegociatiow *t Canabraj> aivj Inriwg)^ 
Charles and ^l^arga^fet .^fod |/>i|ise 4;o an iminediate ^r^^ 
me^t. The tri^a^^ <Qf M^rid served ^ the l>a- 
313 of th^t w4^/c^ they <x)nclnded; ti^e }k^itte^ be- 
i^)g ii<i;utieaded to nutigate the rigour pjf tlie ibrr 
men "fhe cjbaef articles Mirere^ That the E49i|>e- 
ror should ^ot, for the pj'.c^enA, depaod ithe ^^ 
stit\Mioo of 3urguukdy^ reserving^ jhoi^eFier^ iiP 
&iU ^orce, bis rights wd i^reteo^ions W •tt^sn^ 
dutchy i That Fxw)C}$ 4iould pay two Hnliio^ 
of fcrofvjis »» the ir^iiisaiii o^ his <$oaSi» ^M3d> before 
they mere s^t ^t liberty, shoyld ^restore such 
lo^As ^ ihe stirll held in the Mitavese ; Tha^ Je^ 
^Q<M«(d resign his pneteosions tp the sovereigntf 
of Fl^dens ^.^d of A^toiis; T^at he sbavdd m- 
noimo^ all his |)^etj&n^Q5 i.Q N^ple^, Milan* 
Qeu^o^y and every KHhciir place hey<>nd jthe Alps; 
That he should immediately consummate the 

* Guic; 1. xix. 522. 

t®iMCTiftg« cwcla^ed between him n.iad th^ Emr ^%^^ 
l^ror'$ Sister EUmu>rfi ^. v^p^yW 

Thus Fmncie, ehiefly frpm hi« impatience ^^^g^' 
to procure liberty to bis eooe, sacrificed every Empeiw. 
thing which fa»d at first prompted him to take 
armsj or which had indueed him, by continur 
ing hostilities during nine succe^siye camp^ignst 
t9 protract the war to a length handly known ia 
Europe before the ^stablishmeot of standing ar- 
inies, and the imposition of exorbitant taxes^ 
became universal The Emperor, by this trea* 
ty, wa^ rendered sole arbiter of the £»te of Itar 
ly ; he delivered his territories in the Nether^ 
Jands from an unpleasant badge of subjection ; 
and aft^r having bafiled his rival in the field, 
he prescribed to him the conditions of peace. 
The different conduct and spirit with which the 
two monarehs carried on the operations of war, 
led naturally to such an issue of it. Charles, 
inclined by temper, as well as obliged by his 
situation, concerted all his schemes with cau- 
tion, pursued them with perseverance, and ob- 
serving circumstances and events with atten* 
tion, let none escape that could be improved 
to sidvantage. Francis, noore enterprising than . 
steady, undertook great designs with warmth, 
but often executed them with remissness ; and 
lii verted by his pleasures, or deceived by his fa- 
vourites, lie lost on several occasions the most 
promising opportunities of success. Nor had 

* P. Heuter. Rer. Austr. lib» x. c« 3. p. 234. Sandov. Hist 
dell Emper. Car. V. ii. 23, 



box)k: ihe character of the two rivals tbemseK^eif 
greater influence on the operations of war, than 
the opposite qualities of the generals whom 
they employed. Among the Imperiali^s, va- 
teur tempered with prudence ; fertility of invent 
tion aided by experience ; discernment to pene- 
trate the designs of their enemies ; a provident 
sagacity in conducting their own measures; in 
a word, all the talents, which form great com* 
-manders and ensure victory, vi^ere conspicuous. 
Among the French, these qualities were either 
wanting, or the very reverse of them abound** 
ed ; nor could they boast of one man (unless 
we except Lautrec, who was always unfortu* 
nate) that equalled the merit of Pescara, Ley va, 
Guasto, the prince of Orange, and other lead- 
ers, whom Charles had to set in opposition to 
them. Bourbon, Morone, Doria, who by their 
abilities and conduct might have been capable 
of balancing the superiority which the Impe- 
rialists had acquired, were induced to abandon 
the service of France, by the carelessness of the 
King, and the malice or injustice of his counsel- 
lors; and the most fatal blows given to France 
during the progress of the war, proceeded from 
the despair and resentment of these three per- 

Ib*to°^'' The hard conditions to which Francis was 
Francis. obliged to Submit were not the most afflicting 

circumstances to him in the treaty of Cambray. 

He lost his reputation and the confidence of 


all Earope, by abahdouiiig his a^liei to his b;i>c>k 
rival. < Unwilling; to enter into the. details nen ^^- y ^^ ^ 
cessary for adjusting their interests^ or afraid ^^ 
that whatever he claimed for them must have 
))ieeji purchased by fai^ther concessions on. his ^^• 

own part,,he,gavie them «p in a.body ;. and:witbi^ 
am the least provision jn their behalf^ left the 
Venetians^ the Florentines, the.'duke of Ferrara^ 
together with such; of the Neapolitan^ haronft 
as h^d jpined his army, to the mercy of- the 
S^mperor.: They exclaimed loudly: against this 
ba^e and perfidious iauction, of which Fraticig ' 

h^$e1f was so much ashamed, thatj in order to 
;^¥ojd the pain of hearing from their anibassa* 
dors the reproaches which he justly merited, it 
was some time, before, he would consent to allow 


them an audience. Charles, on the other hand^ 
was attentive to the interest of every person 
who had adhered to him : the rights of isome of 
Im^ Flemish subjects, who had estates or preten* 
sions in France, were secured ;. one^ : article war 
inserted, obliging Francis to restore the blood 
apd m^niory of the Constable Bourbon ; ; and to- 
grant his heirs the possession of his lands which' 
had been forfeited; another, by which indemni- 
fic£(tion;was stipulated for those French gentle* 
men ^who had aqcompanied . Qourhon in his' 
exile*. This conduct, laudable in itself, and: 
placed in the most striking light by a com pari- 

* Guic. 1. xix. p. 523. P. Heuter. Ken Austr. lib, x. c,!4*. 
pi- ^35., ■ • ' •. • • ■■' •/ ^'^ 

i/vOL. Ill- . •• • ■■ C^ •'•' . '•' -'^ 

M TSB atum OF me 

*^^* sM with diat of Fitmcii^ gamiMl Ciiaxfas 
% ^v >w af»ch estifeitt as tttt satctss of hii tifitoi^ had «m^ 
^**' paired him $lorf. 

»- Fkancis id^ nist ut» thJt king of Engtwyl 

ST**^ '^ with the same naglect aci hb other ailits* Hd 

coitiiiiQiiicaMd to bim all the steps of his tieg»- 

datitm ail Cambrayt and lockily foeiMl tha* 

monarch in a aiu^ion whidi left him no 

choicae^ hot to approve iwplieitly of his mem^ 

^!?^«n« mras^ a«d t9 concur with theca* Heiiiy h^ 

ynmd^m h&SBt BolioitiAg the Fope for some time^ in oi^ 

]ys Qoesn. ^^ ^ obtain a divorce from Catharme ct Art^ 

gon his Qaeen. Several motives eotnhined h» 
prompting the King to urg« his dait. As he 
WAS powerfully itifloeoctd at Mme se^^ons by 
veligioii» eonatderattonS) he entertained many 
scra{dos ooneeltitog the legitimacy of his map- 
riage With his brotber^d widow; hi^afifeotiond 
had long been estranged from the Queen, wh# 
was older than hi«^etf^ a^ had loist all Ibe 
ehartns whieh ^e possessed in the earlier part 
of her life ;; he was passicMiately desii«ocis of ha» 
ving male tssne ; Wolsey ntiMly fortified hi» 
sciuples, and encoutaged hvs hopes that h^ 
might widen the breach between him and the 
EmpeiHHv Catharine's nephew > and^ what ws» 
ihore forcible perhaps in its operation than all 
these united^ the King had conceived k violent 
love for the celebrated Anne Boleyn^ a yoiiag 
lady of great beauty, and ef greater accomplish- 
ments^ whom^ as he found it impossible to gaia 

♦ler oti other terms, he determined torfiiiMto ^^^^ 
the throne. The pApal authority had often Vi»^^-^fc^ 
been interposed to grant divorces for reasons '^^*' 
lews «peciottB than those which Henrjr prodch 
ced. When the matter was hrst propot^ed t6 
Clement, during his imprisonment in the castle 
of St. Angelo, as his hopes of recorering liber- 
ty depended entirely on the King of England, 
fitnd his ally of France, he expressed thewarm- 
<fst inclination to gratify him. Bat no sooner 
Sf^ns he set free, than he discovered other ^enti*- 
Tnents. Chartes, who esp6used! the protection 
of his annt with zeal mfiamed by resentment, 
Alarmed the "Pope on the one hand with threats, 
which nrrtide a deep impression on bis timid 
fnind ; and allured him on the other with those 
jjTomises in favour of his family, which he af- 
terwards accomplislied. Upon the prospect of 
these, Clement not only forgot all his obliga- 
tions to Henry, but ventured to endanger the 
interest of the Romish religion in En^nd, and 
to run the risk of alienating that kingdom for 
ever from the obedience of the Papal see. Af- 
ter amusing Henry during two years, with all 
the subtleties and chicane which the court of 
Rome can so dexterously employ to pro* tact 
or defeat any 6ause; after displaying the whole 
extent of his ambiguous and deceitful policy, 
the intricacies c^ which the English historians, 
to whom it properly belbngs, have found it no 
easy matter to trace and unravel ^ he, at last, re** 
called the powers of the delegates^ whom he had 



appointed to judge in the point, avdcated t)^ 

cause to Roirie, leaving the King noother.hope 

o£ obtaining a divorce, but from the personal def 

jcidion of the Pope himself. As Clemi^nt was novt 

in strict alliance with the Emperor, who had 
purchased his friendship by the exorbitant con^ 

cessions which have been mentioned, Henry 

despaired of procuring any sentence from the 

former but what was dictated by the latter. His 

honour, however, and passions concurred ia. 

preventing him from relinquishing his scheme 

of a divorce, which he determined to accomr 

plish by other means, and at any rate; and 

the continuance of Francis's friendship being 

necessary to counterbalance the Emperor's 

power, he, in order to secure that, not only ot 

fered, no remonstrances against the total ne^ 

gleet of their allies, in the treaty of Cambray, 

but made Francis the present of a large sum, as 

a brotherly contribution towards the payment 

of the ransom for his sons*. 

iSf Em Soon after the treaty of peace Was concluded, 
For visits the Emperor landed in Italy with a numerous 
^* train of the Spanish nobility, and a consider- 
able body of troops. He left the government 
of Spain during *his absence, to the Empressi 
Isabella. By his long residence in that country, 
be had acquired such thorough knowledge of 
the character of the people, that he could per- 
fectly accommodate the maxims of his govern*^ 

"* * Herbert. Mem. de Bellay^ 12e. 



hient to their genius. He could even assume, BOpK 
upon some occasions, such popular manners, as 
gained wonderfully upon the Spaniards. A 
striking instance of his disposition to gratify 
thena had occurred a few days before he em- 
barked for Italy: He was to make his public 
entry into the city of Barcelona; and some 
doubts having arisen ajmong the inhabitants, 
whether they should receive him as Emperor, 
or as Count of Barcelona; Charles instantly' 
decided in favour of the latter, declaring that 
he was more proud of that ancient title, than of 
his Imperial crown. Soothed with thi^ flattering 
expression of his regard, the citizens welcomed 
him v^ith acclamations of joy, and the states of 
the province swore allegiance to his son Philip, 
as heir of the county of Barcelona. A similar 
oath had been taken in all the kingdoms of 
Spain, with equal satisfaction^. 

• The Emperor appeared in Italy with the 
|>omp and power of a conqueror. Ambassadors 
from all the princes and states of that country 
attended his court, waiting to receive his do* 
cision with regard to their fate. At Genoa, 
iw^here he first landed, he was received with the 
acclamations due to the protector of their liber- 
ties. Having honoured Doria with many marks 
^f distinction, and bestowed on the republic 
several new privileges, he proceeded to Bologna^ 


* SandoY. ii. p. 50. Fenrer. is. H6. 



the place fixed upon for his interview with tha 
Pope. He affected to unite in his public entry 
into that city the state and majesty that suited 
Nov. 5. g^^ Emperor, with the humiUty becoming aa 
obedient son of the church;, and while at the 
head of twenty thousa^nd veteran soldiers, able 
to give law to all Italy^ he kneeled down to kiss 
the feet of that very Pope whom he had so lates 
ly detained a prisoner. The Italians, after sul^ 
feHng so much from the ferocity and licentious^ 
ness of his armies, and after having been long; 
iccustomed to form in their imagination a pio 
ture of Charles, which bore some resemblance 
to that of the barbarous monarchs of the Goths 
or Huns, who had formerly afflicted their coun» 
try with like calamities, were surprised to see a 
prince of a graceful appearance, affable and 
f^ourteous in his deportment, of regular man^ 
ners, and of exemplary attention to all the officer, 
of religion*. They were still more astonished 
when he settled all the concerns of the princes 
and states wliich now depended on him^ with a 
(Gkgree of moderation and equity much beyon4 
what t^ey hi^ expected. 

Hw^^j*^- Charles himself, when be set out from 

the motives Spatu, fw from intending to give any such exr* 

traordinary proof of his self-denial, seems to have 

beet) resolved to avail himself to the utmost of 

\he superiority which he had acquired in Italy.. 

t Sandoy, Hist, del £i0p. Ccurl. V, ii. ^ £3^ &c. 


ing out tb^ »^mii^y ^f pursniiig a x^ry diifieM^ 

t^, wbQ, after f»ve!HniB&iQg Hujigary, li^ per scpt, 13. 
©eirat^d i«iQ Amtm, afid i^d »#g^ tp VieBftl 
Tvitb ai3 an»y 0f an bu»d(*e4 aufi ft&y tl|aHfi»n4 
mfOi lonely mailed up^^i bim *^ ^pUept hi$ 
wbola f^rq? to ^ppos? ti^ ton^nti ^^i th<mgb 
th^ vajoor of the ^Sf^i^manA tlie prud^t O9«i^0 
of Ferdm^nd, togetb^ wkii 4fc^ trweb^ Df oct le. 
tba Vi^iei:, soon oWige4 S^ysnaii to abaudoit 
tbat e»t^rprij»a witjh di«gfaPf fMi^d loiii*, ib^ r^ 
ligioii? diserdof^ still g i»pwing in (Jerpiafty reiK 
4pred the pres^iioe of tfee E^niper^* highly neee^ 
wty there*. The Flore^tiu^si, iii^ti^of giving 
their consent to the fe-e^t^Wia^bnimt of tha 
Medici, wtiieb, by the troaty $if jBaroejona> tht 
Dmperor bad b^usd bin^^elf to proctire, waf» 
pj^paring to d^ig»d tJieir liberty ky iforpe 
arms ; the preparations for his journey ba4 in** 
volved him in unusual expences; and on this* 

as well ap ^any Qtber oppa^ioRs, tbe jnidtiplici- 

ty of feb affair^ tog^bier with tte «^r^wjie§| 
^ bis r^namesi^ obliged liim t^ §cmti^9LQt th^ 
uobemen ^bii^b bis bintndle^ ambition wap lipt , 
to for0\,. ariftfl tOef^f^gP pr^ejat a«d ^^tiftie a4-r 
i?anl<ag^ tbn^; jaie migbt gnard sg^m$t mm^ ^fr 
motf^ but iipawi4able dmgen, , C^ari^^ &fgift 
^l thene ooii^i^eratioiiib findie^ il M^frnm^iFy t# 
assume w air, of |n^d^ratit9^ a*!ted bi9 part wkh 

* Sleidan, 12U Guic. 1. xx, 550. 

«9 TTHfe REieN or rut' 

a good gi^ace. He admitted ^orza into hCi 
presence, and not only gave htm a full pardon 

^^' 6f all past offences, but grafted him the investi-' 
tnre of the dutchy, together with his niece, the 
King of Denmark's datrghter, in marriage. H(d 
allowed the duke of Ferrara to keep possession 
of all his dominions, adjusting the points in di&^ 
pute between him and the Pope with an im^ 
partiality not very agreeable to the latter. H© 

.'- came to a final accommodation with the Vene- 
tians, upon the reasonable condition of their re-^ 
storing whatever they had usurped during the 
late war, either in the Neapohtan or Papal ter-^ 
ritories. In return for so many concessions, he 
exacted considerable sums from each of the 
powers with whom he treated, which they paid 
without reluctance, and which afforded him the 
means of proceeding on his journey towards. 
Germany with a magnific^ice suitable to hise 

Rc^l^ ' These treaties, which restored tranquillity to^ 

alithwif^^of ^*^'y ^^^^^ ^ tedious war, 'the calamities of 

the Medici which had chiefly affected that country, were 

, published at Bologna with great solemnity on' 

the first day of the year one thousand five hun-' 

dred and thirty, amidst the univ^sal acciama* 

tions of the people, applauding the Emperor, to 

whose moderation and generosity they ascrited 

the blessings of peace which they had so long^ 

desired. The Florentines alone did not partake 

* SandoY. ii^ 55, ^c. 



«>f this gf^n'eral joy. Animated with a zeal hr ^^ <^® « 
liberty more laudable than prudent, they deter- ^^>>-y-i-r 
iki in ed to oppose the restoration of the Medici. ^^^' 
The Imperial army had ah-eady entered theiir 
territories, and formed the siege of tl^ir capital. 
Sat though deserted by all their allies, and le£l 
without any hope of succour, they defended 
themselves many months with an obstinate va^ 
lour worthy of better success ; and even when 
they surrendered, they obtained a capitulation 
which gave them hopes of securing some re- 
mains of their liberty. But the Emperor, from 
his desire to gratify the Pope, frustrated all 
their expectations, and abolishing their ancient 
form of government, raised Alexander di Medici 
to the same absolute dominion over that state, 
which his family have retained to the present 
times. Philibert de Chalons, prince of Orange^ 
the Imperial general, was killed during this 
siege. His estate and titles descended to his 
sister Claude de Chalons, who was married to 
Renfe, count of Nassau, and she transmitted ta 
her posterity of the house of Nassau the title of 
Princes of Orange, which, by their superior 
talents and valour,, they have rendered so illusr 

* • ' 

After the publication of the peace of Bo-i state of af. 
lo^a, and the ceiremony of his coronation as and leiigi- 
King of Lomhardy and £mperor of the Romans, ^^ny" ^^' 
virhich the pope performed with the accustom- ^''^ ^^• 

. f Guic. I. :ac. p. 341/&C. P. Heuter. Ret. Austr. likii. c. 
i. p. 236. 

Feb. 2 
and 24. 



^ ibrmaiitie^ acrthing detained Cha?Ieft ki Jt»» 
ly * ; and he begna to prepare for bi& je«rn«y 
to Germanj- His preseoce became every day 
m^re aecessary in that country, ^vA was solicit 
ed witii equal importBaity by the catholics ami 
Vy the favourei^ of the new doetriiies. Durii^ 
that icmg iolerval ai tranqaillify> which tb0 
abi^ence of the Emperor* the ooote^ts between 
him and the Pope» and bis attesktioo ta the 
war with France, afforded them, the latter 
gained much ground. Mo9t of the princM 
who bad embraced Luther's Qpinicms^ had not 
only established in their territories that form of 
worship which he approved, but had eotireljr 
suppressed the rites of the Romish church. 
Many of the free cities had imitated their oon^ 
duct. Almost one half the Germanic body had 
revolted from the Papal see, and its m:ithofity» 
even in thos^ provinces whidh had not hitherto 
^aken off the yoke^ was considerably weaken* 
ed, partly by the example of revolt in the 
Beighbomnng states, partly by the secret pro* 
gress of the reformed doctrine even in those 
countries where it was not openly embraced* 
Whatever satisfaction the Emperor, whale he 
was at open enmity with the see of .Romfi^ 
might have felt in those events which tended 
to mortify and embarrass the. Pope, he could 
not help perceiving now, that the religsowgditi 
visions in Germany would, . in the eBd, prove 
extremely hurt&il to the Imperial ^^itluirity^ 

* H; Cornel. Agnppa dc duplierrQWnationc Car. V» njv 
Scard. ii. 266. . ' 


The weakness of former Emperors had safiered ^^^^ 
the great vassals of the empire to make such ^^^.^'^^ 
successful encroachments upon their power and ^^^ 
prerogative, that during the whole course of a 
Tva,r, which had often required the exertion of 
his utmost strength, Charles hardly drew any 
effectual aid from Germany, and found that 
magniiicent titles or obsolete pretensions were 
almost the only advantages which he had gain^ 
ed by swaying the ImperiaJ sceptre. He be* 
canae fully sensible, that if be did not recover 
in some degree the prerogatives which bis pre- 
decessors had lost, and acquire the authority, as 
well as possess the name, of head of the £m« 
pire, his high dignity would contribute more 
to obstruct than to promote his ambitious 
schemes. Nothing, he saw, was more essential 
towards attaining this, than to suppress opinions 
which might form new bonds of confederacy , 
among the princes of the Empire, and unite 
them by ties stronger and more sacred than 
any political connection* Nothing seemed to 
lead more certainly to the accomplishment of 
his design, than to employ zeal for tlie establish* 
ed religion, of which he was the natural protec- 
tor, as the instrument of extending his civil au- 

•Accordingly, a prospect no soooner open- Procceaw^ 
ed of coming to an accommodation with the at splJ^* 
Pope, than, by the Emperor's appointment, a ^*r?L^^' 
df et of the EmpifVPhs held ^t Spires, in order 



to take into consideration the state of religion. 
The decree of the diet assembled there in the 
year one thousand five hundred and twenty-six, 
which was almost equivalent to a toleration of 
Luther's opinions, had given great offence to 
the rest of'Christendom. The greatest delica- 
cy of address, however, was requisite in pro^^ 
ceeding to any decision more rigorous. The 
minds of men kept in perpetual agitation by a 
controversy carried on, during twelve years, 
without intermission of debate, or abatement of 
zeal, were now inflamed to an high degree. 
They were accustomed to innovations, and saw 
the boldest of them successful. Having not 
only abolished old rites, but substituted new 
forms in their place, they were influenced as 
inuch by attachment to the system which they 
had embraced, as by aversion to that which they 
had abandoned. Luther himself, of a spirit not 
to be worn out by the length and obstinacy 
of the combat, or to become remiss upon suc- 
cess, continued the attack with as much vigour 
as he had begun it. His disciples, of whom 
many equalled him in zeal, and some surpas- 
sed hJm in learning, were no less capable than 
their master to conduct the controversy in the 
properest manner. Many of the laity, some 
even of the princes, trained up amidst these 
incessant disputations, and iii the habit of;^- 
tening to the argunients of tl* contending par- 
ties, who alternately appe aled t o tli«m as judges, 
came to be prpfoundly sklflR^m all the ques^. 




tlons which were agitated, and, upon occasion^ 
coutd shew themselves not inexpert in any of 
the arts with which these theological encoan- 
ters were maoaged. It was obvious from all 
these circumstances, that any violent decision 
of the diet must have immediately precipitat- 
ed matters into confusion, and have kindled in 
Germany the flames of a religious war. All, 
therefore, that the Archduke, and the other 
commissioners appointed by -the Emperor, de- 
manded of the diet, was, to enjoin those states 
of the Empire which had hitherto obeyed the 
decree issued against Luther at Worms in the 
year one thousand five hundred and twenty-four, 
to persevere in the observation of it, and to pro- 
(libit the other states from attempting any far- 
ther innovation in religion, particularly from 
abolishing the Mass, before the meeting of a 
general council. After much dispute, a decree 
to that effect was approved of by a majority 
of voices *. i 

The Elector of Saxony, the marquis of Bran* T^e follow. 
denburgh, the Landgrave of Hesse, the dukes ther protest 
of Lunenburgh, the prince of Anhalt, together t^emf' 
with the deputies of fourteen Imperial or free ^p"* ^^* 
cities f, entered a solemn protest against this 
decree, as unjust and impious.. On that ac^^ ^ 
coimt they were distinguished by the name of 

* Sleid. Hist. 117. 
- f The fourteen cities were Strasburgb, Nuremburgb, Dim, 
Constance. ReutIingen,jdHMsheira, Memengen, Lindaw> 
Kempteii, Hailbron, Isnay^w'eissemburgh, Nordlingen^ and 


It ' Tflt« MKiGN OP tttfe 

PROTESTANTS*, an appellation whidi hntU 
since become better known, and more "honour* 
abie^ by its being aopHed indiscriminately to 
ftlf the sects, of whatever denomination, which 
hai^ revolted ftrom the Roman see. Not satis- 
fied with this declaration of their dissent from 
the decree of the diet, the ProtestatUs sent am- 
bassadors irtio Italy, to lay their grievaiKre^ 
before the Emperor, from whom they met with 
^i!^he *^ **^^ disconi^aging reception. Charles wad 
Pope and ftt that limc in close union with the Pope, and 
»licitotis to attach him inviolably to bis interest. 
During their long residence at Bologna, tl^^ 
h«eld many consultations concerning the mofet 
elfeetual n>eans of extirpating the heresi^fS 
which had sprang up in Germany. Clement> 
whose cantious and timid mind the proposal of 
a general council filled with horror, even be- 
yond what Popes, the constant enemies of such 
assemblies^ usually feel, employed every argu* 
ment to dissuade the Emperor from consenting 
to that measure. He represented general conn- 
dte as factious^ tmgoveraable, presumptuous, 
formidable to civil authority, and too slow in 
Uieir operations to remedy disorders which re- 
quired an immediate cure. Experience, he 
said, ha4 now taught both the Emperor and 
himsdf, that forbearance and lettity, instead of 
soothii^ the spirit of innov^tioiy^had ren(|^e<l 
it more enterprising and presumptuous ; it was - 
necessary, therefore, to have recourse to the ri- 
gorous methods which ^pb a desperate case 

* Sleid. Hist 119. F. Paul. Hist. p. 45. Seckend. iit 127. 


inpiired $ Leo's sentence of cxcomnmmc&tion, *^^ ^ 
togetber with the decree of the diet at Worias, \^s^^m^ 
tdiould be ciurried into executioti» and it was in* ^^^ 
cwttbeat oti the Emperor to employ his whde 
power, in order to overawe thoje^ on wbMa 
the reverence due either to ecclesiastical or 
eivU Ottthdrity had ao longer any inflaence. 
Gbarle», whdse views were very di£ferent trom 
tbe Pope's, and who became daily more sensi- 
ble bow obstinate and deep-rooted the evil was» 
lliM^gtot of reconeiling the Protestants by. means 
loss violent, and considered the convocation of 
a conneil as no improper expedient* for that 
porposO; but promised, if gentler arts failed of 
dlK*oes$, that then be woald exert himself with 
rigour tp reduce to the obedience of the holy 
sM those atubborn enemies of the Catholic ^ 

SUGR tvere the sentiments with which the cnperor 
Cinperor set ont for Germany, having already ^ oIlTi^ 
appointed a diet of the Empire to be held at ^^^l 
Angi^Mrg. In his jonrney towards that city, ^^* 
he had many opportunities of observing the dis- 
position of the Germans with regard to the 
pomts in controversy <» and found their minds 
^^ty where so much irritated and inflamed, 
^ convinced him, that n^^thing tending to se- 
feriU| or ngonr ought to be attempted, until 
all other measures proved ineffectuaJ« He jtweu. 
made iiis pnblic entry into. Augsburg with exw 

♦ ft Pa«1, xlvil. Seek. !- 1P142- Hist, de Confess. d'Aux- 
Wui|^ par D. Chytitns, 4to Antw. 1572. p. 6. 



traordinary pomp ; and found there eudh a fiiil 
assembly^ of the members oi the diet, as was 
suitable both to the importance, of the affairs^ 
which were to come under their con»iderat tony 
and to the honour of an Emperor> who, ^fter. su 
• long absence, returned to them crowned .with 
reputation and success. His presence seems to 
to have communicated to all part;ies an uxi* 
usual spirit of mo*deration and desire, of peace. 
The Elector of Saxony would not permit Luther 
to accompany him to the diet, lest he should: 
offend the Emperor by bringing into his. pre^ 
serife a person excommunicated by the Pppe>: 
and who had been the author of all those disr' 
sensions which it now appeared, so diffipult tO: 
compose. At the Emperor's desire, all the 
Protestant princes forbade the divines who acr: 
companied them, to preach in public durijig: 
their residence at Augsburg. For the same 
reason they employed Melancthon> the man :of 
the greatest learnings as well as of the mQs|r 
pacific and gentle spirit among the Reformers^: 
' to draw up a confession of their faith, expressed 
in terms as little offensive to the Roman Car. 
tholics,. as a regard for truth would permit;. 
The con- Melancthou, who seldom suffered the rancour- 

fiessioa of . , • i 

Augsburg. 01 controversy to envenom bis style, even ^k^ 
writings purely polemical, executed a task «#►. 
agreeable to his natural disposition with gn^tr 
moderation and address. The^reejd whicn lift 
composed, known by the name of the Ca^fesskmi 
ef Augsburg, from the place where it was pre- 




sented, was read publicly in the diet Sdme 
popish divines were appointed to examine it; 
they brought in their animadrerifeions ; a dis^ 
pute ensued between them and MelaiicthOn; 
seconded by some of his brethren; but though 
Melancthon softened some articles, made con- 
cessions with regard to others, and put the 
least exceptionable sense upon all ; though the 
Emperor himself laboured with great e^lrnest- 
liess to reconcile the contending pilrti^s ; sd 
imany marks of distinction were now established, 
and such insuperable barriers placed between 
the two churches, that all hopei^ of bringing 
about a coalition seemed utterly desperate*. 

From the divines, among whom His efidea- 
vonrs had be^n so unsuccessful, Charles turned 
to the princes their patrons. Nor did he find 
them, how desirous soever of accommodation^ 
or willing to oblige the Emperor, more disposed 
than the former t<^ wndunce their opinions; 
At that time, zeal for' religion took possessions 
of the minds of men, to a degree which can 
scarcely be conceived by those vvho live in an 
age when the passions excited by the firat ma*- 
nifestation of truths and the first recovery of 
liberty, have in a great measure ceased to ope^ 
rate. This zeal was then of such fiitrength as 
to overcome attachment to their political inte^ 

* Seckend. lib. ii. 159, &c. Abr. Sculteti Annales Evan-. 
gelici ap. Henn. Von der Hard* Hist. Liter. Reform. Lips. 
It 17. fol. p. 150. 


/t> . 

6n tHE »K!GN OP Ttffr 

*^^*f iwt^ which' is commonly the predloaitnaiit mo* 
%«i»v«)«fei/ tive among psrinces. The EJecior of Saxoiiyv 
*^*^ the Landgi^ave of Hesse, and other chiefs of 
the Pi»t^stants^ though sotieited sepsr^^ly by 
fbe Emperor, aoid sd lured by the promise or 
prospect,. of those adv^intages which it was 
^nown they were more solieitoms lo at^aan, re* 
fused, with a fortitude highly worthy of innita* 
tioiii. to ahamlon what tl^y deemed! the caxisii 
^ Qod» foiT the sake of any earthly acquisitiofi^* 

Severe de. Eyery Scheme in order ta gam on distmite 
STpS"^ the protestant party proving a^rtiv:e» nothings 
*'***'^ now rt^akied for the Em^^iero)* hot to take some 
vigorous measures towards asserting the doc- 
triiiQ9 and^ authority cif the established church. 
These, Campeggiov the papa} niinci<^ had ati» 
ways recommended as the only proper and ef» 
fecfinal course of dealing with such dbstinate 
Kov. 19. heretics In compbaace witli his opinions and 
rt^monstrancesi^. the diet issued a cfecree^ con-* 
d^mnii^most of the peculiar tenets held h^ 
the Protestants; forbi^ying any person to pron 
lect OP tolerate such as taught them ; enjoiniiig 
a. strict observance of the established pites ; and 
|^obibiti))g any further iunovaXion under severe 
pei^lties. • . All orders of men were required to 
assist with their persons and fortunes in carry^ 
lag this decree ioto executioa^ and such as re* 
fused to obey it, were declared incapable of act- 
ing as judges, or of appearing as parties in the 
Imperial chamber, the supreme count of judica* 

* Sleid 132. . Scdltet. Anna!. 158r 


£J)tfGllOlt CltAKLtS V. 51 

tctteifi the Empire. To all which tras siibjoin- *^^^* 
4gd a promise, that an application should be 
made to the Pope, requiring him to call a gen^ 
ral ^^unoU within six months, in order tor term> 
iiate all t^ontrorersies by its sorereign deci*^ 

Tiit; severity of this decree, which was coti- 1^ «»*» 
fcWered as a prelode to the most violent persecu- league at 
lion, alarmed the Protestants, and convinced 
them that the Emperor was resolved on their 
flestrurtion. The dread of those calamities 
which were ready \o fall on the church, oppres* 
sed the feeble spirit of Melancthon ; and, as if 
the csfcuse had already been desperate, he gave 
fcimself up to melancholy and lamentation. 
JBkit Luther/ who during the meeting of the diet 
Irad endeavoured to confirm and animate his 
party by several treatises which he addressed to 
them^ was not disconcerted or dismayed at the 
prospect of this new danger He comforted 
Melancthon and his other desponding disciples^ 
and exhorted the princes not to abandon those 
truths which they had lately asserted with such 
Jaudable boldnessf . His exhortations made the 
deeper impression upon them, as they were 
greatly alarmed at that time by the account of 
a combination among the Popish princes of the 
Empire for the maintenance of the established 
religion, to which Charles himself had acced- » 
edj. This convmced them that it was neces* 

* Sleid 139. f Seek. ii. 180. Sleid, 140. 

t Seek. ii. 200. iii. l^t 


BOOK sary to stand on their guard; and that their 
Vm^v'-w own safety, as well as the success of their cause^ 
^^^' depended on union. Filled with this dread of 
the adverse pary, and with these sentiments 
concerning the conduct proper for themselves^ 
^^®<^®*"- ^2- they assembled at Smalkalde. There they coa- 
cluded a league of mutual defence against all 
aggressors*, by which they formed the Protes- 
tant states of the Empire into one regular body, 
and beginning already to consider themselves 
as such, they resolved to apply to the Kings of 
France and England, and to implore them to 
patronize and assist their new confederacy. 

The Bmpe- ^^ affair not connected with religion furnish- 

lor proposes ^ ^ ^ 

to have his ed them with a pretence for courting the aid 
ciect^king of foreign princes. Charles, whose ambitious 
oftheRo- yJ^^s enlarged in proportion to the increase of 
his power and grandeur, had formed a scheme 
of continuing the Imperial crown in -his family, 
by procuring his brother Ferdiftand to lie elect- 
ed King of the Romans. The present juncture 
was favourable for the execution of that design^ 
The Emperor's arms had been every where vic- 
torious; he had given law to all Europe at the 
late peace; no rival now remained in a condi- 
tion to balance or to controul him; and the 
Electors, dazzled with the splendour of his suc- 
cess, or overawed by the greatness of his power, 
durst scarcely dispute the will of a prince, whose 
solicitations carried with them th^ authority of 
commands. Nor did he want plausible reasons 

* Sleid. Hist. 142- ' 



to enforce the measure. The affairs of his other 
kingdoms, he said, obliged him to be often ab- 
sent from Gremany; the growing disorders oc- ^*^* 
casioned by the controversies about religion, as 
well as the formidable neighbourhood of the 
Turks, who continually threatened to break in 
with their desolating armies into the heart of the 
Empire, required the constant presence of a 
prince endowed with prudence capable of com^ 
posing the former, and with power as well as va- 
lour sufficient to repel the latter. His brother 
Ferdinand possessed these qualities in an emi- 
nent degree ; by residing long in Germany, he 
had acquired a thorough knowledge of its con* 
stitution and manners ; having been present al- 
most from the first rise of the religious dissen?* 
sions, he knew what remedies were ipost proper, 
what th^ Germp^ns could bear, and how to ap» 
ply them; as his own dominions lay on the 
Turkish frontier, he was the natural defender of 
Germany Against the invasions of the Infidels, 
being prompted by interest no less tlian he 
would be bound in duty to oppose (hem, 

These arguments made little impression on TheProtefc. 
the Protestants. Experience taught them, that to it, 
nothing had contributed more to the undisturb- 
ed progress; of their opinions, than the interreg- 
num after Maximilian's dea,th, the long absence 
of Charles, and the slackness of the reins of 
government which these occasioned. Con- 
^iotts of the advantages which their ca\is^ 



had derived from this relaxation of gOTemm^itj^ 
they were unwiiiing to render it more vigor* 
0U6, by giving themselves a iieiv and a iix« 
ed master. They perceived clearly the extent 
of Charles's ambition, that he aimed at render* 
ing the Imperial croivn hereditary in his fami^ 
iy, and would of course establish in the^Empire 
an absolute dominion, to which elective princea 
could not have aspired with equal facility^ 
They determined therefore to oppose th^ elec* 
tion of Ferdinand with the utmost vigour, and 
to rouse their countrymen, by their example 
and exhortations, to withstand this encroach* 
1531. ment on their liberties. The Hector of Saxo* 
ny, accordingly, not on] y refused to be present 
at the electori|,1 college, which the Emperor 
sumn^oned to meet at Cologne, but instructed 
his eldest son to appear there, and to protest 
against the election as informal, illegal, contra* 
ry to the articles of the golden bull, and sub* 
Hcbcho- versive of the liberties of the Empire. But th^ 
other Electors, whom Charles had been $x great 
pains to gain, without regarding either his ab* 
sence or protest, chose Ferdinand King of the 
Romans ; who, a few days ^fter^ was crowned 
ft Aix-la-Chapelle *, 

ti^^thc ' When the Protestants, who were assembled 

^2^^^ a second time at Smalkalde, received. an ac» 

count of this transaction, and heard, at the 

* Skid. H% Stck. iii. 1. P« Heoior. Ikn /^m^. li^. «. 
c. 6. p. 240. 

EM?EROtt CHAtlLES V. 55 

ssme time, tha* pp^secutions were cominenced^ b<>ok 
in the Imperial chamber » agaiviBt some of their v,i«»N^ 
number. Oft aoeount of their religious princi- ^^^'' 
pies, they thought it necessary, not only to re- 
»eMr their former confederacy, but immediately 
to dispatch their ambassadors into France and 
Eriigland. Francis tmd observed, with all the Feb. 29. 
Jea4ousy <>f a rival, the repatation wbidi the 
£ttiperor had acquired by his seeming disinte** 
restedness and moderation in settling th^ af- 
fcirs in Italy; and bekeld with great concern 
^e successful step which he had taken to^ 
wainJs perpetuating and cKtendiog his authori^ 
ty in Germany by the election of a King of 
the Romans. Nothing, however, would have 
been more impolitic than to precipitate his 
kingdom into a new war, when exhausted by 
^xtraordini^ry effortH wA discouraged by ill 
success, before it had got time to recruit its 
strength, or to forget past misfortunes. As no . 
provocation had been given by the Emperor, 
and hardly a pretext lor a rupture had been af* 
forded him> he could not . violate a treaty of 
peace which he himself had so lately solicited^ 
without forfeiting the esteem of all Europe, and 
being detested as a priDce void of probity and 
honour. He observed, with great joy, power* 
Ifil factions beginning to form in the Empire; 
he listened with the utmost eagerness to the 
complaints of the Protestant princes ; and withi* 
out seeming to countenance their religious opi* 
nionsj determined sepretly to cherish those 



BpoK sparks of political discord which might be aft^Pis 
wards kindled into a flame. For this purpose^) 
he sent William de Bellay, pne of the ablest ner 
gociators in France, into Germany, who visit* 
ing the courts of the malcontent princes, and 
heightening their ill^humour by various arts^j 
conclufled an alliance between them^^irnd hiss 
master*, whjch, though. concealed at that time^^ 
dnd productive of no immediate effects, lai4 
the foundation of an union fi^tal on many oc- 
casions to Charles's ambitipus projects; and 
shewed the di^contenteid princes of Germany, 
where, for the future, they might find a protec- 
tor no less able than willing to undertake their 
defence against the encroachments of the Em-* 


with Eng- The King of England, highly incensed against 
Charles, in complaisance; tp whom, the Pope 
had long retarded, and now openly opposed his 
divorce, was no less disposed than Franpis to 
strengthen a lefague which might be rendered 
50 formidable to the Emperor. But his favourite^ 
project of the divorce led him into ^uch a laby- 
rinth of schemes and negociations, and he was, 
at the same time, ^o intent pn abolishing the 
papal jurisdiction in England, that he had no 
leisure for foreign affairs. This obliged him to. 
rest satisfied with giving general promises, to*, 
gether with a small supply in money to the 
confederates of Smalkaldef . 

* Bellay, 129. a. 130. b, S^. iii. 14. 
t Herbert, 152. 154, 


. Meanwhile, many circumstances convin- book 
ced Charles that this was not a juncture when s^^^^^^m^ 
the extirpation of heresy was to be attempted ^^^^^ 
by violence and rigour; that, in compliance ^[^^^ 
with the Pope's inclinations, he had already 
'proceeded with imprudent precipitation; and 
that it was more his interest to consolidate 
Germany into one united and vigorous body, 
J;han to divide and enfeeble it by a civil war. 
The Protestants, who were considerable as well 
}:>y their numbers as by their zeal, had acquired 
^ditional weight and importance by their join- 
ing in that confederacy into which the rash 
3teps taken at Augsburg had forced them. 
Haying now discovered their own strength, they 
despised the decisions of the Imperial cham* 
ber; and being secure of foreign protection, 
were ready to set the head of the Empire at 
defiance. At the same time the peace with 
France was precarious, the friendship of an ir- 
resolute and interested pontiff was not to be re- 
lied on; and Solyman, in order to repair the 
discredit and loss which his arms had sustained 
in the former campaign, was preparing to enter 
Austria with more numerous forces. On all 
these accounts, especially the last, a speedy acr 
li^ommodation with the malcontent princes be- 
came necessary, not only for the accomplish- 
ment of his future schemes, but for ensuring his 
present safety. Negociations were, according- 
ly, carried on by his direction with the Elector 
pf Saxony and his associates; after many de- 


Inys, oecftsioned by their jealousy d the Kitipe* 
ror, and of ench other ; after intiainerable diSi* 
^^^* culties arising from the inflexible nature of re* 
ligioos tenets, which cannot admit of beiiig 
altered, modified, or relinquished in the siune 
manner as points of political interest, terms of^ 
Giwite pacification were agreed upon at Nuremberg, 
/vourabie and ratified solemnly in the diet at Ratisbon, 
jd^ 23 fo this treaty it was stipulated. That untvers^ 
AugBsts. peace be established in Germany, until the 
meeting of a general council, the convocation 
of which wityn six monthi^ the EUnperor shall 
endeavour to procure; That no person shall bd 
molested on account of rejigion 5 That a stop 
shall be put to all processes begun by Ihe Imh 
perial chamber ajs^ainst Protestants, i^nd the sen* 
tences already passed to their detriment shall 
be declared void» On their part, the Protege 
tants engaged to assist the Emperor with all 
their forces in resisting the invasion of thfe 
Turks*. Thus by their firmness in adhering to 
their principles, by the unanimity with which 
they urged all their claims, and by their dex* 
ferity in availing themselves of the Emperor's 
situation, the Protestants obtained terms which 
amounted almost to a toleration of their reli*' 
gion ; all the concessions were made by Charleis^ 
none by them ; even the favourite point of theiir 
approving his brother's election was not men*- 
tioned ; and the Protei^ants of Germany, wbd 
hiad hitherto been viewed only as a religioit^ 

* Du Mont Corps Diplomatique, torn. iv. part ii. 87. 89. 

' I 


Sfeelv came bicnoefortU to be cofssidered as a pen • ^^ * 
litical body ot no small consequence^. v^xv^*^ 


The intellifience which Charles received of fan»p«'sa 

Soljman's having entered Hungary at the bead 

c^ three hundred thousand men, brought the 

deliberations of the diet at Ratisbon to a period; 

the contingent both of troops and money, which 

each prince was to furnish towards the defence 

of the Empire, having been already settled* 

The Protestants, as a testimony of their grati-* 

tude io the Emperor, exerted themselves with 

extraordinary zeal, and brought into the field 

forces which exceeded in number the quota 

imposed on them ; the Catholics imitating their 

example, one of the greatest and best appoint* 

ed armies that had ever been levied in Germany, 

assembled near Vienna. Being joined by a 

body of Spanish and Italian veterans under the 

marquis del Guasto; by some heavy-armed. 

cavalry from the Low-Countries; and by the 

troops which Ferdinand had raised in Bohemia, 

Austria, and his other territories, it amounted 

in all to ninety thousand disciplined foot, and 

thirty thousand horse, besides a prodigious 

^warm of irregulars. Of this vast army, worthy 

the first prince in Christendom, the Emperor 

took the command in person ; and mankind 

waited in suspense the issue of a decisive battle 

between the two greatest monarchs in the world. 

But each of them dreading the other's power 

* Slcii 149, Ac. &ck, Ui. 19, 


and good fortune, they both conducted their 

operations, with such excessive caution, that a 

^^^** campaign, for which such immense preparations 

had been made, ended without any memorable 

September evcnt. Solyman, finding it impossible to gain 

and Octo- , , . , 

ber. ground upon an enemy always attentive and on 

his guard, marched back to Constantinople to- 
wards the end of autumn*. It is remarkable, 
that in such a martial age, when every gentle^ 
man was a soldier, and every prince a general, 
this was the first time that Chailes, who had 
already carried on such extensive wars, and 
gained so many victories, appeared at the head 
of his troops. In this first essay of his arms, to 
have opposed such a leader as Solyman, was no 
small honour; to have obliged him to retreat, 
inerited very coi^siderable praise, 

August 1^. About the beginning of this campaign, the 
Elector of Saxony died, and was sue ceeded by 
his son John Frederick. The Reformation rather 
gained than lost by that event; the new Elector, 
no less attached than his predecessors to the 
opinions of Luther, occupied the station which 
they had held at the head of the Protestant par^ 
ty, and defended, with the baldness and zeal of 
youth, that cause which they had fostered and 
reared with the caution of toore advanced age. 

Immediately after the retreat of the Turks, 

The Empe- 
ror's inter- 
view with 

the Pope in Charlcs, impatient to retisit Spain, set out on 

bis way to * . 


* Jovii Hist. lib. xxx. p. 100, &Q. Barrel Hist, de I'Empirc, 

i. 8. 347. 


h\n way thither, for Italy. As he was extreme'* 
ly desirous of an interview with the Pope, they 
met a second time at Bologna, with the same ^^^^* 
external demonstrations of respect and friend- 
ship, but with httle of that Confidence which 
had subsisted between them during their late 
negociations there. Clement was much dissa- 
tisfied wiih the Emperor's proceedings at Augs- 
burg ; his concessions with regard to the speedy 
convocation of a council, having more than 
cancelled all the merit of the severe decree a- 
gainst the doctrines of the Reformers. The to- 
leration granted to the Protestants at Ratisbon^ 
and the more explicit promise concerning a 
council, with which it was accompanied, had 
irritated him still farther. Charles however, Neeocia- 
partly from conviction that the meeting of a cem1ng*a 
council would be attended with salutary effects, l^^j 
and partly from his desire to please the Ger- 
mans, having solicited the Pope by his ambas- 
sadors to call that assembly without delay, and 
now urging the same thing in person, Clement 
was greatly embarrassed what reply he should 
make to a request which it was indecent to re- 
fuse, and dangerous to grant. He endeavoured 
at first to divert Charles from the measure ; but> 
finding him inflexible, he had recourse to arti- 
fices which he knew would delay, if not entire- 
ly defeat, the calling: of that assembly. Under 
the plausible pretext of its being previously 
necessary to settle, with all parties concerned, 
the place of the council's meeting ; the manner 

^ TBI RfetGN Of TS& 


Moore of iturprodeedinsgB-y the right af the persoftst wll>(> 
Vi^s.^ should be admitted to vote; and the anthority 
*^^^ of their decbk>0S ; he dispatched a nunck)», ac-^ 
eompanied by an ambassadoT from the Emper€»r^ 
to the Elector of Serxony as head! of the Prote*^ 
tants* With res:ard to each of these article^ 
inextricable diificiitties and contests aros»e. Thi^ 
Protestants d'enpjand»ed a eonneil to be held ii* 
Germany ; the Pope in^sted that it sfeoiild tSi:^et 
in Italy ; they contended, that aW points in dis^ 
pute should be determined by the wo^rd» of hoty 
scripture aloi>e; he considered not only the de^ 
crees of the charcb, but the opinions of fettbers 
and doctors^ as of equal authority : they requir- 
ed a free council^ in which the divines, commis^ 
sioned by diiferent cbtirehes^ shoutd be atl^wecl 
a; voice; be aimed at modelling the council itl 
such a mamier a& would remier it entirely de^^ 
pendent on his {rfeasure. Above aU> the Pr«M 
testants thought it mireasonable, th«it they 
should bind themselves to submit to the de^reei^ 
of a council J before they knew on what prinei* 
pies these decrees were to be founded, by what 
persons they were to be pronounced, ami wbaC 
forms of proceeding they would obserte. Th^ 
Pope maintained it to be d^kogether unneces^ 
sary to call a council, if those who demanded it 
did not previously declare their resolution to ac- 
quiesce in its decrees* In order to adjust such 
a variety of points, many expedients were pro- 
posed, and the negociations spun out to such a 
lengthy as effectually answered Clement's pur- 



(MSBQ el^ putting off the meeting of a council '^^'^ 
witb€>ttt drawing on himself the whole infamy 
of obstructing a measure which all Europe 
deemed, so ei^sential to the good of the church^. 


ToiGETHEB with this negociation about cal- «»>/«■ pws- 

hmor a council, the Emperor carried on another, tranquillity 

vhich he h^ sttU more at heart, for secnring ^^' 

the peace established in Italy. As Francis had 

renouaced his pretensioms in that country with 

great reluctance, Charles madie no doubt but 

that he would lay hold oa the first pretext af* 

iordeil him, or embrace the first opportunity 

which presented itself, of recovering what ha 

had lost It became necessary, on tbia account, 

to take measures for assembling an army able 

Uk oppose bim« As his treasury, drauied by a 

hmg war, could not supply the sums requisite 

for keepnug such a body constantly on foot, ho, 

attempted to throw that burden on his allies, 

and to provide for the safety of his own domi-- 

vifms alk their expe«)ce» by proposing that the 

Italism. states shduld enter into a league erf" de« 

fence against all in¥aders ;^hat, on the first ap-* 

pearanco of danger, an army sboulxl be raised 

astd coaintained at the common charge ;, and 

tibat Antonio de Leyva should be appointed the 

geues^issima Nor was the proposal unaccept^ 

^ide to? Clement, though for a reason very diffe* 

isent from that which indueed the Emperor to 

make it He hoped^ by this expedient, to de- 13:^5 

*^ R PaiU Hisu «L Seclie«di Hi* 73. 



liver Italy from the German and Spanish v*» 
terans^ which had so long filled all the pawersr 
in that country with terror, and still kept them 

Feb. e*. in subjection to the Imperial yoke^ A league 
was accordingly concluded ; all the Italian 
states, the Venetians excepted, acceded to it • 
the sum which each of the contracting parties 
should furnish towards maintainmg the army 
was fixed ; the Emperor agreed to withdraw the 
troops which gave so much umbrage to his aI-» 
lies^ and which he was unable any longer to 
support. Having disbanded part of them, and 
removed the rest to Sicily and Spain, he em-- 
barked on board Doria's galiies, and arrived at 

April 22. Barcelona*. 

Designsand NOTWITHSTANDING all his prccautions foi* 

SoSTof the securing the peace of Germany, and maintaining 

^g^ that system which he had established in Italy^ 

against the ^^g Emocror became every day more and more 

apprehensive that both would be soon disturbed 

by the intrigues or arms of the French King. 

His apprehensions were well founded, as no-» 

thing but the desperate situation of his affairs 

could have brought Francis to give bis consent* 

to a treaty so dishonourable and disadvantage- 

,ous as that of Cambray ; he, at the very time of 

ratifying it, had formed a resolution to observe 

it no longer than necessity compelled him, and 

took a solemn protest, though with the most 

profound secrecy, against severSal articles in the 


* Guic. I XX. 551. Ferreras, ix. 149* 



treaty^ particularly that whereby hp renounced • ^^^ * 
all pretensions to the dutchy of Milan, as un- 
just, injurious ta his heirs, and invalid. One 
of the crown lawyers, by his command, enter- 
ed a protest to the same purpose, and with the 
like secrecy, when the ratification of the treaty 
was registered in the Parliament of Paris** 
Francis seems to have th6ui;ht thatj by employ- 
ing an artifice unworthy of a King, destructive 
o/ public faith, and of the mutual confidence 
on which all transactions between nations are 
founded, he was released from any obligation 
to perform the roost solemn promises, or to ad- 
here to the most sacred engagements. From 
the moment he concluded the peace of Cam- 
bray, he wished and watched for an opportuni- 
ty of violating it with safety* He endeavoured 
for that reason to strengthen his alliance with 
the King of England^ whose friendship he cuiti-' 
Taied with the greatest assiduity. He put the 
military force of his own kingdom on a better 
and more respectable footing than ever. He 
artfully fomented the jealousy and discontent 
of the German princesi. 

But above all, Francis laboured to break parU^jukHy 
the stridt Confederacy which subsisted between pop«. 
Charles and Clement ; and he had soon the sa- 
tisfaction to observe appearances of disgust and 
. alienation arising in the mind of that suspicious 
and interested Pontifl", which gave him hopeiJ 
that their union would not be lasting. As the 

* Du Mont Corps Diploia. torn. iv. part ii. p. 52. 
VOL. m. E 


i««« UmperKR^s detiskiH m«ir t»f theiiake of Fefr 
Vi^v<^«^ rttm had grel^y irritated ftad Pbpe, Francis aig» 
^^^ gr^tated the ii^ostice of tfa«t prroceeding, uid 
Battered Clement thtit the papal se? wuuM find 
Ift hiAd ft more impartial and Ho idm poiFsrerfni 
pfMetton A^ the impoftanity with whii^h 
Chaflds 4ci«iandted a couacil wa^ extremely of^ 
fbnsive to the Pope, Fn^ticie artfuHy created ob- 
i^Utled to pretetit ity and attempted to divert 
the German princes, his ailiiea, from msinttag so 
obstinately on that potnt^. Ad the Emperor 
had gained snch an ascendant over Clejkieiit by 
dontrtbctting to aggrandise his family, Francii 
endeavoured to allure him by the same irfesisti^ 
ble bait, proposing a mai*riage between his 9e«- 
dcmd son, Henry duke at Orleaois^ atid Catharine 
the daaghter ctf the P6pe's cousin Laurence di 
Medici« On the first overture of this meitcl^ 
the Emperor could not persuade Imnsekf that 
iPranci^ really intended to debase the royal Mood 
of France by an alUanee with Catterine^ whose * 
abcestors had been so Idtely private citizens and 
merchants ia Florence, and believed that ha 
meant only to flatter or amnie the atubitiotts 
PontifE He thought it necessary, however, to 
liffaice the impression which such a dazzling of- 
fer migiit have made« by promisilifg to break oflf 
the marriage which had been agreed on betwe^^ 
bis dwn niede the King of Denmtek's daughter, 
and the Duke of Milan^ and to siri^stitttte Ca* 
tharilie iai her place. But the French ambaa- 

* Bellay, Ul, &c Seek, iii- 48. F. Paul, 63. 



Mflbr prodneing uiiex|»ittedly fiitt povtrs to 
eondade the marriage tmty: with tin^ Duk^ <i£ 
OrieanS) this expcdimit had tio effioct Clemeot 
was to hightjr pLeaaed xtiUi on ^ hoodur wfaieb 
addal «uch lustne and di|p[kity> to the hoqse of 
Medics ^hat he offered lo gmut Cuharine thid 
investiture of coosidsrable t^rrftDricei id It»ly» bjr 
way' of portioo ; he sesned rieaidy to 0iip}HNnt 
f rai»oij» in fproseouting his wcieiil claims rn that 
country^ and conseiited to a personal intarvielr 
with that Monarch*. 

Ch AliLKfl was at tl)e utmost ptina td pr^^tnt tmmm 
a meetings in wbiich nothing was liiu^ly to pass Fufr mt 
hat what wonld be of detriment to him ; nor ^^"^^ 
coald he bear, after he had twice condescended 
to visit the Pope in his own territories, that 
Clement shonld beetow such a mark of distniO^ 
fion on his rivat, as lo venture on a Toyage bf 
iea, at an tinfavonrable seasof]> in order to pa^ 
court to Francis in the FreiKh dominions* fiitt 
the Pope's eagerness to accomplish the match 
^Vrercame ail the scruples of pKd^^ or fear, off 
jealonsy, which would probably have iafliteficed 
him on any other occasion. Ttie interview) not- October, 
iHthstaniding several artifices of the Emperor to 
prevent it, took place at Marseilles with extra* 
ordinary potnp, and demonstrations of conHk 
^ence on both sides ; and the marriage^ wbidb 
the ambition and abilities of Catharine render* 
^ in the sequel as pernicious to France, as it 

* Gdic. 1. m; 551. 553. BeH»v, ISd. 



^%f^ was then thought dishonourabte^^ wais oonsum* 

^"^^ v ^^^^ mated. But whatever schemes may have beect^ 

*^^^ secretly concerted by the Pope and Francis in 

favour of the Duke of Orleans^ to whom his fa« 

ther proposed to make over all his rights iu 

Italy, so careful were they to avoid gifviiig any 

cause of oifimce to the Emperor,- that no treaty 

was concluded between them^; and ^ even in 

the marriage^articles, Catharine renounced all 

claims and pretensions, in Italy > except to the 

. dutchy of Urbinof * 

drofwiS*" But at the very time when he wns carrying 
reswl to on thcsc ucgociations and formins: this connec* 

the Kimr of ' 

Eogiand's tion with Francis, which gave so great umbrage 
*''**'^ to. the Emperor, such was the artifice and du- 
plicity of Clement's character, that he suffered 
the latter to direct all his proceedings with re- 
gard to the King of England, and was no less 
attentive to gratify him in that particular, than 
if the most cordial union had still subsisted be-, 
tween them. Henry's suit for a divorce had 
now continued n^ar six years; during all which 
period the Pope negociated, promised, retract- 
ed> and concluded nothing. After bearing re- 
peated delays and disappointments longer than 
could have been expected from a prince of such 
a choleric and impetuous teqiper, the patience 
of Henry was at last so much exhausted, that 
. he applied to another tribunal for that decree 

* Guic. 1. XX. 555> 

t Du Mont Corps Diploma iv. pr ii« 101. 


whicli he had solicited in vam at Rome. Cratir 
Hier, archbishop of Canterbury^ by a sentence 
founded on the authority of Universities, Doc* ^*^^* 
tors, and Rabbles, who had been consulted with 
respect to the point, annulled the King's inar* 
riage with Catharine; her daughter was de- 
clared illegitimate; and Anne Boleyne ac* 
knowledged as Queen of England. At the same 
time Henry began not only to neglect and to 
threaten the Pope, whom he had hitherto court- 
ed, but to make innovations in the church> of • 
which he had formerly been such 9t zealous de* 
fender. Clement, who had already seen so many 
provinces and kingdoms revolt from the Holy 
See, became apprehensive at last that England 
might imitate their example ; and, partly from 
his solicitude to prevent that fatal blow, partly 
in compliance with the French King's solicitar 
tions, determined to give Henry such s^ii^fs^Cr i5S4. 
tion as might still retain him within the bosom ^^ 
of the church. But the violence of the Cardi- 
nals, devoted to the Emperor, did not allow the 
Pope leisure for executing this prudent resolu- 
tion, and hurried hiiu, with a precipitiation fatal 
to the. Roman See, to issue a bull rescinding 
Cranmer's sentence, cpnfirming Henry's mar- 
riage with Catharine, and declatHng hini excom- 
municated, if, within a time specified, he did 
uot abandon the wife he b«^d taken, and return ' 
to her whom he had deserted. Enraged at this Papai^ii: 
unexpected decree, Henry kept no . longer apy ShSun^ 
Jneasures with the court of Rome j his subjects ^'«^' 
seconded hi$ resentment , and indignation; an 



^^^^ ambition by seeing oneof his family possessed 
v^*v^ of the supreme power i:n Florenpe, and another 
'^^ in Milan. But upon the election of Paul III, 
who had hitherto adhered uniformly to the 
Imperial interest, Francis found it necessary 
to suspend his operations for some time, and to 
put off the commencement of hostilities against 
the Emperor, on which, before the death of 
Clement, he bad been fully determine. 

iiisun«c- While Francis waited for an opj^ortunity to 
Anabaptists rcuew a War which had hitherto pp'^ved so fatal 
^aM^' to himself and his subjects, a transaction of a 
very singular nature was Carried on in Germany, 
Among many beneficial and salutary effects 
of which the Reformation was the immediate 
cause, it wa9 attended, as must be the case in 
all actions and events wherein tnen are concern- 
ed, with some consequences of an. opposite na* 
ture. When 'the human mind is TQuaed by 
grand objects^ and agitated by strong passions, 
its operations acquire such force, that they are 
apt to become irregular >aod!eiXJtraTagaut» Upon 
any great revolution in religion, such irregu- 
larities aboimd nocist, at tlVat particular period, 
when men, having thro wh off the authority of 
their ancient principles, do not yet.fnily com; 
prebend the nature, or ferf t^e obligation of 
those new tenets which they have embraced; 
The mind, in that situation, pushing forward 
with the boldness which prompted it to ri^eqt 
established ppinion.3> and not guided by a cleac 


^Jbnowl^ge of the system substituted in their 
place, disdains all restraint, and runs into wild 
notions, which often lead to jscandaious or im^ ^^^* 
moral comiuct, Thus, in the first ages of the 
Christian church, many, of the i^ew converts, 
having renounced 'their ancient systems of reli- 
gious faith,. and being but imperfectly acquaints 
ed with the doctrines and precepts of Christi- 
anity, broached the most extravagant, opinions, 
equally subversive of piety and virtue ; all which 
errors disappeared or were exploded when the 
knowledge of rdigion increased, and came to be 
more generally diffused. In like manner, soon 
after Luther's appearance, the rashness or igno* 
ranee of some of his disciples led them to pub* 
)ish tenets no less sdbsurd than pernicious, which 
being proposed to m^n extremely illiterjate, but 
fond of novelty, and at a tim^ when their minds 
ivere occupied, chiefly with religious specula- 
lions, gained, too Cia^y credit and authority a- 
mong them. To these caus>es joiust be imputed 
ihe extravagances of Muncer, in the year one 
thousand five hundred ^nd twenty-five, as w^l 
as the rapid, progress which bis opinions made 
among the peasants; but though the insurrec- 
tion excited by that fanatic was soon suppres- 
sed, several of his follower's lurked in difierent 
plaoes, and endeavoured privately to propagate 
his opinions. 

In those provinces of Upper Germany, which Origin and 
jjmd already beea so cruelly waited by th^ir en- t^^Kt, 


900K ibusiastic rage, ike magistrates watolied tbeic 
)w *>- i ^^ motioiB with Buch severe attention^ that msmy 
^^^ e£ them found it necessary to petirB *mtm other 
countries, tome^ were pantshed, othees driren 
iMo exile, ai^ their errors were entireLy rooted 
out. But in the Netbeviands and Westphalia^ 
where tlie pernicious tendency of th^r cf^ioiot^ 
w^ m^re ^nkm^crn, and guarded against wii>ti 
less care, they got admitlandeiiiUo sei^eral 
towns, and, spread the iafeoti cm. ef their ^iipi» 
pies. The ffiost remadkabie of th^ fdigiosa 
tenets r^elatad to t^ Saeramteait . of jBaptism^ 
which, as they eontsnded, omglit to beadsniiiia^ 
tered only to persons grown up to years of un* 
tierstanding, and shouid be pcdbrmed not hj 
sprinkling them, with water, but by dipping^ 
Ihem in it : for th«s reosoii they coodennied tibe 
baptism of infants, wad rebo^ising; aU wfaoni 
'tibey admitted into their society, thetsect wxne 
to be distinguished hy the nameof AnabaptistsL 
To this pec«)iar notion oonoerning baptism; 
which has the appearance vof being founded on 
^e practice of (the chu^peli in the apostolic age, 
««id "Contains nothing inconsistent witjb tfaepbace 
tmd order of human sodiety, they laddied other 
primeiples of a most enthusiastic as well ass dauh 
gerous natui^. l^ey mai^taaned that, among 
Chr,isl3ans ^ho had the precepts of thegoffieiito^ 
direct, and the spirit of God to guide Jtheip, the 
office of magistracy was not only- unnecessary, 
iMfit aAiHinia^wful >encroachme»t.on tiidrr spiritual 
i f ■: i&berty 5 that ^^^ ^iistinctiona occ^isopjated by 


bitth, or rank, or wealtb» being contrary to the 
spirit of the gospeU which considers all men as 
equal, shouM be ^tirely abolished; that att ^^^ 
ChrisHians, throwing the ir posseiiaions into one 
common ^ock, should live together in that slate 
of eqnality which becomes members of the same 
£ajtitiy ; that as neither the laws of nature, nor 
the precepts of the New Testament, had iaB** 
posed at^y restraiiits upon men with regard to 
th§ ^nto^l^r of wives which tb^y- might marry^ 
they should use that liberty which God. himself 
fmi gmiited to the patriarchs* 

Such opiniomd, propagated and maintained setueui 
]ri4fo enthnsil^stio ;;eal and boldness, were not "^ 
loiig without prodw^ag the violent effects na^ 
tural to them. Tw^ Anabaptist prophets, Joha 
Ma4rthias,.a baker of Haerlem, and John Boc- 
|5old, or Beiikels, a jourwyman tailor of Ley- 
4en,. possessed with the rage of making proae- 
fytes, iiKed their residence ait Mupster, an Im*- 
perial city m Westplialia^i of the first raak, im- 
der the sovereignty of its bishop^ but governed 
\iy its own senate and. c^nsuk As fieither of 
ihese fanatics wanted t^e taleiits requisite ia 
desperate enterprises, great respHition, the op- 
pearanoe of ^anctity^, bodd pretensions to inspira* 
%mi3 and a t)Oiiftdenft and plausible maimer of 
disconr&ifig, tbey tNM)n gained fpany converts. 
Among theise were Rotrtiman, who had &rdt 
peached the -Protestant doctrine in Mhnsfcer, 
fnad Cnipperdoli^ga a cijtieeft of ^ood birth and 



masters uf 
that city. 


Establish a 
new ffirm 
of govern- 


considerable eminence. Emboldened by the 
countenance of such disciples, they openly 
taught their 6pinions ; and not satisfied with 
that liberty, they made several attempts, though 
without success, to become masters of the town, 
in order to get their tenets established by pub-» 
lie authority. At last, having secretly called 
in their associates from the neighbouring coun- 
try, they suddenly took possession of the arser 
n^l and seqate-house in the night-timi^, atod run- 
ning through the strpets with drawn swords, 
and horrible howlings, cried out alternately, 
" Repent, and be baptised ;" and " Depart ye 
ungodly." The senators, the canons, the nobi- 
lity, together with the more sober citiaens, 
whether Papists or Protestants, terrified at their 
threats and outcries, fled in confusion, and left 
the city under the dominion of a frantic multi-- 
tude, consisting chiefly of strangers. Nothing 
now remaining to overawe or controul them, 
they set about modelling the government accord* 
ing to their own wild ideas; and though at 
first they shewed so much reverence for the an- 
cient constitution, as to elect senators of their 
own sect, and to appoint Cnipperdohng and 
another proselyte consuls, this was nothing 
more than form ; for all their proceedings were 
directed by Matthias, who, in the style, and 
with the authority of a prophet, uttered his 
commands, which it was instant death to dis- 
obey. Having begun with encouraging the 
multitude to pillage the churches, and defac«f 



J ii 


their orhaments t he enjoined them t6 destroy, ^oojl 
all books except the Bible, as useless or impi- Vv^ 
Qus; he ordered the estates of such as fled# to ^^^' 
be confiscated, and sold to the inhabitants of 
th^ adjacent country -, he commanded every 
man to bring forth his gold, silver, and other 
precious effects, and toJay,them at his feet) the 
wealth amassed by these means, he deposited 
in a public treasury, and named deacons to dis- 
pense it for the common use of all. The mem- 
bers of this commonwealth being thus brought 
to a pferfect equality, he commanded all of them 
to eat at tables prepared in public, and even 
prescribed the dishes which were to be served 
up each day. Having finished his plan of re- 
formation, his next care was to provide for the 
defence of the city ; and he took measures for 
that purpose with a prudence which savoured 
nothing of fanaticism. He collected large ma- 
gazines of every kind ; he repaired and extend^ 
ed the fortifications^ obliging every person with- 
out distinction to work in his turn ; he formed 
such as were capable of bearing arms into regu- 
lar bodies, and endeavoured to add the stability 
of discipline to the impetuosity of enthusiasm. 
He sent emissaries to the Anabaptists in the 
Low-Countries, inviting them to assemble at 
Munster, which he dignified with the name of 
Mount-Sion, that from thence they might set 
out to reduce all the nations of the earth under 
their dominion. He himself wa^ un\yearied in 
attending to every thing necessary for the se? 

is Tttfe* ttlElAN OP THE 

corityor fncteafie o# the sedt) antmating h'm 
disciplei^ by his owft example to decline no la^ 
^^' bour, as well as to submit to every hardtiship ; 
, and their enthusia^ic passions being kept ft^an^ 
subsiding by a perpetual suc^esmott of exiiorttt-- 
tions, revels^ionsy and prophecies, they seeti^ed 
ready to undertake or to suffer any thing iii 
maintenance of their opinions. 

the bishop While they were thns employed, the bishof^ 
takes"ams of MuHster having assembled a considerable 
^^ ^ntiy, advanced to besiege the town. On hte 
approach, Matthias sallied out at the head ^ 
some chosen troops, attacked one quarter of hii^ 
' camp, forced it, and after great slaughter re- 
turned to the city loaded with glory and spoiL 
Intoxicated with this sucoess, he appeared itext 
day brandMhitig a spear, and declared, that, m 
imitation of Gideon, he would go forth with Ar 
handful of men and smite the host of the on-* 
May. godly. Thirty persons, whotri he named, fol- 
lowed him without hesitation in this wild entoN 
pris(^, and, rushing on the enemy with a framtio 
courage, were cut off to a tna». The death oi 
their prophet occasioned at first great coQstema^ 
tion among his disciples $ but JBoccoid, 1^ the 
same gifts and pretensions which haid gained 
John of Matthias credit, soon revived their spirits ai%dl 

Leyden ac- , i » » , i i , 

quires great hopcs to such B, dcgTce, that ho succeedra ih^ 

among the dcceased prophet m the same absolute ifirecftioti 

^^*P' of all their affairs. As he did not poi^ses^ that 

enterprising e^^^v^ge which distinguished iki$ 


' ■. 

{»^deeesMr,rbeisBt»fiicd himself witk ctnying 
on a defensive Mrar \ and, witliottt attemptiag to 
annoy the enemy by sallies, he waited for the 
ftoccoiirfi he eKpected fwm the Low-Coantries, 
tise arrival of uiirich was often forecohl and firo^ 
Rtised by their propliet& Bat thongli iess 4ar«- 
ing in action thad Matthias^ he was a wiider 
eOEithusiast, and of more unbounded ambition* 
Soon after the death, of his predecessor^ having 
by olRscure visions and prophecies^ prepared the 
multiltade for some extraordinary event, he strip^- 
ped himseU* naked, and, inarching througli the 
streets, procbimed with a loud voice, ^' That 
the kingdom of Sion was at hand ; tiiat what- 
ever was highest on earth should be bronght 
iow» and whatever was lowest should be exait- 
Od." in order to falfU this^ he cotamaaded the 
lurches, as the most lofty buiklmg& in the eity» 
to be lendled with the groand ; he degraded 
tfaeo^Mtors chosen by Matthias, and deprive 
Mg Cmpperd^tng of the oonselship, the high* 
Cat ottce in the commonwealtiit appointed him 
to edtecate the lowest and tnoet inliaiinoas, that 
ef common hangman, to which strange trap si* 
tion the other agreed, not only without mur* 
muring, but with the utmost joy ; and such was 
the despotic rigour of BoccoM*« administration, 
thiat he was called almoel; every day to perform 
sMae daly or other of hb wretched funotioa* 
in place of the deposed senators, he named 
twelve jadgtes, acadrdtngtothei>ttmberoftrib^ 
in fsf a43l, to preside in all afSEura ; retaining to 



^^^^ himself the same authority which Moses stti- 
ciently possessed as legislator of that peo|>le. 


Jcine 24. 

Not satisfied, however, with power or titles 
which were not supreme, a prophet, whom he 
had gained and tdtored^ having called the mul-^ 
titude together^ declared it to be the will of 
God, that John Boccold should be King of SioB, 
and sit on the throne of David. John^ kneel- 
ing down, accepted of the heavenly call, which 
he solemnly protested had been revealed like* 
wise to himself, and was immediately «.ckhow- 
ledged as Monarch by the deluded multitude. 
From that moment he assumed all the state and 
pomp of royalty. He wore a crown of goldf 
and was clad in the richest and most sumptu*^ 
ous garments. A Bible was carried cm his one 
hand, a naked sword on the other. A great 
body of guards accompanied him when he ap« 
peared in public. He coined money stamped 
with his own image, and appointed the great 
officers of his household and kingdom, among 
whom Cnipperdoling was nominated governor 
of the city, as a reward for his former submis* 

His linen- 
tious tenets 
knd con- 

Having now ^.ttained the height of power, 
Boccold began to discover passions, which he 
had hitherto restrained or indulged only in se- 
cret. As the excesses of enthusiasm have been 
observed in every age to lead to sensual gratifi* 
cations, the same constitution that is susceptit 



1[>leofthe former, being remarkably prone to book 
the latter, he instructed the prophets and teach- 
ers to harangue the people for several days con- 
cerning the lawfulness, and even necessity of 
taking more wives than one, which they assert- 
ed to be one of the privileges granted by God 
to the saints. When their ears were once ac- 
customed to this licentious doctrine, and their 
passions inflamed with the prospect of such un- 
bounded indulgence, he himself set them an ex- 
ample of using what he called their Christian 
liberty, by marrying at once three wive^, among 
which the widow of Matthias, a woman of sin- 
l^ular beauty, was one. As he was allured by 
beauty, or the love of variety, he gradually add- 
ed to thenumberof his wives, until they amount- 
ed to fourteen, though the widow of Matthias 
v^as the only one dignified with the title of 
Queen, or who shared witliJiim the splendour 
atid ornaments of royalty, ^fter the example 
of their prophet, the multitude gave themselves 
tip to the most licentious and undontrouled gra- 
tification of their desires. No pari remained 
satisfied with a single wife. Nofto use their 
Christian liberty, was deemed a crimCa Per- 
sons were appointed to search the houses for 
young women grown up to maturity, whom 
they instantly compelled to marry. Together 
with polygamy, freedom of divorce, its insepa- 
rable attendant, was introduced, and became a 
new source of corruption. Every excess was 
committed, of which the passions of men are 



boos: capable^ when restrained neither by the autho« 
rity of laws nor the sense of decency*; and by 
a monstrous and almost incredible conjunctiotty 
voluptuousness was engrafted on religion, and 
dissolute riot accompanied the austerities of fa* 
natical devotion. 



Aconfcde- MEANWHILE the Grefman princes were hiffh- 

racy against «» 

the Ana- \y offended at the insult offered to their dignity 
by Boccold*s presumptuous usurpation of royal 
honours; and the profligate manners of bis fol- 
lowers, which were a reproach to the Christian 
name, filled men of all professions with horror. 
Luther, who had testified against this fanatical 
spirit on its first appearance, now deeply la- 
mented it progress, and having exposed the de- 
lusion with great strength of argument, as well 
as acrimony of style, called loudly on all the 
states of Germany to put a stop to a phrenzy 
no less pernicious to society, than fatal to reli- 

* Prophets & Goncienatorum autoritaie juxta et exemplo^ 
totsl urbe ad rapiendas pulcherrimas quasque faemlnas discur- 
sum est. Nee intra paucos dies, iu tanta hominum turbd fere 
tilla reperta est sapra annum decimum quartutn quae situpnim 
passa noa ^rit Lamb. Hortens. p, 309^ Vulgo riris quinas 
e«t8e ttxorea, ploribus senas, DonimUis septenas & octonas. 
Paellas supra duodecimum setatis annum statim amare. Id. 
305. Nemo una contentus fuit> neque euiquam extra efTaetaii 
8t viris immaturas continenti esse licait Id. 307. Tacebobic, 
Qt sit suus bonor auribus, (fdanta bltrbari^ et roalHi^ usi aunt In 
pu«Hi» rttiandiaiiotidfim aptia niatriiaopio, id quod mthi neque 
ex vaoo^ neque ex yuYgi sermon ibus haustum est, sed ex ea ve- 
tvM, cui cura sic vitiatarum demandata fuit, auditum. Job. 
Cbrvinus, 316^ 


^ott. The Emperor, occupied with oth« earrt *®^* 
luid projects^ had not leisure to attend to duoh ^ r^^ > 
tt di<;tatit object; but th^ princes of th^ Eknpir^, ^^^ 
Assembled by the King of the Roititi.ii(Gi, voted A 
supply of med and money to the bishop of Mui^ 
^ter, who being unable to keep a sufficient ftt^ 
my on foot, had converted the siege of the towtl 
into a blockade. The forc^ raised in conse^ Bedege um 
qoenoe of this resolution^ were put und^r th^ ^"^ 
command of an officer of e^perietice> who wj^ 
{broaching the town towards the end of Spring, 
in the year one thousand five hundred and thil^ 
ty-five, pressed it more closely than formerly; 
hilt found the fortifications so strong, and so di^ 
ligently guarded, that he durst not attempt an 
assault. It Was now above fifteen months stnc6 
the Anabaptists had established their dominion 
in Monster; they hod during that time under^* 
* gone prodigious fatig'ue in working on the fot^ 
tifications, and performing military duty. Not^ May.. 
withstanding the prudent attention of their King ^Jj^sm 
to provide for their subsistence, and his frugal "^l^^ 
as well as regular o^conomy in their public 
meals, they began to feel the approach of fth 
mind. Several small bodies of their brethren, 
^ho were advancing to their assistance from thi 
Low-Countries, h«id been intercepted and cut 
to pieces ; and, while all Germany was ready to 
combine against th^m, they had no prospect of 
succour. But such was the ascendant which 
Boccotd had acquired over the multittide, and 
10 powerful the fascination of enthusiasm, that 


?^^/^ their hopes were as sanguine as ever, and tbejr 
v-«N-*^ hearkened with implicit credulity to the visions 
^^^- and predictions of their prophets, who assured 
.them, that the. Almighty would speedily inter- 
pose, in order to deliver the city. The faith, 
however, of some few, shaken by the violence 
and length of their suiferings, began to fail; 
but being suspected of an inclination to surren- 
der to the enemy, they were punished with im- 
mediate death, as guilty of impiety in distrust- 
ing the power of God. One of the King's wives, 
having uttered certain words which implied 
some doubt concerning his divine mission, he 
instantly called the whole number together, and 
commanded the blasphemer, as he called her, 
to kneel down, cut off her head with his owa 
hands; and so fdr were the rest from expressing 
any horror at this cruel deed, that they joined 
him in dancing with a frantic joy around the 
bleeding body of their companion. 

T^city By this time, the besieged endured the ut* 

June i. most rigour of famine; but they chose rather to 
suffer hardships, the recital of which is shocking 
to humanity, than to listen to the terms of ca- 
pitulation offered them by the bishop. At last 
a. deserter, whom they had taken into their ser- 
vice, being either less intoxicated with the fumes 
pf enthusiasm^ or unable any longer to bear such 
fclistress, made his escape to. the enemy. He in- 
formed their general of a weak part in the for- 
tifications, which he had observed, and assuring 
him that the besieged, exhausted with hunger 



and fatigue, kept watch there with little care, ®^^k 
ke offered to lead a party thither in the night. 
The proposal was accepted, and a chosen body 
of troops appointed for the service; who, scal- 
iag the walls unperceived> seized one of the 
gates, and admijtted the rest of the army. The 
Anabaptists, though surprised^ defended them* 
selves in the market-place with valour, height- 
ened by despair; but being overpowered by Junes*, 
numbers, and surrounded on every hand, most 
of them were slain, and the remainder taken 
prisoners. Among the last were the King and 
Cnipperdoling, The King, loaded with chains. Punishment 
was carried from city to city as a spectacle, to ^^h*,^.* 
gjratify the curiosity of the people, and was ex- sociates. 
iposed to all their insults. His spirit, however, 
was not broken or humbled by this sad reverse 
of his condition; and he adhered with unshaken 
firmness to the distinguishing tenets of his sect. 
After this, he was brought back to Munster, the 
scene of his royalty and crimes, and put to 
death with the most exquisite as well as linger- 
ing tortures, all which he bore with astonishing 
fortitude. This extraordinary man, who had 
been able to acquire such amazing dominion 
over the minds of his followers, and to excite 
commotions so dangerous to society, was only 
twenty-six years of age*. 

* Sleid. IdO^ &c. Tumultiium Anabaptistarum Liber tinus. 
Ant Lamberto Hortensio auctore ap. Scardium^ vol. ii. p. 298^ 
&c. De Misarabili Monasteriensiam Obsidione, &a libellu^ 
Antonii Corvini ap. Scar. 313« Annales Anabaptistici a Job. 
flenrico Ottio, 4to. Basileae^ 167^- C^r. Heersbachius Ifist. 
^n^l). edit, 1037, p. UO. 


of the feet 
since that 


ToCETHER with its Monarch, the kingdom 
of the Anabaptists oame to an end Their prin^ 
ciptes having taken deep root in the Low-Coun* 
tries, the party still subsists ther^, under the 
name of Mennonites ; but by a very singular re^ 
volution, this si^ct) so mutinous and sanguinary 
at its first origin, hath become altogether inno^ 
eent and pacific. Holding it unlawful to wage 
war, or to accept pf civil offices, they devote 
themselves entirely to the duties of private citi-i 
2ens, and by their industry and charity endea^ 
your to make reparation to human society for 
the violence committed by their founders*. A 
small number of this sect which is settled in 
England, retain its peculiar tenets concerning^ 
baptism, but without any dangerous mixture of 

and autho- 
rity of the 
league of 

The mutiny of the Anabaptists, though it 
drew general attention, did not so entirely en-» 
gross the princes of Oermany, as not to allow 
leisure for other transactions. The alliance be* 
tween the French King and the confederates afc 
Smalkailde, began about this time to produce 
great effects. Ulric, Duke of Wurtemberg, 
having been expelled his dominions in the year 
one thousand five hundred and nineteen, on ac-« 
count pf his violent and oppressive administra* 
tion, the house of Austria had got possession of 
his dutchy. That Prince having now by a long 
^ exiile atoned for the errors in his conduct, whicl^ 

f ]^ylQ Pictio&^ art 4nakafi!Ul^ 


were ihe effect rather of inexperience than of a 
tyrannical disposition, was become the object of 
funeral compassion. The Landgrave of Hesse^ ^^^^" 
in particnlar, his near rdation, warmly espoused 
his interest^ and used many efforts to recover 
for him his ancient inlieritance. But the King 
of the Romans obstinately refused to relinquish 
a valuable acquisition which his family had 
made with so much ease. The Landgrave, un* 
able to compel him^ applied to the King of 
France his new ally. Francis^ eager to em^ 
brace any opportunity of distressing the house 
of Austria^ and desirous of wresting from it a 
territory, which gave it footing and influence in 
a part of Germany at a distance from its other 
dominions, encoura^d the Landgrave to take 
arms, and secretly supplied him with a large 
sum of money. This he employed to raise 
troops ; and marching with great expedition to- 
wards Wurtemberg, attacked, defeated, and dis- 
persed a considerable body of Austrians, intrusts- 
ed with the defence of the country. All the 
Duke's subjects hastened, with emulation, to re- 
ceive their native Prince, and re-invested hinx 
with that authority which is still enjoyed by 
his descendants. At the same time the exercise 
of the Protestant religion was established in his 

Ferdinand, how sensible soever of this un- The King 
expected blow, not daring to attack a Prince maoscouftr 

*.Steii 172. BeDay, \S9, &c. 


BOOK whom all the Protestant powers in Germany 
'v-i»v-»^ were ready to support, judged it expedient to 
^^^^' conclude a treaty with him, by which, in the 
most ample form, he recogniaed his title to the 
dutchy. The success of the Landgrave's opera- 
tions in behalf of the Duke of Wurtemberg, 
having convinced Ferdinand that a rupture with 
a league so formidable as thatofSmalkalde, was 
to be avoided with the utmost care, he entered 
likewise into a negociation with the Elector of 
Saxony, the head of that union, and by some 
concessions in favour of the Protes»tant religioQi^ 
and others of advantage to the Elector himself^ 
he prevailed on him, together with his confede- 
rates, to acknowledgef his title as King of the 
Romans. At the same time^ in order to prevent 
any such precipitate or irregular election ia 
times to come, it was agreed that no person 
should hereafter be promoted to that dignity 
without the unanimous consent of the Electors; 
and the Emperor soon after conhrmed this sti- 

Paul m. These acts of indulgence towards the Pro- 

calls a ge- • . ^ 

nerai ooun- tcstants, and the close union into which the 
at Mantua. King of the Romaus seemed to be entering with 
the Princes of that party, gave great offence at 
Rome. Paul III. though he had departed from 
a resolution of his predecessor, never to consent 
to the calling of *a general council, and had 
promised, in the first consistory held after his[ 

f Sleid. 173* Coips Diplom. torn, iv, p. 2. U0« 


election, that he would convoke that assembly 
so much desired by all Christendoihi^ was no 
less enraged than Clement at the innovations in ^^^^' 
Germany, and no less averse to any scheme for 
reforming either the doctrines of the church, or 
the abuses in the court of Rome: But having 
bjeen a witness of the universal censure which 
Oement had incurred by his obstinacy with re- 
gard to these points, he hoped to avoid the 
same reproach by the seeming alacrity with 
vrhich he proposed a council; flattering himself, 
however, that such difficulties would arise con- 
cerning the time and place of meeting, the per« 
sons who had a right to be present, and the or- 
der of their proceedings, as would effectually 
defeat the intention of those who demanded 
that assembly, without exposing himself to any 
imputation for refusing to call it With this 
view he dispatched nuncios to the several courts, 
in order to make known his intention> and«that 
he had fixed on Mantua as a proper place in 
which to hold the council. Such difficulties as 
the Pope had foreseen, immediately presented 
themselves in great number. The French King 
did not approve of the place which Paul •had 
chosen, as the Papal and Imperial influence 
would necessarily be too great in a town situat- 
ed in that part of Italy. The King of England 
not only cpncurred with Francis in urging that 
objection, but refused, besides, to acknowledge 
any council called in the name and by the au- 
^britv Qi the Pope* The German Protestants Dec^is^ 


®^^^ having met together at Smalkald^, itisUted on 
\hi*n^ their origiaal dexnaod of a council to be held in 
^^^* Germany, and pleading the Emperor's promise^ 
as well as the agceement at Ratisbon to that e£^ 
fect^ declared that they would not consider an 
assembly held at Mantua as a legal or free jre- 
presentative of the church. By this diversity 
of sentiments and views, such a field lor intrigue 
and negooiation opened^ as made it easy fojr 
the Pope to assume the merit of Joeing eager to 
9^ssemble a council, while at the same time be 
could pot off its meeting at pleasure* The 
Protestants, on the other hand, suspecting hia 
designs, and sensible of the importance which 
thev derived from their union, renewed for tea 
years the league of Smalkalde, which now be- 
came stronger and more formidable by the ao* 
cession of several new membera*. 

3!!fc?°^r' During these transactions in Germany, the 
ditioD to Emperor undertook his famous enterprise against 
state oVthat thc piratical states in Africa. That part of the 


* This league was concluded December, one thousand fire 
hundred and thirty-iiye, but nol extended op signed tn fomt 
till September in the fdlowbg year. The Princes wbQ ^« 
ceded to it were^ John Elector of Saxony, Ernest Duke of Brans* 
wick, Philip Landgrave of Hesse, Uhic Duke qfWurtemberg, 
Barnim and Philip Dukes of Pomerania, John, George, and 
Joachim, Princes of AnhaH, Gebhard and Albert Counts of 
Mansfield, WiHiam Cotrnt of Nassau. The cities, Slrasbur^ 
Muremberg. Co«9tani;e, Ulro, Magdebnrgr Bremen, ReutltQgeQ» 
Haiibron> Memmengen, Lindau, Campen, Isna, BiUrac> Wind- 
sheim, Augsturg, Frankfort, Esling, Brunswick, Goslar, H^ik 
over, Gottingen, Eimbeck, Hamburg, Mhidfeft. ** v • • • 


African continent lying along the coast of the ^^oz 
>(f editerranean sea, which anciently formed the ^^^-^^'^^^ 
kingdoms of Mauritania and MasBylia, together ^^^^' 
with the republic of Carthage, and which is 
now known by the general name of Barbary, 
had undergone many revolutions. Subdued by 
the Romans, it became a province of their em-* 
pi re. When it was conquered afterwards by 
the Vandals, they erected a kingdom there. 
That being overturned by Belisarius, the coun^ 
try became subject to the Greek Emperors, and 
continued to be so until it was over-*run towards 
the end of the seventh century, by the rapid 
and irresistible arms of the Arabians. It re- 
mained for some time a part of that vast em^ 
pire which the Caliphs governed with absolute 
authority. Its immense distance, however, from 
the seat of government, encouraged the descen- 
dants of those leaders who had subdued the 
country, or the chiefs of the Moors, its ancient 
inhabitants, to throw off the yoke, and to assert 
their independence. The Caliphs, who derived 
their authority from a spirit of enthusiasm, more 
fitted for making conquests than for preserving 
them, were obliged to connive at acts of rebel* 
lion which they could not prevent ; and Barba* 
ry was divided into several kingdoms, of which 
Morocco, Algiers, and Tunis were the most 
considerable. The inhabitants of these king- 
doms were a mixed race, Arabs, Negroes from 
the southern provinces, and Moors, either na- 
tives of Africa, or who had been expelled out of 




Spain ; all zealous professors of the Mahometan 
religion, and inflamed against Christianity with 
a bigoted hatred proportional to their ignorance 
and barbarous manners. 

Rise of the 



and of the 


Among these people, no less daring; incon- 
stant, and treacherous, than the ancient inhabit 
tants of the same country described by the Ro- 
man historians, frequent seditions broke out, 
and many changes in government took place. 
These, as they affected only the internal state 
of a country extremely barbarous, are but little 
known, and deserve to be so: But about' the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century a sudden re- 
volution happened, which, by rendering the 
states of Barbary formidable to the Europeans, 
hath made their history worthy of more atten- 
tion. This revolution was brought about by 
persons born in a rank of life which entitled 
them to act no such illustrious part Horuc 
and Hayradin, the sons of a potter in the Isle of 
Lesbos, prompted by a restless and enterprising 
spirit, forsook their father's trade, ran to sea, 
and joined a crew of pirates. They soon dis- 
tinguished themselves by their valour and acti- 
vity, and becoming masters of a small brigan- 
tine, carried on their infamous trade with such 
conduct .and success, that they assembled a fleet 
of twelve galleys, besides miany vessels of smaller 
force. Of this fleet Horuc the elder brother, 
called Barbarossa from the red colour of his 
beard, wfts admiral, and H^^yradin second in 



command, but with almost equal autho):ity. 
They called themselves the friends of the sea, 
and the enemies of all who sail upon it; and 
their names soon became terrible from the Straits 
of the Dardanelles to those of Gibraltar. Toge- 
ther Avith their fame and power, their ambitious 
views extended, and while acting as Corsairs, 
they adopted the ideas, and acquired the talents 
of conquerors. They often carried the prizes 
which they took on the coasts of Spain and Italy 
into the ports of Barbary, and enriching the in- 
habitants by the sail of their booty, and the 
thoughtless prodigality of their crews, were wel- 
come guests in levery place at which they touch- 
ed. The convenient situation of these harbours, 
lying so near the greatest commercial states at 
that time in Christendom, made the brothers 
wish for an establishment in that country. An 
opportunity of accomplishing this quickly pre- 
sented itself, which they did not suffer to pass 
unimproved. Eutemi, King of Algiers, having 
attempted several times, without success, to 
take a fort which the Spanish governors of Oran 
had built not far from his capital, was so ill ad- 
vised as to apply for aid to Barbarossa, whose 
valour the Africans considered as irresistible. 
The active Corsair gladly accepted of the invi- 1516. 
tation, and leaving his brother Hayradin with 
the fleet, marched at the head of five thousand 
men to Algiers, where he was received as their 
deliverer. Such a force gave him the command 
of the town ; and as he perceived that the Moors 



^^^^ neither suspected him of any bad iiitentioil^ 

Vin^v-"*/ nor were capable with their light-armed troops 
Hwu^the of opposing bisdisctptined veterans, he secretly 
dwerbro- mofdered the Monarch whom he had come to 

ther, be- 
comes mas- assist, and proclaimed himself king of Algiers 

gi«Ts. ' in his stead. The aathority which be had thus 
boldly usurped, he endeavoured to establish by 
arts suited to the genius of the people whom he 
had to govern; by liberality without bounds to 
those who favoured his promotion, and by cruelty 
no less unbounded towards alt whom he had any 
ireason to distrust. Not satisfied with the throve 
which he had acquired, he attacked the neigb* 
bouring King of Tremecen, and having van- 
quished him in battle, added bis dominions to 
those of Algiers. At the same time, be continth 
ed to infest the coast of Spain and Italy with 
fleets which resembled the armaments of a great 
monarch, rather than the )ight squadrons^ of a 
Corsair. Their frequent and 6niel devastatiot£5 
1518. obliged Charles about the beginning of his reigfl, 
to furnish the marquis de Comares, gCrrernor of 
Oran, with troops sufficient to attack him. That 
officer, assisted by the dethroned King of Tre- 
mecen, executed the commission with stich spi- 
rit, that Barbarossa's troops being beat in seve- 
ral encounters, be himself was shut up in Tre- 
mecen. After defenfding it to the ladt extremi- 
ty, he was overtaken in atlenipting to make bis 
escape, and slain while he fought with an ob- 
stinate valour, worthy of his former fame and 



His brother Hayradtn, known likewise by the ^^^^ 
dame of Barbarossa, assumed the sceptre of Al- ^^t^-v*^ 
giers with the same ambition and abilities, but xhc^ 
with better fortune; His reign being undisturbed gj^j„ 
by the arms of the Spaniardsi which had full occu- j*» 
pation in the wars among the European powers* 
he regulated with admirable prudence the in- 
terior police of his kingdom, carried on his na*- 
val operations with great vigour, and extended 
his conquests on the continent of Africa. But 
perceiving that the Moors and Arabs submitted 
to his government with the utmost reluctance, 
and being afraid that his continual depredations 
would, one day, draw upon bim the arms of the 
Christians, he put his dominions under the pro- Puts his do- 
tection of the Grand Seignior, and received from ^^i^^e 
him a body of Turkish soldiers sufficient for his protection 

•^ of the Sul- 

security, against his domestic as well as his fa- tao. 
reign enemies. At last, the fant^ of his exploits 
daily increasing, Solyman offered him tlie com- 
mand of the Turkish fleet, as the only person 
whose valour and skill in naval aifaii's entitled 
hhn to command against Andrew Doria, the 
greatest sea-officer of that age. Proud of this 
dtsttnction, Barbarossa repaired to Constant!- 
ziople, and with a wonderful versatility of mind, 
mingling the arts of a courtier with the boldness 
o€ a Corsair, gained the entire confidence both 
of the Sultan and his Vizier. To them he com- 
municated a scheme which he had formed of 
making himself master of Tunis, the most flou- 
rishing kingdomj^ at that time, on the coast <^ 


^ v?^ Africa; and this being approved of by then?/ he 
obtained whatever he demanded for carryrrrg it 
into execution. 


His scheme His hopes of succcss in this tindertakinsr were 
iug Tunis, foundcd on the intc&tine divisions in the king- 
, dom of Tunis. Mahmed, the la&t King of that 
country, having thirty-four sons by different 
• wives, appointed Muley-Hascen, one of the 
youngest among them, to be his successor. That 
weak Prince, who owed this preference, not to 
his own merit, but to the ascendant which bis 
mother had acquired over a Monarch doating 
with age, first poisoned Mahmed his father in or- 
der to prevent him from altering his destinatiofii 
with respect to the succession ; and then^ with 
the barbarous policy which prevails wherever 
polygamy is permitted, and the right of succes* 
sion is not precisely fixed, be put to death all 
his brothers whom he could get into his power. 
Alraschid, one of the eldest, was so fortunate as 
to escape his rage ; and finding a retreat sunong 
the wandering Arabs, made several attempts^ 
by the assistance of some of their chiefs, to re- 
cover the throne, which of right belonged to 
him. But these proving unsuccessful, and the 
Arabs, from their natural levity, being ready 
to deliver him up to his merciless brother, he 
fled to Algiers, the only place of refuge remain- 
ing, and implored the protection of Barbarossa; 
who, discerning at once all the advantages which 
might be gained by supporting his title, teceiv* 


ed him with every possible demonstration of .bo^ok 
friendship and respect. Being ready, at that w*- -^/ 
time, to set sail for Constantinople, he easily ^^^^' 
persuaded Alraschid, whose eagerness to obtain 
a crown disposed him to believe or undertake 
any thing, to accompany him thither, pro- 
jxiising him effectual assistance from Solyman, 
ivhom he represented to be the most generous, 
as well as most powerful Monarch in the world. 
But no sooner were they arrived at Constanti- 
nople, than the treacherous Corsair, regardless 
of all his promises to him, opened to the Sultan 
a plan for conquering Tunis, and annexing it 
to the Turkish empire, by making use of the 
name of this exiled Prince, and co-operating 
with the party in the kingdom which was ready 
to declare in his favour. Solyman approved, 
with too much facility, of this perfidious pro- 
posal, extremely suitable to the character of 
its author, but altogether unworthy of a great 
prince. A powerful fleet and numerous army 
were soon assembled; at the sight of which the 
credulous Alraschid flattered himself that he 
should soon enter his capital in triumph. 

But just as this unhappy Prince was going its saceess. 
to embark, he was arrested by order 6f the Sul- 
tan, shut up in the seraglio, and was never heard 
of more. Barbarossa sailed with a fleet, of two 
hundred and fifty vessels towards Africa. After 
ravaging the coasts of Italy, and spreading ter- 
ror throus^h every part of that country, he ap- 
peared before Tunis s and landing his men^ gave 

VOL. ni. G 



BObk Qut that he came to assort the right of Alra^ 
chid) whom he pretended to hav^ left sick a- 
board the admiral galley. The fort of Goletta, 
which commands the bay,, soon fell iiUo his 
handS) partly by hi& own address, .partly by thfe 
treachery of its commander; and the inhabitants 
of Tunis, weary of Muley-Hascen'^s govenMnent, 
took arms, and declared for Alraschid with such 
2eal and unanimity, as obliged the £oi^er to 
fly so precipitately, that he left all his treasures 
behind him. The gates were immediately set 
•open to Barbarossa, as the restorer of their law- 
ful sovereign. But when Alraschid himself did 
not appear, and when instead of his name, that 
of Solyman akme was heard among the accla- 
mations of the Turkish soldiers marching into 
the town, the people of Tunis began to suspect 
the Corsair's treachery. Their suspicions be- 
ing soon converted into certainty, they ran to 
arms with the utmost fuiry, and surrounded the 
. citadel, into which Barbarossa had led his 
troops. But having foreseen such a revolution, 
he was not unprepared for it; he immediately 
turned against them the artillery on the ram^- 
parts, and by one brisk discharge, dispersed the 
numerous but undirected assailants, and forced 
them to acknowledge Solyman as their Sove^ 
reign, and to submit to himself as his viceroy* 

Ba^bM^ssa's HiS first Care was to put the kingdom, of 
power. which he had thus got possession, in a proper 
posture of defence. He strengthened the cita- 
del which commands the town ; and fortifying 



the Goletta in a re^ctlar manner, at vast ex* 
peiice, made it the principal station for his 
Aeet» and his great arsenal for military, as well 
as naval stores. Being now possessed of such 
extensive territories, he carried on hi^ depreda- 
tiorvs against the Christian States to a greater 
extent^ and with more destructive violence than 
ever. Daily complaints of the outrages com- 
mitted by his cruizers were brought :to the Em- 
peror by his subjects, both in Spain and Italy, 
All Christendom seemed to expect from him, Z^^^J^ 
aiFv Its greatest and most fortunate iprmce, that Tunis im- 
he would put an end to' this new and odious EmperoA 
species of oppression^ At the same time Mu* ^^J^if* 
ley^Hascen, the exiled King of Tunis, finding i535. 
toone of the Mahometan Princes in Africa wil- 
ling or able to assist him in recovering his 
throne, applied to Charles a^ the only person 
who could assert his rights in opposition to 
such a formidable usurper. The Emperor, 
equally desirous of delivering • his dominions 
from the dangerous neighbourhood of Barba- 
rossa ; of appearing as the protector of an un- 
fortunate Prince; and of acquiring the glory 
annexed in that age, to every expedition against 
the Mahometans, readily concluded a treaty 
with Muley-Hascen, and began to prepare for 
invading Tunis. Having made trial of his own 
abilities for war in the late campaign in Hun- 
gary, he was now become so fond of the military 
character, that he determined to command on 
this occasion in person. The united strength ^js i^pj^- 
of his dominions was called out upon an enter- cjqpedition. 


^ %^ ^ prise in which the Emperor was about to hazard 
v-*-vW his glorj, and which drew the attention of all 
^^^^' Europe. A Flemish fleet carried from the ports 
of the Low Country a body pf Geitnan in- 
fantry* i the gallies of Naples and Sicily took on 
board the veteran bands of Italians and Spa- 
niards, which had distinguished themselves by 
50 many victories over thie French ; the Empe- 
ror himself embarked at Barcelona with the 
flower of :the Spanish nobility, and was joined 
by a considerable squadron from Portugal, un- 
der the command of the Infant Don Lewis, the 
Empress's brother; Andrew Doria conducted 
his own gallies, the best appointed at that time 
in Europe, and commanded by the most skilful 
officers : the Pope farnished all the assistance 
in his power towards such a pious enterprise j 
and the order of Malta, the perpetual enemies 
of the Infidels,^ equipped a squadron, which> 
though small, was formidable by the valour of 
the knights who served on board it. The port 
of Cagliari in Sardinia was the general place of 
rendezvous. Doria was appointed High- Admiral 
of the fleet ; the command of the land-forces 
under the Emperor was given to the marquis de 

Lands in ON the sixtceuth of July, the fleet, consisting 

of near five hundred vessels, having on board 
above thirty thousand regular troops, set sail 
from Cagliari, and after a prosperous navigation 
J^nded within sight of Tunis, Barbarossa hav- 

* Harari Annales BrabanU i* 599» 
1* -: •: •. : . • 


ing received early intelligence of the Emperor's ^ 9^ ^ 
immense armament, and suspecting its destina- \,^-Jm^ 
lion, prepared with equal prudence and vigour ^^^^' 
for tKe defence of his new conquest. He called 
Jn all his corsairs from their different stations 5 
he drew from Algiers what forces could be spar- 
ed ; he dispatched messengers to all the African 
Princes, Moors as well as Arabs, and by repre- 
senting Muley-Hascen as an infamous apostate, 
prompted by ambition and revenge, not only to 
become the vassal of a Christian Prince,, but to 
conspire with him to extirpate the Mahommei* 
dan faith, he inflamed those ignorant and bigot*- 
ed chiefs to such a degree, that they took arms 
as in a common cause. Twenty thousand 
horse, together with a great body of foot, soon 
assembled at Tunis; and, by a proper distribu- 
tion of presents among them from time to time, 
Barbarossa kept the ardour which had brought 
them together from subsiding. But as he was 
too well acquainted with the enemy whom he 
had to oppose, to think that these light troops 
could resist the heavy-armed cavalry and veter- 
an infantry which composed the Imperial army, 
his chief confidence was in the strength of the 
Goletta, and in his body of Turkish soldiers 
who were armed and disciplined after the Eu- 
ropean fashion. Six thousand of these, under 
the command of Sinan, a renegado Jew, the 
bravest and most experienced of all his corsairs, 
he threw into that fort, which the Emperor 
immediately^ invested. As Charles had the i^ys siege 
command of the sea, his camp was so plentiful- 


\y supplied not only with the necessaries, but 
with all the luxuries of hfe, that Muley-Hasceu, 
**35. ^^^ jjg^j ^^^ heew accustomed to see war car- 
ried on with such order and nciagnificence, was 
filled with admiration of the t.mperor's power. 
His troops, animated by his presence, and con- 
sidering it as meritorious to shed their blood in 
such a pious cause, contended with each other 
for the posts of honour and danger. Three se? 
parate attacks were concerted, and the Ger- 
mans, Spaniards^ and Italians, having one of 
these committed to each of them, pushed them 
forward with the eager courage which national 
emulation inspires. Sinan displayed resolution 
and skill becoming the confidence which his 
master had put in him ; the garrison perfoitned 
the hard service on which they were ordered 
with great fortitude. But though he interrupt* 
ed the besiegers by frequent sallies, though tfae 
Moors and Arabs alarmed the camp with their 
continual incursions ; the breaches soon became 
so ronsiderable towards the land, while the fleet 
battered those parts of the fortifications which 
it could approach with no less fury and success, 
that an assault being given onall sides at once, 
Takes it by the place was taken by storm. Sinan, with the 
July 35. remains of his garrison, retired, after an obsti- 
nate resistance, over a shallow part of the bay 
towards the city. By the reduction of the Go- 
letta, the Emperor became master of Barba- 
rossa*s fleet, consisting of eighty-^even gallies 
and galliots, together with his arsenal, and 
three hundred caninon> mostly brass,, which were 




planted on the ramparts a prodigious nuuiber book 
in that age, and a remarkable proof of the 
strength of the fort, as well as of the greatpess 
erf the corsair's power. The Emperor marched 
into the Goletta through the breach, and turn- 
ing to NIuley*(Iascen who attended him, 
** Here," says he, ** is a gate open to you, by 
which you shall return to tal^e possession of 
, your dominions/' 

Barbarossa, though he felt the full weight 
of the blow which he had received, did not, 
Jiowever, lose courage, or abandon the defence 
of Tunis. But as the walls were of great ex- 
tent, and extremely weak; as he could not de- 
pend on the fidelity of the inhabitants, nor 
iiope that the Moors and Arabs would sustain 
the hardships of a siege, . he boldly determined 
to « advance with his army, which amounted 
to fifty thousand men^, towards the Imperial 
camp, and to decide the fate of his kingdom 
by the issue of a battle. This resolution he 
communicated to his principal officers, and re^ 
presenting to them the fatal consequences 
which might follow, if ten thousand , Christian 
slaves, whom he had shut up in the citadel, 
should attempt to mutiny during the absence 
of the army, be proposed as a necessary pre- 
caution for the public security, to massacre 
them without mercy before he began his march. 
They all approved warmly of his intention to 
fight ; but inured as they were, in their pirati- 

* Epistres des Princesj par Ruscelli, p. 119* &c. 



BOOK cal depredations, to scenes of bloodshed a»d 
cruelty, the barbarity of his proposal coticern- 
ihg the slaves, filled them with horror; and Bar- 
barossa, rather from the dread of irritating 
them, than swayed by motives of humanity, 
consented to spare the lives of the slaves. 

B^ros- ^^ ^^^® *^^^ the Emperor had beguq to ad- 
aa'taimy. vance towards Tunis; and though his troops 
suffered inconceivable hardships in their march, 
over burning sands, destitute of water, and ex- 
posed to the intolerable heat of the sun, they 
soon came up with the enemy. The Moors 
and Arabs, eitoboldened by their vast superiori- 
ty in number, immediately rushed on to the 
attack with loud shouts, bat their undisciplined 
courage could not long staod the shock of re- 
gular battalions ; and though Barbarossa, with 
admirable presence of mind, and by exposing 
liis own person to the greatest dangers, endea- 
voured to rally them, the rout became so gene- 
ral, that he himself was hurried along 'with 
them in their flight back to the city. There 
he found every thing in the utmost confusion; 
some of the inhabitants flying with their fa- 
milies and effects; others ready to set open 
their gates to the conqueror; the Turkish sol- 
diers prepg^ring to retreat; and the citadel, 
which in such circumstances might have afford- 
ed him some refuge, already in the possession of 
the Christian captives. These unhappy men, 
rendered desperate by their situation, had laid 
hold on the opportunity which Barbarossa 


dreaded. As soon as his army was at some ^^^^ 
distance from the town, they gained two of v»^vW 
their keepers, by whose assistance, knocking ^^^' 
off their fetters, and bursting open their prisons, 
they overpoTyered the Turkish garrison, and 
turned the artillery of the fort against their 
former masters. Barbarossa, disappointed and 
enraged, exclaiming sometimes against the 
false compassion of his officers, and sometimes 
condemning his own imprudent compliance 
with their opinion, fled precipitately to Bona. 

Meanwhile Charles, satisfied with the easy Tunis sur- 
and almost bloodless victory which he had gain- 
ed, and advancing slowly with the precaution 
necessary in an enemy's country, did not yet 
know the whole extent of his own good fortune. 
But at last, a messenger dispatched by the slaves 
acquainted him with the success of their noble 
effort* for the recovery of their liberty; and at 
the same time deputies arrived from the town, 
in order to present him the keys of their gates, 
and to implore his protection from military vio* 
lence. While he was deliberating concerning 
the proper measures for this purpose, the sol- 
diers, fearing that they should be deprived of 
the booty which they had expected, rushed sud- 
denly, and without orders, into the town, and I 
began to kill and plunder without distinction. 
It was then too late to restrain their cruelty, 
their avaric^, or licentiousness. All the outrages 
of which soldiers are capable in the fury of a 
storm, all the excesses of which men can be 


^^^^ guilty when their passions are heightened by 
v««ii^yW the contempt and hatred which .difference in 
^^^' manners and religion inspires, were, committed* 
Above thirty thoustod of the innocent inhabi- 
tants perished on that unhappy day, and ten 
thousand were carried away as slaves. Muley-? 
Hascen took possession of a throne surrounded 
with carnage, abhorred by his subjects^ on 
whom he had brought such calamities, and pitir 
ed even by those whose rashness had been the 
occasion of them. The Emperor lamented the 
falal accident which had stained the lustre of 
his victory; and amidst such a scene of horror 
there was hut one spectacle that afforded him 
any satisfaction. Ten thousand Christian slaves^ 
among whom were several persons of distinc? 
tion, met him as he entered the town ; and isl^ 
ling on their knees;^ thanked and blossed him a; 
tjieir deliverer. 

Rcstorestiie At the samc time that Charles accomplished 
to'his °^ his promise to the Moorish King, of re-esta- 
throne. blishing him in his dpminions, he did not ne- 
glect what was necessary for bridling the powec 
of the African corsairs, for the security of his 
own subjects, and for the interest of the Spanish 
crown: in order to gain these ends, he conclud- 
ed a treaty with Muley-Hascerf on the follow- 
ing conditions ; that he should hold the king- 
dom of Tunis in fee of the crown of Spain, and 
do homage to the Emperor as his liege lord^ 
that all the Christian slaves now within his do- 
minions, of whatever nation, should be get at 


liberty without ransom ; that no subject of the *^^^ 
Elmperor's should for the future be detained in v^^yl**^ 
servitude ; that no Turkish corsair should be ad- ^^^^' 
mitted into the ports of his dominions ; that free 
tr^e^ together with the public exercise of the 
Christian religion, should be allowed to all the 
Eroperor*s subjects ; that the Emperor should 
not Only retain the Goletta, but that all the 
other Bea-]>orts in the kingdom which were for- 
tified should be put into his hands; that Muley- 
Hascen should pay annually twelve thousand 
crowns for the subsistence of the Spanish garri- 
son in the Groletta ; that he should enter into 
no alliance with any of the Emperor's enemies, 
and should present to him every year, as an ac- 
knowledgement of his vassalage, six Moorish 
horses, and as many hawks^. Having thus 
settled the affairs of Africa ; chastised the inso- 
lence of the corsairs ; secured a safe retreat for 
the ships of his subjects, and a proper station to 
his own fleets, on that coast from which he was 
most infested by piratical depredations; Charles Aug. n. 
embarked again for Europe, the tempestuous 
Weather, and sickness among his troops, not 
permitting him to pursue Barbarossaf . 

* Du Mont Corps Diplomat ii. 128. Summonte Hist, di 
Napoli, iv 89- 

t Job. Etropii Diarium Expedition. Tanetanae, ap. Scard. 
v. ii. p. 320, &C. Jovii Eiistor. lib. xxxiv. 153> &c. Sandov. 
ii. \b^i &c. Vertot Hist, de Cbeval. de Malthe. Epistres des 
Princes, |)ar Ruscelli, traduites par Belleforest, p. 119, 1 20. &c. 
Anton. Pontii Consentini Hist. Belli adv. Barbar. ap. Matthsei 



The glory 
nrhich the 
Emperor - 


By this; expedition, the merit of which seems 
to have been estimated in that age, rather by 
the apparent generosity of the undertakiqg, th^ 
magnificence wherewith it was conducted, and 
the success which crowned it, than by the im- 
portance of the consequences that attended it, 
the Emperor attained a greater height of glory 
than at any other period of his reign. Twenty 
thousand slaves whom he freed from bondage, 
either by his arms, or by his treaty with Mu- 
ley-Hascen*, each of whom he clothed and fur- 
nished with the means of returning to their res? 
pective countries, spread all over Europe the 
fg^me of their benefactor's munificence, extolr 
ling his power and abilities with the exaggerar 
tion flowing from gratitude and admiration. In 
comparison with him, the other Moiiarchs of 
Europe made an inconsiderable figure. They 
seemed to be solicitous about nothing but their 
private and particular interests ; while Charles, 
with ^n elevation of sentiment which became 
the chief Prince in Christendom, appeared to 
be concerned for the honour of the Christiaq 
pame, and attentive to the public security and 


* .Summonte Hist, de Nap. vol. iv. p, 103. 









NFORTUNATELY for the reputation of book 
Francis I. among his contemporaries, his con- v^J^Jw 
ductj^.a^ this juncture, appeared a perfect con- -J^^^- 
trast to that of his rivals as he laid hold on thei of a new 
opportunity afforded him, by the Emperor's S^^^ 
having turned his whole force against the com- p^^^ 
mon enemy of Christendom, to revive his pre^ 
tensions in Italy, and to plunge 'Europe into a 
new war. The treaty of Cambray, as has been 
observed, did not remove the causes of enmity 
between the two contending Princes ; it cover- 
ed up, but did not extinguish the flames of dis- 
cord* Francis in particular, who waited with * 
impatience for a proper occasion of recovering 
the reputation as well as the territories which 


BOOK he had lost, convi^ned to carry on his negocia- 
\^^,^ tions in different courts c»gainst the Eni^eror, 
^^^^' taking the utmost pains to heighten the jealo'isy 
which many Princes entertained of* his power 
or designs, and to inspire the rest with the same 
suspicion and fear : among others, he applied to 
Francis Sforza, who, though indebted to Charles 
for the possession of the dutchy of Milan, had 
received it on such hard conditions, as rendered 
him not only a vassal of th*^ Empire, but a tri- 
butary dependant upon the Einperor. The hon- 
our of having married the Emperorjs niece, did 
not reconcile him to this ignominious state of 
subjection, which became so intolerable even to 
Sforza, though a weak and poor-spirited Prince, 
that he listened with eagerness to the first pro- 
posals Francis made of rescuing him from the 
yoke. These proposals were conveyed to him 
by Maraviglia, or Merveille, as he is called by 
the French historians, a Milanese gentleman 
residing at Paris ; and soon after, in oi^der to 
carry on the negociation with greater advan- 
tage, Merveille was sent to Milan, on pretence 
of visiting his relations, but with secret creden- 
tials from Francis as his envoy. In this cha- 
racter he was received by Sforza. But notwith- 
standing his care to keep that circumstance 
concealed, Charles suspecting, or having receiv- 
ed information of it, remonstrated and threaten- 
ed in such an high tone, that the Uuke and his 
ministers, equally intimidated, gave the world 
immediately a most infamous proof of their ser- 
vile fear of offending the Emperor. A$JMer- 


\feiBe had neither the prudeBoe nor the temper * yp*^ 
which the function wherein he was employed ^^^0^^^ 
required, they artfully decoyed him int6 a quar<> *^^ 
re], in which he; happened to kill his-antagionist, 
oaeof the Duke's domestics, and hs^ving instant^ December. 
iy seized hiih, 'they ordered him to be tried for 
tbat crime, and to be beheaded. Francis, no less 
•astonished at this violation of a character held 
sacred among the most uncivilized nations, than 
eiiraged at the insult offered to the dignity of 
his crown, threatened Sforza with the effects of 
his indignation, and complained to the Empe- 
ror, whom l^e considered as the real author of 
that unexampled outrage. But receiving no 
satisfaction from either, he appealed to all the 
Princes of Europe, and thought himself now 
entitled to take vengeance for an injury, which 
it would have been indecent and pusillanimous 
to let pass with impunity. 

Being thus furnished with a pretext for be- Francis dcs. 
ginning a war, on which he had already resolv- ^^^"^ 
ed, he multiplied his efforts in order to draw in 
other Princes to take part in the quarrel. But 
all his measures for this purpose were discon- 
certed by unforeseen events. After having sa- 
crificed the honour of the royal family of France ^ 
by the marriage of his son with Catharine of 
Medici, in order to gain Clement, the death* of 
that Pontiff had deprived him of all the advan- 
tages which he expected to derive from his 
friendship. Paul, his successor, though attach- 
ed bj{ inclination to the Imperial interest, seem- 



ed detenriitted to maintain the neutrality suita^ 
ble to his character as the common father of 
the contending Princes. The King of England^ 
occupied with domestic cares and projects, de- 
clined, for once, engaging in the affairs of the 
continent, and refused to assist Francis^ unless 
he would imitate his example, in throwing oflf 
Hisnego- the Papal sup rem acy. These disappointments 
with^thc led him to solicit, with greater earnestness, the 
1^^^^ aid of the Protestant Princes associate^ by the 
league of Smalkalde. That he might the more 
easily acquire their confidence, he endeavoured 
to accommodate himself to their predominant 
passion, zeal for their religious tenets. He af- 
fected a wonderful moderation with regard to 
the points in dispute ; he permitted Bellay, his 
envoy in Germany^ to explain his sentiments 
concerning some of the most important articles, 
in terms not far different from those used by 
the Protestants* ; he even condescended to in- 
vite Melancthon, whose gentle manners and 
pacific spirit distinguished him among the re- 
formers, to visit Paris, that by his assistance he 
might concert the most proper measures for re- 
conciling the contending sects which so unhap- 
pily divided the churchf. These concessions 
must be considered rather ais arts of policy, than 
the result of conviction; for whatever impresr 
sion the new opinions in religion had made on 


* Freheri Script Rer. German, iii. 354, ^c. Sleid. Hist. 
178. 183. Seckend. lib. iii. 103. 

t Camerarii Vita Ph. Melancthonis, 12**. Hag. 1655. 
p. 12. 



liis sisters, the Queen of li^ivarre and Duchess 
of Ferrara, the gaiety of Francis's owil temper, 
and his love of pleasure, allowed him little lei- 
sure to examine theological controversies. 


. But soon after he lost all the fruits of this irritates 
disingenuous artifice^ hy a step very inconsistent 
^tb his declarations to the German Princes. 
This step, however, the prejudices of the age, 
and the religious sentiments of his own subjects, 
rendered ^ it necfessary for him to take. His 
close union with the King of England, an ex- 
communicated heretic ; his frequent negocia- 
tions with the German Protestants ; but,* above 
all, his giving public audience to an envoy from 
Sultan Solyman, had excited violent 'Suspicions 
concerning the sincerity of his attachment to re- 
ligion. To have attacked the Emperor, who, 
en all occasions, made high pretensions to zeal 
in defence of the Catholic faith, and at the very 
juncture when he was preparing for his expedi- 
tion against Barbarossa, which ^ was then con- 
sidered as a pious enterprize, could not have 
failed to confirm such unfavourable sentiments 
with regard to ^Francis, and called on him to 
vindicate himself by some extraordinary demon- 
stration of his reverence for the established doc- 
trines of the church. Th^ indiscreet zeal of 
some of hi$ subjects, who had imbibed the Pro- 
testant opinions, furnished him with such an 
occasion as he desired.^ They had affixed to 
the gates of the Louvre, and other public places, 
papers containing indecent reflections on the 

VOL. III. . H' 


1 14 tHg BSiaN OF THE 

pf the immw wncfm^d in this iwh Action 
ware 4fMoy«re4 w4 Seized. The King, in or- 
der to avert th^ judgments? Mrhioh it wa,$ sup- 
posed their blasphemies might draw down upon 
Hm n»tipft, appointed ^ solemn proc^sgiion. 
The hply ^ iicr^r^^nt was g^rt ied through the 
city in gp^ftt pomp ; Jr^ncis wjilked nncav?re4 
before it, hearing i^ torch in his b^nds the 
princseB pf the blo^d snpp^ed the canopy over 
it; the npMes ni^rcfaed in order behiivL In the 
ff^ef^^e of thi(9 numerous assembly, the King9 
apGustomed to express hil»l^^f on every subject 
in strong and iiBimated liingnage, declared that 
if one of his bands, were infected with heresy, 
he would cut it off with the ether, and would 
not spare even his own children, if found guilty 
pf that crime. As a dreadful proof of his being 
in earitest, the six unhappy persons were pub- 
licly burnt before the procession was finished, 
with eirenmstances of the most shocking bar- 
barity attending their esecution^. 

Theyrcfiisc Xhb Priuces of the league of Sma&alde, 

to join Dim* ^ 

filled with resentment and indignation at the 
cruelty with which their brethren were treated, 
^ could not conjeeive Fraaeis to be sincere, when 

be ofiered to protect in Germany those very te-- 
nets, whioh be peisecuted with such rigour in 
his own dominions ; so that all Bray's art and 
eloquence in vindioating his master, or apolo- 

* Belcarii CoirnnenU Ser. Gallic. 646. Sleid. Hist 175, ^c. 



^i^mg for his coQduct» made but little impres* 
9tOD upon them. Tbey considered likewise^ that 
the Emperor, who hitherto had never employ*^ 
^ violence against the doctrines of the Reform* 
ers, nor even given them much molestation in 
their progress^ was now bound by the agree* 
tnent at Ratisbon, not to disturb such as had 
embraced the new opinions i and the Protestants 
wisely regarded this as a more certain 'and im* 
mediate security ,< than the precartons and dis* 
tant hopes with which Francis endeavoured to 
allure them. JBeeiides^ the manner in which ha 
had behaved to his allies at the peace of Cam* 
bray^ was too recent to be forgotten, and did 
not encourage others to rely much on his friend- 
ship or generosity. Upon all these accounts^ 
the Protestant Princes refused to assii^t the . 
French King in any hostile .attempt against the 
Emperor. . The Elector of Saxony, the most 
2;ealous among them, in order to avoid giving 
any umbrage to Charles, would not permit Me* 
lancthon to visit the court of Francei, although 
that Reformer, flattered perhaps by the in vita* 
tion of so great a Monarch, or hopii)g that his 
presence there might be of signal advantage to 
the Protestant, cause, discovered a strong inclin* 
ation to undertake the journey^. 

But though none of the many Princes who the rreoc^ 
envied or dreaded the power of Charles, would JliSL^to. 
second Francis's efforts in order to reduce and ^f*^^^* 

* Camerarii Vita Meian. 14?^ &c« 415. Seckend. Ijb. iii. 



•116 THE WElCK Or T«£ 

circumscribe' it, h(?, nCverthbliess, comihanded 
his army to advance towards the frohtiers of 
Italy. As his' s6le pretext for taking arms was 
that he might chastise the Duke ^of Milan for 
his insolent and cruel breach « of the law of na- 
tions, it might ha^e been • expected that the 
whole weight of his vengeance was to have fal- 
len On his tertitories. But on a sudden, and at 
their very commencement, the operations of 
war took another direction* Charles, Duke of 
Savoy, one of the least active and able Princes 
of the line- from which he descended, had mar- 
ried Beatrix of Portugal, the sister of the Em- 
pt^ess. By her great talents^ she soon acquired 
an absolute ascendant over her husband: and 
proud of her affinity to the. Emperor^ or allured 
. by tlte magnificent promises with which he flat- 
tered her ambition, she formed an union be*, 
tween the Duke and the Imperial court, ex* 
tremely inconsistent with that neutrality, which 
wise policy as well as the situation of his domi- 
nions had ^hitherto induced him to observe in all 
the quarrels between the contending MonarChs* 
Francis was abundantly sensible of the distress 
to which he might be exposed, if^ when he en- 
tered Italy, he should leave behind him the ter- 
ritories of a Prince, devoted so obsequiously to 
the Emperor, that he had sent his eldest son to 
"^ be educated. in the court of Spa/in, as a kind of 
. hostage for his fidelity. Clement the Seventh, 
who had represented this danger in a strong 
light during his interview with Francis at Mar- 
seillcfs, suggested to him, at the same time, the 


proper method of guarding against it, having book 
advised him to begin his operations against the 



Milanese, by taking possession of Savoy and jj^^ 
Piedmont, as the only certain way af securing ^^'^^^ . 
a communication with his own dominions. Fran-r savoy's do- 
cis, highly irritated at the Duke on many ac-r ^^^' 
counts, particularly for having Supplied the 
Constable Bourbon' with ttie money that ena* 
bled him to levy the body of troops which riiin? 
ed the French army in the fatal battle of Pavia; 
ivas not unwilling to let hihi now feel both how 
deeply he resented, and how severely he could 
punish these injuries. Nor did he want several 
pretexts which gave some colour of equity to 
the violence that he inttended. The territories 
of France and Savoy. lying contiguous to each 
other, and intermingled in many places, various 
disputes, unavbidable in such a situation, subr 
sisted between the two sovereigns concemiirg 
the limits of their respective property; and be- 
sides, Francis, in right of his mother Louise of 
Savoy, had large "claims upon the Duke her 
brother, for her share .in their father's succes- 
sion. Being upwilling, however, to begin hos-» 
tilities without some cause of quarreLmore spe- 
cious than these pretensions, many of which 
were obsplete, ahdrothers dubious, he demand- 
ed perlnisslon to march through 'Piedmont in/ 
his way toJJheMilanese> hoping that the Duke, 
from ao ejcqess of attachment to the Imperial in- . 
terest, might refuse this request^ and thus give a 
greater appearance of justice to all his operations 
Against him. But, if we may believe the hjstQT 

» ' 




rians of Savoy, who appear to be better inform^ 
ed with regard to this particular than those of 
France, the Duke readily, atid with a good 
grace, granted what it was not in his power to 
deny, promising free passage to the French 
troops as was desired ; so that Francis, as the 
only method now left of justifying the measures 
which he determined to take, was obliged to 
insist for full satisfaction with regard to every 
thing that either the crowr^^ of France or his 
Another Louise could demand of the house of 
Savoy*. Such an evasive answer, as might 
have been expected, being made to this requi- 
sition, the French army under the admiral Brion 
poured at once into the Duke's territories at 
different plac'es. The countries of Bresse and 
Bugey, united at that time to Savoy, were over* 
run in a moment. Most of the towns in the 
dutchy of Savoy opened their gates at the ap* 
preach of the enemy ; a few which attempted 
to make resistance were easilv taken t and be*- 
fore the end of the campaign, the Duke sB.rf 
himself strip^ied of all His dominions, but the 
province Of Piedmont, in which J;here Were not 
TOany plsuies in a condition to be f defended* 

The city of To complete thd Duke'i^ mtsfortutids, the city 
ojvers its pf Gcneva, the sovereignty of which he clatmedj^ 
and in st>tAe degree possessed, threw off hii? 
yoke, and its revolt drew along with it the loss 
of the adjadent territories. Geneva was, at tha^ 

» * 

* Histoire Genealugique de Savoyei par Gaichenoji» 2 toiti, 
fol. Ly<Jn, 1660. i. 639, &c. 




iiitie» an Imperial city ; and though under the 
direct dominion of its own bishops, and the re- 
mote sovereignty of the Dukes of Savoy, the 
form of its internal constitution was purely re- 
publican, being governed by syndics and a 
council chosesi by the citizens. From these 
distinct and often clashing jurisdictions, two o^ 
posite parties took their rise^ and had long sub- 
sisted in the state ; the one composed of the ad- 
Tocates for the privileges of the community, as* 
somed the name of Eignotz, or confederates in 
defence of liberty ; and branded the other, which 
supported the episcopal or ducal prerogatives^ 
with the name of Mammelukes or slaves. At isst. 
length, the Protestant opinions beginning to 
spread aiciong the citizens, inspired such* bb 
embraced them Vith that bokt enterprising 
spirit which always accompanied or was natu- 
rally produced by them in their first operations. 
^jRa both the Duke and Bishop were firom inte»- 
rest, from prejudice, and from political consider- 
ations, violent enemies of the Reformation, all 
the sew converts joined with warmth the party 
of the Eignotz -, and zeal for religion, mingling 
with the love of liberty, added strength to that 
generous passion. The rage and animosity oi 
two factions^ shut up wilbtn the same walls, 
occasioned frequent insurrections, which termi- 
nating mostly to the advantage of the friends 
of Uberty, they daily became more powerful. X. 

The Dnke and Bishop^ forgetting their an* 
cxent contests about jurisdietioiat, had limited ^ 


^ vf ^ gainst their cammoh enemies, and each attack^ 
v-*-vW ed them with his proper weapons. The bishop 

^^^' e^icommunicated the people of Genevans guilty 
of a double crime ; of impiety, in apostatising 
from the established religion ; s^nd of sacrilege^ 
in invading the rights of his see. The Duke 
attacked them as rebels against their lawfiiL 
Prince, and attempted to render himself master 
of the city, first by surprise, and then by oplea 

1534. force. The citizens, despising the thunder of 
the Bishop's censures, boldly asserted their in-^ 
dependence against the Duke; and partly by 
their own valour, partly by the powerful assise 
tance which they received from the canton of 
Berne, together with some small supplies both 
of men and money, secretly furnished by the 
King of France, they defeated all his attempts. 
Not satisfied with having repulsed him, or with 
remaining always upon the defensive themselves, 
they now took advantage of the Duke's inabili- 
ty to resist them, while overwhelmed by the 
armies of France, and seized several castles and 
places of strength which he possessed in the 
neighbourhood of Geneva; thus delivering the 
city from those odious monuments of its former 
subjection, and rendering the public liberty 
iriore secure for the future. At the same time 
the canton of Berne invaded and conquered the 
Pays de Vaiid, to which it had some pretentions. 
The canton of. Friburgh, though zei^lously at-^ 
tached to the Catholic religion, and having no 
subject of contest with the Duke, laid holc| on 
part of the spoils of that unfortunate PrincQ. 



A. great portion of these conqu^ts or usurpa* ^ ^f ^ 
tions being still retained by the two cantons^ y^^-^^^^ 
add considerably * to their power, and have be- ' . 

come the. most valuable part of their territories. 
Geneva^ notwithstanding many schemes and en- 
terprises of the Dukes of Savoy to re-establish 
their dominion over it, still keeps possession of 
its independence ; and in consequence of that 
blessing, has attained a degree of consideration, 
wealth, and elegance, which it could not other? 
wise have reached *. 

Amidst such a succession of. disastrous The Empe^ 
events, the Duke of- Savoy had no other re-, to a"^st the 
source but the Emperor's protection, which, up-j ^^^yf 
on his return from Tunis, he demanded with the 
most earnest importunity ; and as his misfor- 
tunes were occasioned chie'fly by his attach- 
ment to the Imperial interest, he had a just title 
to immediate assistance. Charles, however, 
was not in a condition to support him with that 
vigour and dispatch which the exigency .of his 
affairs called for. Most of the troops employed 
in the African expedition, having been raised 
for that service alone, were disbanded as soon 
as it was finished; the veteran forces under An- 
tonio de Leyva were hardly, sufficient for the . 
defence of the Milanese; and the Emperor's 
treasury was entirely drained by his extraordi- 
nary efforts against the Infidels. 

* Hist, de la Ville de Geneve,, par Spbn, 12®, Utr. 1685, 
p. 99. Hist, de la Reformation de Suisse, par Kouchat. Gen. 
1728, tom. iy. p. 294, ^c. torn. v. p. 216^ ^c. Mem. de Bel- 
Jay, 181. 

-i.- > ■ 


• -* 

But the death of Francis !^or2a^ occasioned^ 
according to some historians^ by the terror of a 
0(±Ul French invasion, which had twice been fatal to 
^aEKike ^*^ family^ afibrded the Einperor full leisure to 
of Milan, prepare for action. By this unexpected event, 
the nature of the war, and the causes of discord^ 
were totally changed. Francis's first pretext 
for taking arms, in order to chastise Sforza for 
the insult offered to the dignity of his crown, 
was at once cut off; but as that Prince died 
without issue, all Francis's rights to the dutchy 
of Milan, which he had yielded only to Sforza 
and his posterity, returnai back to him in full 
force. A^ the recovery of the Milanese was 
the favourite object of that Monarch, he instant^' 
ly renewed his plaim to it; and if he had sup^ 
ported his pretensions by ordering the power-^ 
ful army quartered in Savoy to advance without 
losing a moment towards Milan, he could hard^ 
ly have failed to secure the important point of 
possession. But Francis, who became less en- 
terprising as he advanced in years, and wlio was 
overawed at some times into an excess of catH 
tion by the remembrance of his past misfor^ 
tunes, endeavoured to establish his rights by ne^ 
prancis'8 gociatiou, uot by arms ; ^nd from a timid mo- 
to^that**^ deration, fatal in all great affairs, neglected to 
dutcby. . improve the favourable opportunity which pre- 
sented itself. Charles was more decisive in hiis 
operations, and in quality of sovereign, took 
possession of the duichy, as a vacant fief of the 
Empire. While Francis endeavoured to explain 
and assert his title to it, by arguments and me- 



moriafS) of employed various arts in order to re^ 
coficile the Italian powers to the thoughts of 
fais regaining footing in Italy, his rival was 8i« 
lently taking efifectual steps to prevent it. The 
Bmperor, however, was very careful not to dis« 
cover too early an ititentiou of this kind; but 
seaming to admit the equity of Francis's claim, 
he appeared soliditous only about giving him 
possess^ion in suth a manner as might not dis*> 
turb the' peace of Europe, t)r overturn the ba^ 
lance of power in Itlily, which the politicians of 
that Country were so desirous of preserving. 
By this artifice he deceived Francis^ and gaiu^ 
ed so much confidence with the rest of Europe, 
that, almost without incurring any suspicion, 
he involved the affair in new difficulties, and 
protracted the negociations at pleasure. Some- 
times he proposed to grant the investiture of 
Milan to the Duke of Orleans, Francis's second 
goti, sometimes to the Duke of Angouleme, his 
third soil ; as the Views and inclinations of the 
French c6urt varied, he transferred his choice 
riltemately from the one to the other, with such 
profotmd and well-conducted dissimulation, that 
neither Francis ♦nor his ministers seem to have 
penetrated his real intention; and all military 
Operations were entirely suspended, as if no- 
thing had remained but to enter quietly into 
possession of what they demanded. 

Dy«lN<>'tlie interval of leisure gained in this, chariw's 
mannf^r, Charles, on his return from Tunis, as- tS^^r 
jeniblpd the states both of IScily and Naples, ^^' 



and as they thought themselves greatly hononiv 
ed by the presence of their sovereign^and were 
no less pleased with the apparent disinteresfced* 
ness of his expedition into Africa^ than dazzled 
by the success which had attended his arms, he 
prevailed on them to vote: him such liberal sub- 
sidies as were seldom granted in that age.- This 
enabled him to recruit his veteran troops, to le- 
vy a body of Germans,, and to take every Qther 
proper precaution for executing or supporting 
the measures on which! he .bad determined; 
Bellay, the French envoy in Germany, having 
discovered tJ^e intention of Raising trdopsiiith^t 
country, notwithstanding all the pretexts em- 
ployed in order to conceal it, first alarmed his 
master with this evident proof of the Eoaperor's 
insincerity*. But Francis was so .possessed at 
that time with the rage of negociatiouy , in all 
the artifices and refinements of whioh Ws rtVal 
far stirpassed him, that instead of beginning big 
military operations, and pushing them with vi- 
gour, or seizing the Milan^e before the Impe*- 
rial army was assembled, he iMi.tisfied himself 
with making new offers to the Emperot*, in or- 
der to procure the investiture by his voluntary- 
deed. His offers were, indeed, so liberal and 
advantageous, that if ever Charles had intend^ 
ed to grant his demand, he co.ul4 not have r^ 
jec ted them with decency. He dexterously 
eluded them by declaring that until he consults 
ed the Pope in person, he could not. take his 

* Mem, dti Bellay, 1^2;. . 


final resolution with regard to tt point which so ^^P '^ 
xiesirly concerned- the peace of Italy. By this 
evasion he gained some farther time for ripen- 
ing tbe schemes which he had in view. 


The Emperor atfest advanced towards Rome, The Empc- 
and made his public entry into that city with Rome. 
extraordinary pomp ; but it being found neces- ^^"* ^' 
sary to remove the turns of an ancient temple 
of Peace, in order to Widen one of the streets 
through which the cavalcade had to pass, all 
the historians take notice of this trivial circum- 
stant^e, and they are fond to interpret it as an 
omen of the bloody war that followed. Charles, 
it is certain, had by this time banished all 
thoughts of peace ; and > at last threw off the 
maskj with which he had so long covered his 
designs from, the court of France, by a declara- 
tion of his sentiments no less singular than ex- 
plicits The French ambassadors having in their 
master^s name demanded a definitive reply to 
his propositions concerning the investiture of 
Milan, Charles promised to gfve it next day in 
presence of the Pope- and Cardinals assembled 
in full consistory.' These being accordingly His public 
' met, and all the foreign ambassadors invited to against 
attend, the Emperor stood* up, and addressing 
himself to the Pope, expatiated for some time 
on the sincerity of his own Wish^ds for the peace 
of Christendom, as well as his abhorrence of 
war, the miseries of which he ♦ enumerated at 
great length, with studied and elaborate oratory; 
he complained that all ^his endeavours to pre- 


J86 THE REION QF 'riflB 

serve the tranquillity of Europ? had hHberU> 
b^en defeated by the re^tle^S and unjust ambi^ 
tioD of the French King ; that even during his 
minority he had proofp of the unfriendly an4 
hostile intentions of that Monarch ; that after- 
guards, he had Openly attempted to wrest from 
hioi the Imperial crown which belonged to bint 
by a title no less ju^t than natural ; that he had 
next invaded his kingdoni of Navarre ; that not 
satisfied with this, he bad attacked bis territo^ 
ries as well a^ those of his allies both in Italy 
and the Low-Countries ; that when the valour 
of the Imperial troops, rendered* irresistible by 
the protection of the Almighty, had checked 
his progress, ruined bis armies, and sei;sed his 
person, he continued to pursue by deceit what 
he had undertaken with injustice ; that he ha4 
violated every article in the treaty of Madricl, 
to which he owed his liberty, and as soon as he 
returned to his dominions to(^ measures for r^ 
kindling the war whi^b that pacification bad 
happily e^tingui^ed; that when new misfor^^ 
tunes compelled him to sue again for peace at 
Cambray, be concluded and observed it with 
equal insincerity: that soon after he had^form- 
ed dangerous connections with the heretical 
Princes in Germany, and incited them to dis- 
turb the tranquillity of the Empire ;. that now 
he had driven tl^ Duke of Savoy, a Prince mar-., 
ried to a sii^ter of the Empress, and joined ia 
close alliance with Spain, out of the greater 
part of his territories i that after injuries so of- 
ten repeated, and amidst iso many sources of 



fUsA^rd, all hope of amity or concord became 
d^perate ; and though he himself was still wiU 
liQg to grant the investiture of Milan to one of ^^^ 
the Princes of France, there was little probabi- 
lity of that ereat taking plMe, as Francis^ on 
the one hand, would not consent to what was 
necessary for aecnriag the tranquillity of £u- 
rope, nor on the other, coi^ he think it reasons- 
able or safe to give a rival the unconditional 
possession of all that he demanded. ^' Let us chaOeng^ 
not, however, added he, continue wantonly to giT<i^^'"' 
shed the blood of our innocent subjects ; let us *^ 
decide the quarrel man to man, with what arms 
he pleases to chuse, in our shirts, on an island, 
a bridge, or tiboard a galley moored in a river ; 
let the dutohy of Burgundy be put in deposit on 
his part, and that of Milan on mine; these shall 
he the prize of the conqueror ; and after that, 
lot the united forces of Germany, Spain, and 
France, be employed to humble the power of 
the Turk, and to extirpate heresy out of Chris* 
tendom. But if he, by declining this method 
of terminating our di&rences, renders war ine- 
vitable, nothing shall divert me from prosecut- 
ing it to such extremity, as shall reduce one of 
us to be the poorest gentleoian in bis own do< 
minions. Nor do I fear that it will be on me 
this misfortune shall fall ; I enter upon action 
with the fairest prospect of success ; the justice 
<^ my cause, the union of my subjects, the 
number and valour of my troops, the expe- 
rience and fidelity of my generals, all combine 
tQ ensure it. Qf all these advantages, the King 


J 53^. 

BOOK of France is destitute ; arid were my resources 
no tnore certain, and my hopes of victoty no 
better founded than his, I would instantlythrow 
myself at his feet, and with folded hands, and a 
rope about my neck, implore' his mercy*." - 

• This long haraifigue the Emperor delivered 
with an elevated voice, a haughty tone, and the 
greatest vehemence of expression and gesture. 
The French ambassadors, who did not fully 
comprehend. his meaning, as he spake in the 
Spanish tongue. Were totally disconcerted, and 
at a loss how they should answer such an un- 
expected invective ; when one of them began to 
vindicate his master's conduct, Charles interpos- 
ed abruptly, and would not permit him to pro- 
ceed. The Pope, without entering into any 
particular detail,^ satisfied himself with a short 
but pathetic recommendation of peace^ together 
with an oifer of employing his sincere endea- 
vours in order to procure that Messing to Chris- 
tendom; and the assembly broke up in the 
greatest astonishment at the ^ extraordinary 
scene which had been exhibited. In no part of 
thc^o- his conduct, indeed, did Charles ever deviate so 
faTh mea-'^ widcly from his general character. Instead of 
,»ur€. ^j^g.^ prudent recollection, that composed and 

" regular deportment so strictly attentive to de- 
corum, and so admirably adapted to conceal his 
own passions^ for which he was at. all other 
times conspicuous, he appears on this occasion 
before one of the most august assemblies in 

* Bellay, lt)9, Sandov. Histor. del Empen ii. 226. 



l^urope, boasting of his own power and exploits 
with insolende ; inveighing against his enemy 
"writh inde<:ency ; and challenging him to com- 
bat with an ostentatious valoiir, more becoming 
a chiampipn in romance, than the first Monarch 
ia Christendom. But the well-known and 
powerful operation of continued pro^erity, as 
well as of exaggerated praise, eveft upon the 
• firmest minds, sufficiently accounts for thi^ 
seeming inconsistency. After having compel- 
led Soly man to retreat, and having stripped 
JBarbarossa of a kingdom, Charles began to con- 
eider his arms as Jnvincible. He had been en- 
tertained) ever since his return from Africa, with 
l*epeated scenes of triumphs and public rejoic- 
iiigS'; the orators and poets of- Italy^ the most 
elegant at that time in Europe, hs^ exhausted 
th0ir genius in panegyric on his Conduct and 
merit, to which the astrologers added magnifi- 
cejat promises of a more splendid fortune still i^i 
Store. Intoxicated with all these, hie forgot his 
usual reserve and moderation, and was unable 
to restrain this extravagant sally of vanity^ 
which beicame the more remarkable, by being 
both So unqommon and so public. 

(He himself seems to have been immediately 
sensible of the impropriety of his behaviour^ 
and when the French ambassadors dismanded 
next day a more clear explanation of what be 
had said concerning the combat, he told them 
that they were not to consider his proposal as 
a' formal challenge to their master, but. as art 




May 6. 


Expedient for prerentingMooddied; lie endei* 
VdiBt^ to soften several expreisdions iahis dis- 
4em3tde ; md spoke in tetnis f oiil of respect te- 
w&tti^ Francis; Out though )ldn<i d'vgkkt ftpology 
}%ras^ f3kt ftotn bking suiScieivt tOTeaw^ve the of- 
ieace ^idh had been given, Fraotcb, by an uu- 
^ccouiD^able inifotuatioi]^ oontixmed toneg&ciwM, 
»^ if k had still been possible to bring tfaeir dif- 
fepences lo ^ p^iod by an amicable c<Mnposi- 
tk^. 0]^lesi» fitidmg him m eager to xma into 
tJie sMtre, iwbtmedthe deception, aind t^ seem- 
ing to ti^Steti to ^his |Hropoi»i}s, gained farther 
tittle to f«r<?{)ai^ for the ^^ectitioti of Ins 01m 
•designs*"' -^ ^ . - ^ 

' « . . . ■ , 

At last, tike IiiYperral amiy asj^iefmbled on the 
frcmtiers of tlie MUattnefte^ to^ adKiount of forty 
thousand foot and ten thousand hor8e> whtb 
that of France ^ncampcfd near VercelH in Pied- 
Inont^ >beinfg greatly inferiw in ntrmber, ai«d 
weakened t!>y tkedepart^are <5f a b^y of Svris*, 
^w*K)m Chatles ^rt-tfuMy persuaded Ihe^opi^h can- 
tmis to recal, that l^hey Might not serve against 
the Dttke of 15avoy, t*ieir ancient aWy. The 
French general, nOt daring t4» risque a battle, 
retired as soon as the Imperialists advanced. 
Iphe •E»fi!|)€«r*or put hiufiself at the head of "his 
rfbrces, ^licih the Marqiris dd Owasto, thfe 
l>irke of Alva, and Ferdinand de Gonaaga com- 
manded ander him, l^ugh tlie supreme direc- 
tion 'of the wlwle was committed to Antonio de 

/ Mem. detk\\ay/Q<^5, ^c. 



Leyv^ whose abilities and experience justly •^f* 
entitled him to that distinction. Charles soon 
discovered his intention not to confine his op&f 
rations to the recovery of Piedmont and S^ftvoy, 
but to pufih forward and invade the southern 
provinces of France^ This scheme be had long 
meditated, and had long been taking measuri^ 
for cKecuting it with such vigour as might eUt* 
sure success. He had remitted large sums to 
his sister, the governess of the Low-Countries» 
and to his brother, the King of the Romans, in- 
structing them to levy all the forces in their 
power, in order to form two separate bodies, 
the one to enter France on the side of Picardy, 
the other on the side of Champagne; while he, 
with the main army^ fell upon the opposite 
frontier of the kingdom. Trusting to these vast 
preparations, he thought it impossible that 
Francis could resist so many unexpected attacks, 
on such different quarters ; ^.nd began his enter«> 
prise with such confidence of its happy issue, 
that he desired Javius the historian, Ibo make a 
large provisijon of paiper sufficient to record the 
victories which he was going to obtain. 

His ipinisters and generals, instead of enter- 
taining the same sanguine hopes, represented to 
him in the strongest terms the danger of leading 
his troops so far from his own tierritories, to 
such a distance from, his magazines, and into 
provinces which did not y iMd sufficient. su|i)sis« 
tenee for their own inhabitants. They entreat-* 
ed him io consider the ine&haus^ble res^urccf? 




of Frairce in maintaining a. defensive war, and 
the active. z^al with which a gallant nobility, 
woidd serve a Prince whom they loved, in re- 
fuelling tbe enemies of their country ; they re- 
called to bis remembrance the fatal miscarriage 
of Bourl^n and Pescara, when they ventured 
upon the same enterprise under circumstances 
whJch seemed as certain to promise success 3 ^ 
tlie- Marquis del Guasto, in particular, fell on 
bis knees, and conjured him to abandon the un- 
dertaking as desperate. But many, circumstan- 
ces combined in leading Charles to: disregard 
all their remonstrances. He could seldom be 
brought^ on any occasion, to depart from a re- 
solution which he had once taken ; he was too 
apt to under-rate and despise the talents of his 
rival the King of France, because they differed 
so widely from his owri^ he was blinded by the 
presumption which accompanies prosperity; 
and. relied, perhaps, in some degree, on the 
prophecies which predicted the increase of his 
own. grandeur. He not only adhered obstinate- 
ly, to bis own plan, but determined to advance 
towards France without waiting for the reduc- 
tion of any part of Piedmont, except such 
towns as ivere ab^lutely necessary for preserv- 
ing bis communication with the Milanese. 

part of the 
Duke of 

/The. Marquis de Saluees, to whom Francis 
bad entrusted the cpmmbnd of a small body of 
whUcTO.'^^ troojps left for the crefentie of Piedmont, render- 
ed this more easy than Charles had any reason, 
to e2:pect. That nobleman, educated in the 



€K>urt of France, distinguished by continual 9^^^ 
joiarks of the King's favour, and honoured bq 
lately with a charge of such importance, . sud* 
denly, and without any proyocation or pretexjt 
of disgust, revolted from his benefactor. His 
motives to this treacherous action were as child- 
ish as the deed itself was base. Being strongly 
possessed with a superstitious faith in divina* 
tipn and astrology, he believed with full a^sjur- 
ance, that the fatal period of the French i^ation 
wa^ at hand; that on its ruins the Emperor 
would establish an universal monarchy, that; 
therefore he ought to follow the dictates of 
prudence, in attaching himself to his rising for- 
tune, and could incur no blame for deserting a 
Prince whom Heaven had devoted to destruc- 
tion^. His treason became still more odious, 
by his employing that very authority with 
which Francis had invested hioii in. order to 
open the kingdom to his enemies. Whatever 
measures were proposed or undertaken by the 
officers under his command for the, defence, of 
their conquests, he rejected or defeated. What- 
ever properly belonged to himself, as com- 
mander in chief, to provide or perform for that 
purpose, he totally neglected. In this maI^ler, 
he rendered towns even of the greatest conse- 
quence untenable, by leaving them destitute 
either of provisions, or ammunition, or artillery, 
,or a sufficient garrison; and the Imperialists 
must have reduced Piedmont in as short a tim^ 
as was necessary to march through it, if Mgnt- 

' * Bellay, 222, a. 246, b. , • 

Id4 tHE *EIGN OP tttE 

^ V? * t*^fij^, the governor of Fos&Ano, had tioty by ati 
^•i^vw extraordinary effort of courage and militaiy 
**^ conduct) detained them itimost a month before 
that inconsiderable p\Hte. 

Francis's fly thIs HiefitorioM and Seasonable service, 

plan for the , . ■ i . ^ir* • . • /• 

defence of hc gkuied hi9 master sufficient time for assem* 
d^°^' blitt^ his fortes, and for concerting a system of 
defence against a danger which he now saw to 
be inevitable. Francis fixed upon the only 
proper and effectual plan for defeating th^* 
invasion of a powerftll eneiiiy; and his pru^ 
deinse ift ohusing this plan, as well as his per- 
severance in eixecnting it, deserve the greater 
]^raiy9^,> as it was etjiially contrary to hi^ own 
natural temper, and to the genius of the Fi^ench 
nation. He determined ^o remain altogether 
ttpc^ the defensive 5 nevel- to heMrd a battle, 
W even a' great skirmish, Without <;ertainty of 
Success ; to fortify his camps in a reguliir man* 
feer ; to throw garrisons only Into toWns of great 
strength ; to depi^ive the enemy of subsistence, 
by laying waste the country before them ; and 
to save the whole kingdom, by sacrificing on^ 
Entruste of its pFOvluce^ The execution of this plan 
rency" ith he Committed entirely to the marechal Moat- 
ti'w^T' ttiorehciy, whb was tlie author of it ; a man 
woriderftiHy fitted by nature for such a trust 
Haugh'ty, seveTtp, confident in his own abilities, 
and despising those of other men ; incapable 
of being tiiverted from any resolution by re- 
monstrances or entreaties ; and, in prosecuting 
any scheme, regardless alike of love or of pity. 



Montmorency inade choice o^* strong ^oo« 

eawp under the wiJ^ Qf A^ignQih ^t thi^ Ci^Br. 

fluence of the Rhone and tb^ Dui'^ft/^e, ^nc? Otf lul'^^' 

which plentifully supplied his troops with all camps at 
]iiece€i9£irie6 ivimK the inland pravuic^s, s^nd <;he . 
other covered hi$ capap q^ thftt side whwei pA 
vraa mwt prahaWe the e^emy ^wW aippFCfach. 
He labowed wUb wnw^ari^d iadqsfcry to i^ndw 
the fortific^ations of this i^amp in^piregnahk, w^ 

*^aembl^d there a co^sidemM? ariny, thcmgh^ 
gjreatly iiiferiai: to th^^ (^ th^ WWy > wh^l^ 
the King with^ another borfy €^tjro<£>p& ei^i:a^p^4 
^t Valence higher up <he Rhone- Marseilles 
8i,nd Aries were the o^^ly towos be thwghct it 

^ necessary to defend ; the lariKier» . in^ order <iq 
retain tke cQininjaiid of the sea; the latter^ as 
the harrier of tlie province of Lapgpedoc , an4 
^ch of these he famished with nyaf^e^otti^ garri^ 
sons of his best trodps> conuivanded . by olfioers 
on whose fidelity and valou r hejcoi^ld rely. The 
inhabitants of the other towns, as well as of the 
open country, were cOfmpelled to ab^ndo^ their 
houses, and were conducted to the moiui tains, 
to the camp at Avignon, or to the inland pro- 
vinces. The fortificatiojts of such places as 
flight have ' afforded shelter or defence t9 the 
enemy, were throMrn" dawn. Corn, ft>rage, and 
provisions of every kind, were carried away or 
destroyed; all tiie n^ills aud^vens were ruined^ 
and tlie wells filled up of rendered useless. The 
devastation eKtended from the Alps to Mar- 
seilles, and from the sea to the confines of Daur 
phine j nor does history vafFord any instance 



among civilized nations, in which this cruel 
expedient for the public safety was employed 
with the same rigour. 


Charles en- At length, the Empcror arrived with the van 
voncc. of his army on the frontiers of Provence, and 
was still so possessed with confidence of success, 
that during a few days, when he was obliged to 
halt until the rest of his troops came up>> he 
began to divide his future conquests among his 
officers s and as a new incitement to serve him 
with zeal, gave them liberal promises of offices, 
lands, and honours^ in France *. The face of 
desolation, however, which presented itself to 
him, when be entered the country, began to 
damp his hopes; and convinced him that a Mo* 
narch, who, in order to dii^tress an enemy, had 
voluntarily ruined one of his richest provinces^ 
would defend the rest with desperate obstinacy. 
Nor was it long before he became sensible that 
Francis's plan of defence was as prudent as it 
appeared to be extraordinary. His fleet, on 
which Charles chiefly depended for subsistence, 
was prevented for ^ome time by contrary winds, 
and other accidents to which naval operations 
are subject, from approaching the French coast; 
even after its arrival, it afforded at best ,a pre- 
carious and scanty supply to such a numerous 
body of troops f ; nothing was to be found in 
the country itself for their support ; nor could 
they draw any considerable aid from the ; domi* 
Tiions of the Duke of Savoy, exhausted already: 

^ Bellay, 266, a. f SaadoY. ii. 231, 


by maintaining two great armies. The Emperor ^ ^^ ^ 
was no lipss embarrassed how to employ, than v^s^vW 
how to subsist his forces; for though he was ^^^^" 
now in possession of almost an entire province, 
lie could not be said to have the command of 
it, while he held only defenceless towns ; and 
while die French, besides their camp at Avig- 
non, continued masters of Marseilles and Aries. 
At first he thought of attacking the camp, and 
of terminating the war by one decisive blow ; 
but skilful officers, who were appointed to view 
it, declared the attempt to be utterly impracti- 
cable. He then gave. orders to invest Marseil- Besieges 
les and Aries, hoping that the French would 
quit. their advantageous post in order to relieve 
them; but Montmorency adhering firmly to 
his plan, remained immoveable at Avignon, and 
the Imperialists met with such. a warm recep- 
tion from the garrisons of both towns, that they 
relinquished their enterprises with loss and dis- 
grace. As a last effort, the Emperor advanced 
once more towards Avignon, though with an 
army harassed by the perpetual incursions of 
small parties of the French light troops, weaken- 
ed by diseases, and dispirited by disasters, which 
seemed the more intolerable, because they were 

During these operations, Montmorency Montmo- 

* 1 ^ /» rencv*s for- 

found himself exposed to greater danger from titudem 
his own troops than from the enemy; and their hispiln^of 
inconsiderate valour went near to have precipi- ^^*^°*^ 
tated the kingdom into those calamities, which 


BOOK he with such industry and caution hadendeat 
^im^^^^ voured to avoid. Unaocustoxned t© behold an 
^^^^' enemy rataging their country almost without 
contro)!!^ impatient of such long inaction ; uii-r 
acquainted with the slow and remote, but cer- 
tain effects of Montmorency's system of defence; 
the French wished for a battle with na less ar^ 
dour than the Imperialists. They considered 
the conduct of their general as a di^raoe to 
their country. His caution they imputed to 
timidity ; his circumspection, to want of spirit j 
and the constancy with which he pursued his 
plan, to obstinacy or pride. These reflections, 
whispered at first among the soldiers and subaU 
terns, were adopted, by decrees, by officers of 
higher rank ; and as many of them envied Mont* 
morency's favour with the King, and more were 
dissatisfied. with his h^rsh disgusting manner; 
the discontent soon great in his camp, 
which was filled with general murmuriogsf, and 
almost open complaints against his measures. 
Montmorency, on whom the sentiments of his 
own troops made as little impression as the in? 
suits of the enemy, adhered steadily to his sys- 
• tern ; though, in order to reconcile the army to 
his ma-xiihs, no les>3 contrary, to ,the genius of 
the nation, than to the ideas of war among un^ 
disciplined troops, he assumed an unilsual affa- 
bility in his depx>rtmientj» and often .explained, 
with great condescension, the motivies of hid 
conduct, the advantages which had already re- 
sulted from it, and the certain success with 
which it would be attended. At last, Francis 


Joined his arttty at Avignon, which having re- 
ceived several reinforcements, he now consideis 
ed as of stivngth suiBcient to face the enemy. ^^^' 
As he had put no small constraint upon hitnself, 
in consenting that his troops should remam so 
long upon the defensive, it can hardly be doubt* 
^d but that hid fondness for what was daring 
and splendid, added to the impatience both of 
Officers arid soldiers, would at last have over- 
ruled Montttibrency's salutary caution*. 

Happily the retreat of the enemy delivered '^f '^®^*^* 

1. ®"" wretch- 

the kingdom from the danger which any rash ed condition 
resolution might have occasioned. The Empe* perial "* 
ror, after spending two inglorious months iii °^^' 
Provence, without having performed any thing 
suitable to his vast preparations, or that could 
justify the tonfidence with which he had boast- 
ed of his own power, found that, besides Anto- 
nio de Leyva, and other officers of destinction, 
he had lost one half of his troops by diseases, 
Or by famine ; land that the rest were in no con- 
dition to struggle any longer with calamities, 
hy whitih so many of their companions had pe- 
rished. Necessity, therefore, extorted from him 
orders to retire ; and though he was some time 
in motion before the French suspected his inten- 
tion, a body of light troops, assisted by crowds 
bf peasants^ eager to be revenged on those who 
had brousrht such desolation on their country, 
hung upon* the rear of the Imperialists, and by 
seizing every favourable opportunity of attack- 

* Mem. de Bellay, 269. kc. 31% ^t. 



^^j^^ ing them, threw them often into confusioij. 
' The road by which they fled, for they pursued 
their march with such disorder and precipitation, 
that it scarcely deserves the name of a retreat, was 
strewed with arms or baggage, which in their 
hurry and trepidation they had abandoned, and 
covered with the sick, the wounded, and the 
dead ; insomuch that Martin Bellay, an eye^ 
witness of their calamities, endeavours to give 
his readers some idea of them, by comparing 
their miseries to those which the Jews suffered 
from the victorious and destructive arms of the 
Romans*. If Montmorency, at this critical 
moment, had advanced with all his forces, no- 
thing could have saved the whole Imperial ar- 
my from utter ruin. But that general, by 
standing so long and so obstinately on the de- 
fensive, had become cautious to excess ^ hi$ 
mind, tenacious of any bent it had once taken, 
could not' assume a contrary one as suddenly as 
the change of circumstances required ; and he stiJI 
continued to repeat his favourite maxims, that 
it was more prudent to allow the lion to escape, 
than to drive him to despair, and that a bridge 
of gold should be made for a retreatipg enemy. 

The Emperor haying conducted the shatter^ 
ed remains of his troops to the frontiers of Mi;^ 
Ian, and appointed the marquis del Guasto to 
succeed Leyva in the government of that AxxU 
chy, set out for Genoa. As he codld not beaf 
to expose himself to the scorn of the ItalianS| 

* Mem. de Bellay, 310. Sandov. Hist del Ilmper. ii. 23^, 


after such a sad reverse of fortune ; and did not ^^^^ 
chuse, under his present circumstances, to re* v«i^v^^ 
visit those cities through which he had so lately ^^^^* 
passed in triumph for one conquest, and in cer- November. 
tain expectation of another; he embarked di- 
rectly for opain*. 

• Nor was the pix)gress of his arms on the op- pperatjoiu 
posite frontier of France such as to alleviate, in 
any degree, the losses which he had sustained 
in Provence. Bellay, by his addresses and in- 
trigues, had prevailed on so many of the Ger- 
man Princes to withdraw the contingent of 
troops which they had furnished to the King of 
the Romans, that he was obliged to lay aside 
all thoughts of his intended irruption into Cham- 
pagne. Though a powerful army levied in the 
Low-Countries entered Picardy, which they 
found but feebly guarded, while the strength of 
the kingdom was drawn towards the south; yet 
the nobility taking arms with their usual ala- 
crity, supplied by their spirit the defects of the 
King's preparations, and defended Peronne> and 
other towns which were attacked, with such vi- 
gour, as obliged the enemy to retire, without 

making any conquest of importancef . 


Thus Francis, by the prudence of his own 
measures, and by the union and valour of his 
subjects, rendered abortive those vast efforts iu 
which his rival had almost exhausted his whole 

* Jovii Histor. lib. xxxv. p. 174, &C. 
t Mem. de Bellay, 318,^. 


142 THE M:IGN of THE 

^ vP*^ force. As this humbled the Emperor's arr<v 

v^'N'W gance no less than it checked his power, he 

*^^* wa« mortified more sensibly on this occasion 

than on any other, during the course of the 

long contests between him and the French 


Death of the One circcimstance alone embittered the joy 
*^?^*"' with which the success of the campaign inspire4 
Francis. That was the death of the Dauphin, 
. his eldest son, a Pi^nce of great hopes, and ex* 
tremely beloved by the people on account of 
Imputed to his resemblance to his father. This happening* 
^ °' suddenly, was imputed to poison, not only by 
the vulgar, fond of ascribing the death of lllus* 
trtojus personages to extraordinary eituses, but 
by the King and his ministers. The count dq 
Montecuculi, an Italian nobleman, cup-beaner 
to the Dauphin, being seized on suspicion and 
put to the torture, openly charged the Impe* 
rial generals, Gonsaga and Ley va, with hairing 
instigated him to the commission bf that crime: 
be even threw oat some indirect and obscure 
accusations against the Emperor himself. At 
a tiaie when all France was exaspeerated tp the 
utmost against Chevies, this uncertain a^ ex- 
torted charge was considered as an incontes- 
tibie p^^oof of guilt; while ttie confidence with 
which both he and his officers disserted their 
own innocence, together with the indignation, 
as wdl as horrior, which they expressed on their 
being supposed capable of such a detestable 
action, were little attended to, and less regard- 


€d *. It i» evident, however, that the Emperor ®^p ^ 
could have no indticeinent to perpetrate- such v-^-v^-*^ 
;A cril]tie> as Francis was still in the vigour of ^^^^ 
life hknself, aiid had two* sons, hfesides the Daii- 
phin, ^rown up almost tb the age bf manhood. 
Thait single cotnsideration, without mentioning 
the EmperoKs ^elieral character, unblemished 
by the impntafcion of. aily dteed: resembling this 
in a4:r6city, is miore than sufficient to counter* 
bala»oe the weight of a dubious tchtimony ut- 
lered' during the anguish of torture f. Accord"^ 
ing fco the most unprejudiced historians, the 
Dauphin's death nwas /occasioned by his having 
drank too iteely of cold water after over-heating 
himself at tennis; and this account, as it is the 
most sioaple, is likewise the most credible. But 
if his days were cut sliort by poison, it is not 
improbiziibte that the Emperor conjee tufod right- 
ly, trhbn he affirmed that it had been adminis* 
tef«d bf the direction of Catharine of Medici, 
in order to seture the * crown to the Duke of 
Ckieaiiis; her husband J;. The advantages re^ 
siiltinig to h«r by the Dauphin's death, were ob- 
vious .as well as great ; nor did her boundless 
and daring aonbition ever recoil from any actiom 
necessairy towards attaining the objects which 
she had. in view. 

^ Next year opened with a transaction very Decree of 
ttnconnmm, but so incapable of* producing any meorof * 


• * .M<!n». de Bellay. 289, ^^j!' 

f. Sandoy. Hist, del Emper. ii. 231. 
t Vera y Zuniga Vida dc Carlo V, p. 75. 



effect, that it wbuld not deserve to be thentioit* 
ed^ if it were not a striking proof of the perso 
nal animosity which mingled itself in all the 
hostiUties between Charles and Francisi, and 
which often betrayed them into such indecencies 
towards each other, as lessened the dignity of 
both. Francis accompanied by the peers and 
princes of the blood, having taken his seat in 
the parliailient pf Paris with the usual solemni- 
ties, the advocate-general appeared ; and after 
accusing Charles of Austria (for so he afibcted 
to call the Emperor) of having violated the 
treaty of Carabray, by which he was absolved 
from the homage due to the crown of France 
for the counties of Artois and Flanders; insisted 
that this treaty being now void, he was still to 
be considered as a vassal of the crown, and by 
consequence, had been guilty of rebellion in 
taking arms against his sovereign ; and there* 
fore he demanded that Charles should be sum- 
moned to appear in person, or by his counsel^ 
before the parliament of Paris, his legal judges^ 
to answer for this crime. . The request was 
granted; a herald repaii*ed to the frontiers of 
Picardy, and summoned him with the accu&i- 
tomed formalities to appear against a day pre* 
fixed. That term being expired, per* 
son appearing in Jiis name, the parliament 
gave judgment. " That Charles of Ausiria 
bad forfeited by rebellion and contuttiacji those 
fiefs ; declared Flanders and Artois to be re* 
united to the crown of France;'* 'arid ordered 
their decree for this purpo>se to^be published by 



sound of trumpet on the frbntiers of these pro- * ^p ^ 
vinces *. 


Soon dfter this vain display of his resent- cwnp^p 

*^ •' . opens m 

ment, rather than of his power, Francis march- the Low- 
ed towards the Low-Countries^ as if he had in- 
tended to execute the sentence which his par-' March. 
liameiit had pronounced, and to seize those ter« 
ritories which it had awarded tp him; As tfa€^ 
Queen of Hungary, to whom her brother the 
Emperor had committed the government of 
that part of his dominions, was not prepared 
for so early a campaign, he at first made some 
pros^ress, and took several towns of importance. 
But being obliged soon to leave his army, in 
order to superintend the other operations of 
war, the Flemings having assembled a nume* 
rous army, not only recovered most of the 
places which they had lost, but began to make 
conquests in their turn. At last they invested 
Terouenne, and the Duke of Orleans, now 
Dauphin, by the death of his brother, and 
Montmorency^ whom Francis had honoured 
with the constable's sword, as the reward of his 
great services during the former campaign, . de- 
termined to hiazard a battle in order to relieve 
it While they were advancing for this pur- a shspto. 
pose, and within a few miles of the enemy, 3S^"^ 
they were stopt short by the arrival of an herald 
from the Queen of Hungary, acquainting him 
that a suspension of arms was now agreed upon« 

* Lettres e't Memoires d'Etat^ par Ribier^ 2 torn. Kois, 
1666. torn. i. p. I. 





This unexpected event was owing to the 
zealous endeavours of the two sisters, the Queens 
of France and of Hungary, who had long la- 
boured to reconcile the contending Motiarchs. 
The war in the Netherlands had laid waste the 
frontier provinces of. both countries, without 
any real advantage to either. 'Jhe French and 
Flemings equally regpretted tha interruption of 
their commerce^ which was beneficial to both. 
Charles, as well as Francis, who had each 
strained to the utmost, in order to support the 
vast operations of the former campaign, found 
that they could not now keep armies on foot in 
this quarter, without weakening their opera* 
tions in Piedmont, where both wished to push 
July 30. the war with the greatest vigour. All these 
circumstances facilitated the negociations of 
the two Queens ; a truce was concluded, to 
continue in force for ten months, but it extend- 
ed no farther than the Low-Countries^. 

p^fd^om ^ Piedmont the war was still prosecuted 
with great animosity ; and though neither 
Charles nor Francis could make the powerful 
efforts to which this animosity' prompted them» 
they continued to exert themselves like com* 
batants, whose rancour remains after thei? 
strength is exhausted. Towns were alternate- 
ly lost and retaken; skirmishes were fought 
every day ; and much blood was shed, without 
any action, that gave a decided superiority to 

* Memoires dc Ribier, 5C. 




either sida At last the two Queens, determiii** ^^^ 
ing tiot to leave unfinisfated the good work which 
they had begtiUy prevaikd, by their importunate 
solicitations, the one on htr brother, the other 
on her husband, to consent also to a truce m 
Piedmont for three months. The conditioas 
of it were, that eaeh should keep possessicm of 
what was in his hands, and after leaving garri* 
sons in the towns, should withdraw his army 
out of the province -, and that plenipotentiaries 
s^iojold be appointed to adjust all matters in dis- 
pute by a final treaty^. 

The powerful motives which inclined both Motives «f 
Frinces to this accommodation, have been often *** 
nnentioned. The expences of the war had far 
exceeded the sums which their revenues were 
capable of supplying, nor durst they venture 
upon any great addition to the impoi^itions then ' 
established, as subjects bad not yet learned to 
bear with patience the immense burdens to which 
they have become accustomed in modern times. 
The Emperor in particular, though he had con* 
tracted debts which in that age appeared pro* 
digiousf, had it not in his power to pay. the 
large arrears long due to his army. At the 
same time he had no prospeiet of deriving any 
aid in money or men either from the Pope or 
Venetians, though he had employed promises 
and threats, alternately, in order to procure it. 
But he found the former not only fixed in hii^ 

* Memoires de Ribicr> 62. t Ribicr^ i 29^ 


BOOK resolution of adhering steadily to the neiitralitjr 
v-i^v^^ which he^had always declared to be suitable to 
^^^^' his character, but passionately desirous of bring- 
ing. about a peace.' He perceived that the lat- 
ter were still intent on their ancient object of 
holding the balance even between the rivals^ 
and solicitous not to throw too great a weight 
into either scale. 


Of which, What made a deeper impression on Charles 
S^'^th ^^^^ 3,11 these, was the dread of the Turkish 
Bm^ro^*^*^ arms, which, by his league with Solyman, Fran- 
the most cis had drawn upon him. Though Francis, with- 
abte. ' out the assistance of a single ally, had a war to 
maintain against an enemy greatly superior in 
power to himself, yet so great was the horror of 
Christians, in that age, at any union with Infi- 
dels, which they considered not only as disho- 
nourable but profane, that it was long before 
he could be brought to avail himself of the ob- 
^ vious advantages resulting from such a confe- 

deracy. Necessity at last surmounted his de- 
licacy and scruples. Towards the close of the 
preceding year, La Forest, a secret agent at 
the Ottoman Porte, had concluded a treaty 
with the Sultan j whereby Solyman engaged to 
invade the kingdom of Naples, during the next 
campaign^ and to attack the King of the Ro- 
mans in Hungary with a powerful army, while 
Francis undertook to enter the Milanese at the 
Siame time with a proper foTce. Solyman had 
. punctually performed what was incumbent on 
him. Barbarossa with a great fleet appeared 



on the coast of Naples, filled that kingdom, ^ ^.^ ^ 
from which all the troops had been drawn to- ^--v-^*' 
wards Piedmont, with consternation, landed ^^^* 
without resistance near Taranto, obliged Castro, 
a place of some strength, to surrender, plunder^ 
ed the adjacent country, and was taking mea- 
sures for securing and extending his conquests, 
when the unexpected 'arrival of Doria, together 
with the Pope's g&Uies, and a squadron of the 
Venetian fleet, made it prudent for him to re-^ 
tire. In Hungary the progress of the Turks 
was more formidable. Mahmet, their general^ 
after gaining several small advantages, defeated 
the Germans, in a greats battle at Essek on the 
Drave*. Happily for Christendom, it was not 
in Francis's power to exiecute with equal exact- 
ness what he had stipulated^ nor could he as*^ 
semble at this juncture an army strong enough 
to penetrate into the Milanese. By this he hH^ 
ed in recovering possesi^ion of that dutchy; and 
Italy was not only saved from the calamities of 
a new war, but from feeling the desolating rage 
of the Turkish arms, as an addition io all that 
it had sufferedf » As the Emperor knew that he 
could not long resist the efforts of two such 
powerful confederates, nor could expect that 
the same fortunate. accidents would concur a 
second time to deliver Naples, and to preserve 
the Milanese ; as he foresaw that the Italian 
states would not only tax him loudly with insa^ 
tiable ambition, but might even turn their arms 

* Istuanheffi Hist. Hung. lib. xiii. p. 1 39* 
t JovH Hist. lib. xxxv. p. 183. 



a$:a4fist him, if he shoald be so i'^i:ardlesB of 
their danger as obstinately to protract the war» 
^^'^' he thought it aecessary, both for bis safety aad 
reputation, to give his consent to a truce. Nor 
was Francis willing to snstain all the blame of 
obstructtog the re-establishment of tranquillity^ 
pr to expose himself on that account to the 
danger of being del^erted by the Swiss and other 
foreigners in his senrice. He ewep, began to 
apprehend that his own subjects would serve 
him coldly, if by contributing to aggrandize 
the power of the Infidels, which it was his duty^ 
md fai^ been the ambitioilL of his ancestoi^ to 
depress, he continued to act ki direct opposition 
to aU the principles which ought to influence a 
Monarch distinguished by the title of Most 
Christian King. He diose, for all these reasons^ 
rather to ram tlie ridk ^ disobliging his new ally 
the Sultan, than, by an unseafionable adherence 
jto the treaty with him, to forfeit what ^Y9S of 
greater consequence. 

tio^ofl ®^^ though both panrties consented to a 

peace be- tnicc, the plenipotentiaries found itisuperable 

Charles and difficulties in ^tiling the article^ of a definitave 

yraiujis. iresLty. Each of the Monarchs^ with bhe arro* 

gance of a conqueror, aimed at giving law to 

the other;, and neither wK>nld so far acknow^ 

ledge his inferiority, as to sacrifice ajiy point 

, of hooour, or to relinqnish any matter of right; 

so that the ptehipotemtiaries spent the time in 

long and fruitless negociations, and separated 

after agreeing to prolong the truce for a few 



The Pope, however, did not despair of ac- ^^^ 
eomplisbing a point in which the plenipoten^ v^^^^^w 
tiaries had failed, and took upon hintiself the Thei^^ 
sole burden of negociating a peace. To form conducts 
a confederacy capable of defending Christen- person. 
dam from the formidable inroads of the Turkish 
arms, and to concert effectual measures for the 
extirpation of the Lutheran heresy, were two 
great objects which Paul bad much at heart, 
and he considered thci uhioft of the Emperor 
with the King of France as an essential prelim 
mi nary to both. To be the instrument of re« 
conciling these contending Monarchs, whom 
his predecessors by their interested and indecent 
intrigues had so often embroiled, was a circum*^ 
stance which could not fail of throwing distin*- 
guished lustre on his character and administra^ 
tion. Nor was he without hopes that, while 
be pursued this laudable end, he might secure 
advantages to his own family, the aggrandizing 
of which he did not neglect, though he aimed 
at it with a less audacious ambition than was 
common among the Popes of that eentury. 
Influenced by these considerations, he propo^^ 
ed an interview between the two Monarchs at 
Nice, and offered to repair thither in person, 
that he might act as Mediator in composing 
all their differences. When a Pontiff of a ve- 
nerable character, and of a very advanced age, 
was willing, from his ^eal for peace, to under- 
go the fatigues of so lopg a journey, neither 
Charles nor Francis qould with decency decline 
the interview. J^ut though both came to tb9 



^ v?^ place of rendezvous, so great was the dilEcuIty 
of adjusting the ceremonial, or such the re-^ 
mains or distrust and rancour on each, side, 
that they refused to see one another, and every 
thing was transacted by the intervention of the 
Pope, who visited them alternately.. With all 
his zeal and ingenuity he could not find out a 
method of removing the obstacles which pre- 
vented a final accommodation, particularly 
those arising from the possession of the Mila« 
nese 5 nor was all the weight of his authority 
sufficient to overcome the obstinate perseve- 
iranceof either Monarch in asserting his own 
A truce for claims. At last, that he might not seem to 
c^dS2i ^^^^ laboured altogether without effect, he 
at Nice. pjrevailed on them to sign a truce for ten years, 
upon the same condition with the former, that 
e^h should retain what was now in his pos- 
session, and in the mean time should send am* 
bassadors to Rome, tQ discuss their pretensJQns 
^t leisure *, 

Thus ended a war of no lopg ccHitinuance» 
but very extensive in its operations^ and in 
which both parties exerted their utmost strength. 
Though Francis failed in the object that he had 
principally in view, the recovery of the Mila- 
nese, he acquired, nevertheless, great repirtation 
by the wisdom of iiis measures' as well as tha 
success of his arms in repelling a formidable in? 

* Recueil desTraitez, ii. 210. Relatione dei Nicolo Tienolo 
• de PAbocamento di Nizza, chez Du Mont Corps Diplomat, 
|»ar. ii. p. 174, - ^ :. . . ' 



vasion ; and by keeping possession of one half ^ ^^ ^ 
of the Duke of Savoy's dominions, he added no v^^-v^-^^^ 
inconsiderable accession of strength to his king-^ ^^^' 
dom. Whereas Charles, repulsed and baffled> 
after having boasted so arrogantly of victory, 
purchased an inglorious truce, by sacrificing an 
ally who had rashly confided too much in his 
friendship and. power. The unfortunate Duke 
murmured, complained, and remonstrated a- 
gainst a treaty so much to his disadvantage, 
but in vain ; he had no means of redress, and 
was obliged to submit. Of all his dominions, 
Nice, with its dependencies, was the only cor- 
ner of which he himself kept possession. He 
saw the rest divided between a powerful invader 
and the ally to whose protection he had trust- 
ed, while he. remained a sad monument of the 
icnprudence of weak princes, who, by taking 
part in the quarrel of mighty neighbours, be- 
tween whom they happen to be situated, are 
crushed and overwhelmed in the shock. 

A FEW days after signing the treaty of interview 
truCiC, the Emperor set sail for Barcelona, but ch^teTand 
was driven by contrary winds to the island St. Francis at 
Margaret on the coast of Provence. When mortes. 
Francis, who happened to be not far distant, 
heard of this, he considered it as an office of 
civility to invite him to taRe shelter in his do- 
ipinions, and proposed a personal interview with 
him at Aigues-mortes. The Emperor, w^ho 
would not be outdone by his rival in complai-. 
sance, instantly repaired thither. As soon a3 



^%^^ he cast anchor in the road, Francis, without 
waiting to settle any point of ceremony, but 
relying implicitly on the Emperor's honour for 
bis security, visited him on board his galley, 
and was received and entertained with the 
warmest demonstrations of esteem and affecr 
tion. Next day the Emperor repaid the confi- 
dence which the King had placed in him. He 
landed at Aigues-mortes with as little precau- 
tion, and met with a reception eqtially cordial. 
He remained on shore during the night, and in 
both visits the two monarchs vied with each 
other in expressions of respect and friendship*-. 
'After twenty years of open hostilities, or of se- 
cret enmity; after so many injuries reciprocally 
inflicted or endured ; after having formally 
given the lie and challenged one another to 
single combat ; after the Emperor had inveighed 
so publicly against Francis as a Prince void of 
honour or integrity ; and after Francis had ac^ 
cused him of being accessary to the murder of 
his eldest son, such an interview appeai-s alto- 
gether singular and even unnatural. But the 
history of these monarchs abounds with such 
surprising transitions. From implacable hatred 
they appeared to pass, in a moment, to the 
most cordial reconcilement ; from suspicion and 
distrust to perfect confidence j and from prac- 
tising all the dark arts of a deceitful policy, 
they could assume, of a sudden, the libepal and 
open manners of two gallant gentlemen. 

* Sandov. Hist. vol. ii. 238. Relation de I'Entrevue de 
Chart. V. df Fran. I. par M. de la Eivoirv^ Hist, de Laifgocd. , 
par D. I>. De Vic Sf Vaisette, torn, v Preuves, p. 93. 




The Pope» beside^ the glory of having restor- 
ed peace to Europe, gained, according to his 
expectation, a point of great consequence to his ^^^ 
family, by prevailing on the Emperor to be- 
troth Margaret of AuBtria, his natural daughter, 
fonneriy the wife of Alexander di Medici, to 
hisgraaidsoaOciavio Farnese, and in consider- 
aticmof this marriage, to bestow several hoi»- 
oiirs and territories upon his future sou*in-law. 
A very tragical event, which happened about The assassin 
the beginning of the year one thousand five hun- ^exTndL 
dred and thirty-seven, had deprived Margaret of ^ ^^^^ 
her first hus>band. That young Prince, whom the 
£niperor's partiality had raised to the supreme 
power in Florence, upon the ruins of the pub- 
lic liberty, neglected entirely the cares of go- 
vernment, and abandoned himself to the most 
dissolute debauchery. Lorenzo di Medici his 
aearest kinsman was not only the companion 
but director of his pleasure£i, and employing 
all the powers of a cultivated and inventive 
genius in this dishonourable ministry, added 
fuch elegance as well as variety to vice, as gain- 
ed hipi an absolute ascendant over the mind of 
Alexander. B«t while Lorenzo seemed to b^ 
siipk in luxury^ and aifected such an appear- 
ance of indolence and effeminacy, that he would 
not wear a sword, and trembled at the sight of 
blood, he concealed under tbat disguise, a dark, 
designing, audacious spirit. Prompted either 
by the love of liberty, or allured by the hope of 
attaining the supreme power, he detennined to 
* ^ssassinati^AligacaQderhisbeuefactor and friend. 


BOOK Though he long revolved this design in his 
v-^-v-^w mind, his reserved and suspicious temper pre*- 
^ ^^ vented him from communicating it to any per* 
son whatever; and continuing to live with Alex- 
ander in their usual familiarity, he, one night, 
under pretence of having secured him an assig- 
nation with a lady of high rank whom he. had 
often solicited, drew that unwary Prince into a 
secret apartment of his house, and there stab- 
bed him, while he lay carelessly on a couch ex- 
pecting the arrival of the lady whose company 
he had been promised. But no soonier was the 
deed done, than standing astonished, and struck 
with horror at its atrocity, he forgot, in a mo- 
ment, all the motives which had induced him 
to commit it Instead of rousing the people to 
recover their liberty by publishing the death of 
the tyrant, instead of taking any step towards 
•opening his own way to the dignity now va- 
cant, he locked the door of the apartment, andi 
like a man bereaved of reason and presence of 
mind, fled with the utmost precipitation out of 
the Florentine territories. It was late next 
morning, before the fate of the unfortunate 
Prince was knoivn, as his attendants, accustom- 
ed to his irregularities, never entered his apart- 
ment early. Immediately the chief persons in 
the state assembled. Being induced partly by 
the zeal of cardinal Cibo for the house of Me- 
dici, to which he was nearly related, partly by 
the authority of Francis Guicciardini, who re- 
callied to their memory, and represented in strike- 
ing colours -the caprice as w^U as turbulence of 


their ancient popular government, they agreed ^y^^ 
to place Cosmo di Medici, a youth pf eighteen, v-^v-^^ 
the only male heir of that illustrious house, at cosnw^di 
the head of the government ; thoughat the same ^^^^ 
time such was their love ofliberty, that they es- tbcheadof 
tablished several regulations in order to circum- tine state. 
scribe and moderate his power. 

Meanwhile Lorenzo having reached a place' His govern- 
of safety, made known what he had done, to posed by 
Philip Strozzi and the other Florentines who toss's!" 
had been driven into exile, or who had volun- 
tarily retired, when the republican form of go- 
vernment was abolished, in order to make way 
for the dominion of the Medici. By them, the 
deed was extolled with extravagant praises, and 
the virtue of Lorenzo was compared with that 
of the elder Brutus, who disregarded the ties of 
blood, or with that of the younger, who forgot 
the friendship and favours of the tyrant, that 
they might preserve or recover the liberty of 
their country*. Nor did they rest satisfied with 
empty panegyrics; they immediately quitted 
their different places of retreat, assembled for- 
ces, animated their vassals and partizans to take • 
arms, and to seize this opportunity of re-esta- 
blishing the public liberty on its ancient founda- 
tion. Being openly assisted by the French 
ambassador at Rome, and secretly encouraged 
by the Pope, who bore no good-will to the house 
•f Medici, they entered the Florentine domi- 

* Lettere di Priacipi, torn. iii. p4 52. 



^^,j^* &ions> with a considerable body of men. Bat 
the persons who had elected Cosmo possessed 
not only the means of supporting his govern- 
ment> but abilities to empldy them in the nio&t 
proper manner. They levied> with the greatest 
expedition, a good number of troops ; they en- 
deavoured by every art to gain the citizens of 
greatest authority, and to reilder the adminis- 
tration of the young Prince agreeable to the 
people. Above all, they courted the Emperor's 
protection, as the only firm foundation of Cos* 
mo's dignity and power. Charles, knowing the 
propensity of the Florentines to the friendship 
of France, and how mqch all the partizansof a 
republican government detested him as the op- 
pressor of their liberties, saw it to be greatly 
for his interest to prevent the re-establishment 
of the ancient constitution in Florence. For 
this reason, he not only acknowledged Cosino 
as head of the Florentine state> and conferred 
on him all the titles of honour with which Alex- 
ander had been dignified, but engaged to defend 
him to the utmost ; and as a pledge of this, or- 
dered the commanders of such of his troops as 
were stationed on the frontiers of Tuscany, to 
support him against all aggressors. By their 
aid, Cosmo obtained an easy victory over the 
exiles, whose troops he surprised in the night- 
time, and took most of the chiefs prisoners ; an 
event which broke all their measures, and fully 
established his own authority. But though he 
was extremely desirous of the additional honour 
of marrying the Emperor's daughter, the widow 




df his predecessor, Charles, secure already of his ® ^p ^ 
attachment, chose rather to gratify the Pope, 
byl)estowing her on his nephew*. 


During the war bettveen the Emperor and Thefriend- 

- ship be- 

Francis, an event had happened which abated tweenFran- 
in some degree the warmth and cordiality of He^yviir. 
friendship which had long subsisted between ^^^.^^ 
the latter and the King of England. James 
the Fifth of Scotland, an enterprising young 
Prince, having heard of the Emperor's intention 
to invade Provence, was so fond of shewing that 
he did not yield to any of his ancestors in the 
sincerity of his attachment to the French crown, 
and so eager to distinguish himself by some mili- 
tary exploit, that he levied a body of troops 
With an intention of leading them in person to 
the assistance of the King of France. Though 
some unfortunate accidents prevented his carry- 
ing any troops into France, nothing oould divert 
him from going thither in person. Immediate- 
ly upon hi« landing, he hastened to Provence, 
but had been detained so long in his voyage, 
that he came too late to have any share in the 
military operations, and met the King on his re- 
turn after the retreat of the Imperialists. But 
Francis was so greatly pleased with his zeal, 
and no less with his manners and conversation, 
that he could not refuse him his daughter Mag- 
dalen, whom he demanded in marriage. It 

* Jovii Hist c. xcviii. p. 218, 4*c* Belcarii Comment. L 
xxii. p. 696. Istoria de sui Tempi di Giov» Bat. Adriani. 
Ven. 1587. p. 10. 


mortified Henry extremely to see a Prince of 
whom he was immoderately jealous, form an al- 
Jan. 1, liance, from which he derived such an accessioa 
1537. of reputation as well as security*. He could 
riot, however, with decency, oppose Frstncis's 
bestowing his daughter upon a Monarch de* 
scended from a race of Princes, t|jejnost ancient 
and faithful allies « of the French crown. But 
when James, upon the sudden death of Mag^ 
dalen, demanded as his second wife Mary of 
Guise, he warmly solicited Francis to deny his 
suit, and in order to disappoint him , asked that 
lady in marriage for himself. When Francis 
preferred the Scottish King's sincere courtship 
to his artful and malevolent proposal, he disco* 
vered much dissatisfaction. The pacification 
agreed upon at Nice, and the familiar intervie^r 
of the two rivals at Aigues-mortes, filled Henry's 
mind with new suspicions, as if Francis had alto- 
gether renounced his friendship for the^ sake of 
The Empcr new conncctions with the Emperor. Charles, tho* 

ror courts 

Henry. Toughly acquainted with the temper'of the £ng« 
lish King, and watchful to observe all the shift* 
ings and caprices of his passions, thought this a 
favourable opportunity of renewing his negocia- 
tions with Jiim, .which had been long broken 
off. Bv the death of Queen Catharine, whose 
interest the Emperor could not with, decency 
have abandoned, the chief (pp,use of their dis^ 
cord was removed ; so that wiUiout touching 
upon the delicate question of her divorce, he 
might now take what measures he thought 

* Hist* of Scotland, vol. i. p. 77. 



most effeCitual for regKining Henry's good will. 
For this purpose, he began with proposing ser 
veral marriage-treaties to the king. He ,off$re4 
his niece^ a danghtei" of the King of Deniparjk^ 
to H^nry himself^ he demanded the. princess 
Mary fof one of the Princes of Portugal, and 
was e\?^ willing to receive her as the .Kmg*s 
illegitimate daughter^> Though none of thes^ 
projected alliances e^er took plare, or perhaps 
were ever. seriously intended, they occasioned 
such frequent intercoui»se between the courts, ^ 

and s<i many reciprooal professions of civility 
and esteem, as considerably abated the edge of 
Henry's rancour against the Emperor^ and pav- 
ed the i^ay for that union between them which 
aftej^w^rds .proved so* disadvantageous tq the 
Frenchfiung'. i 

TriB ambitious tohemes in which the Empe- f*Mgren oe 
rorhad been engaged, and the wars he hadbeeii foraatlon. 
carrying oh for some years, proved* as u$|ial, 
^xtmmely favourable to the progress of the 
Reformation in Germany* While Charles was 
absent' n^oxx his African expedition, or intept on > 
his projects against France, his chief object. in 
Germany was to present the dissensions about 
rdi^on.ffOm disiuitxing the public tranquillity, 
by granting snch indulgence to the Protestant 
Ffioces as might induce them ta coqcur with 
•bis nieasures, or at delist; .binder tfeem^from tak- 
ing; jjart with his rival. For this reason, he was 

' • , * Meau de Eibier^ torn. i. 496. - - 

1^2 THE ftfilGN'OP TftE" 

^%^^ cartftti to secure to the Protestants the pdssee^ 

«i6n of all the advatitstgeB 'which they had* gain- 
*^^' ed by the articles of pacifts&tioil at NarembeiT^, 
in the yfear -OTie th^usahd five htindred and thir- 
ty-two * ; and exc^pl some flight trouble ftoiA 
the proceedings of the Imperii Chamber, they 
itriek With nothing to dtsttfrb-them itt the exer- 
cise of their' religioti^ or' to interrupt th* suo- 
ceisful . zeal with Whidh they propagited their 
Negocia- opitiionsv ' Meanwhile, the Pbpe continued his 
intrigues negociatiohs for cohvokitfg - a g'erieral ccruncil j 
to^JSSS ^"^ thoiigh the Prot^fetiiits had expr^sed great 
councif. dissatisfaction with his intention to fit upon 
Mantna as the place of meeting, he adherbd 
obstinately to his choice, issued a bull -on the 
second of June, one thotrsanH five hundred and 
thirty-six, appointing it to assemble in that cit^ 
on the twenty-third of May the year following; 
" • fte ftominfet^d thfr^ tjardiixals to preside in' his 
- ^ ^nanii; Enjoined all Christian Princes tdicounic- 
nati^ it by their authority, and i&Tited the 
Pkjlates of et^ry ttatibn to attend in persoa 
This i^utnniohs of 'a oouncii, atk aERsembly which 
from its nature and intentifoh' demanded qniet 
times, as well as pacific disfiositioDS, at the vei- 
ry jtih^ture when the Emperor was: on hife 
march towards France, and ready toinvoivea 
great part of Etirope in the conAisioriis of war, 
appeared to every pi&mon) eittwnely unseason- 
ablei tt was intimitted, 'however, to all the 
different courts by nuncios dispatched of pur- 

* Da Moot Corps titplom. ^m« ir. part ii. p. 138^ 


pose*i With ah iate»tion to gratify the Oer- »^^k 
]xmas» . the Empetor, during bis i;eittdence ia ^^^^-wr^^ 
Rome, had warmly :$olieit€4 thfe Pope to cail a ^^^^* 
coiinotl; but fajeing ttt the s^metiixie willing to^ 
tryferery art in order to perauade Paul to depart 
from^^he neiitr&lit)^ which he preserved between 
him andFramsis^ he sent Heido his vice-ehan* 
cdbc 'into Genaany, along with a mmciQ dis^ 
pstohed thither> ih3tructing him to^eK^ood all 
the ntAicio's nepre9ehtat!ons> and to eafofOQ 
thenn: with. the whole weight of tho Imperial 
authority. The Protestants gave them audience Feb. 25, 
ni SmajkaMe, where they had assembled in a ^^^^* 
body, in ondier to receive them. But after weigh* 
ing all their argnnieiits,^ thay unanmiously refus^ 
ed ta ackncfwledge ai council summoned in the 
nam^' and.hy the anthority of the Pope ajone; 
in whidi he fmsufined ihe sole right of pr^sidiingj 
which *as to be held in* a city not ohly faf dis- • 
tant from Germany, bM subject to a Princ^i 
wto was? a Bti'aqger ;to ^theibj and closely conr 
netcfaed with the o<»art of Borne ; and to. which 
their: divines ooiild'm^t rejlair with safety, espe* 
cially after their doctrines had been stigmatised ^ 

in the very bull df convocation with the name 
of heresy: . These and m^ny other: o(bJ9Ct}{>ns 
a^nsti the r council, whtcji ^appeared to .them \ 
unah^werable, thejf e»tt«aerated in a Isifge ipar 
nifesto, wliicb tifaey published in vindica^pn of 

theii- conduct t.: 

* Pallavic. Hist. Cone. Trid. 113. 

t Sieidan, 1. xii, 1^5,$^. Seck^nd. Coin, lib; i. p. HS> &c. 




A&AiNST this the court of Rome cfxcldlimed 
as a flagrant proof of their obstinafcy and pre«- 
suioptioh^ and the Pope still persisted in his re- 
solution to bold the councH at the time and in 
^the place appointed. Rxt some unexpeeted 
difficulties being started hy the Duke of Man- 
tua^ both about the right of jurisdiction over 
the persons who resqrted to the council^ and 
the security of his capital amidst such a con^ 
October 8, courftt of Strangers, the Pope, after fruitless en- 
^^^^' deavours to adjust these, first prorogued the 
council for sdme months, and afterwards tranii^ 
ferring the place of meeting td Vicenza^ in the 
Venetian territories, appointed it to assemble 
dn the first of May in the following year. As 
neither the Emperor nor the French King, who 
had not then come to any accommodation^ 
would permit their subfc^Cts to repair thither, 
' not a single prelate appeared on the day pre- 
fixed, and the Pope, that his authority might 
not become altogether contemptible by so ma* 
ny inefltectual efforts to convoke that assembly^ 
put off the meeting by an indefinite proroga- 

Apartiai But, that he ttiight not seem tb have tur&ed 
of abuses by his wholc attention towards a reformation which 
tbcPopc j^^ ^^g ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ accomplish^ while he neglect- 
ed that which was in his own power, he de* 
puted a certain number of cardinals and bishops, 
with full authority to inquire into the abu- 

* F.Paul, lit. Pallavic. 117^ 



ses and corruptions of the Roman ^court ; and 
to propose the most ^ectual metiiod o£ remov- 
ing them. This scrutiny, undertaken with re- ' 
luctance, -was carrie4 on slowly and with re*- 
missness. All defects were touched with a 
gentle hand, s^raid of probing too deep, 43r of 
discovering too much. But even by this par<- 
tial examination, many irregularities were dcr 
tected, and many enormities exposed to light, 
wiiile the remedies which they suggested as 
most proper, wero either inadequate, or were 
never applied. The report and resolution of 
these deputies, though intended/ to be kept se- 
cret, were transmitted by some accident into 
Germany, and being immediately made public, 
afforded ample matter for reflection and tri- 
umph to the Protestants^. On the one hand, 
they demonstrated the necessity of ^ reform?*- 
tion in the head as well as the members of the 
church, and even pointed put many of the corr 
ruptions against whic^ Luther and his followers 
had remonstrated with the greatest^ vehemence. 
They shewed, on the other hand, that it was 
vain to expect this reformation from ecclesias- 
tics themselves, who, as Luther strongly expres- 
sed it, fiddled at curing warts, while they 
overlooked or confirmed ulcers f. 

The earnestness with which the Emperor a league 
seemed, at first, to press their acquiescing in (^"^iti^ 
the Pope's scheme of holding a council in Italy ^111^^ 

* $lei<i[aQ, 233. f Seek. 1. iii. 164. 


^%!^^ alarmed the Pfotestaat Princes, so much, that 

^'-^v^ they' thought it prudent to strengthen their 

**^^' confederacy, by admitting several new mem- 

^ fe^r$ who solicited that privilege, particularly 

the King of Denmark. . Held6^ who, dnring 

h\3 residence in iS^imafiyy had obs£rv«d all the 

advan^tiige^ wliich they derived from that union^ 

endeavourecl to ^comiterhaUmce its effe^^ts by ati 

^lidnce among the Catholio powers of the Em- 

^e. This league, distinguislaed by the name 

of Hohfy was^ merely defensive ; and tkongh cou- 

idnded by Heldo in the Emperor's .name, was 

afterwardsdii^wned by him, and subscribed by 

Very few Princes*^ 

alarms the ThE Protestants soon got. intelligence of this. 

Protestants. ^gg^^ja:tioh, ttotwithstandingalltheendeatvotors of 
the contracting pattieS t?o cclnceal it ^ and their 
zeal, always apt to sufepeijt and to ^dread^i even 
^ to exc€jss, every tilling that peeraed to threaten 
teligion, instantly took *he ^arin, as if the Em- 
peror had been just ready to eittter Ofon the 
execution of son^e forinidableoplan for the ex- 
tirpation of tiheir o|>inions. ki border to disap- 
point this, they held frequent oonssiltations, 
they courted the^^iligs of Flranee-Mfd England 
with great assiduity, ^nd ^ven began 4o thinic 
of raising the respective contingents, both in 
men and money, which they ^-ei^e obliged to 
ftirnish by the treaty of Sundkalde.' But it was 
not long before they were connfiiiced thdit *1ihese 

* Seek. I ill 171. RecueH de Tmitez. 


^pprehemions w.ere without foundatiottj and ^^f^ 
that the Emperor, to whom repose was abso- v^v-***' 
lately necessary after efforts so mucl^ beyond ^?^^' 
his strength in the var with France, had no 
thoughts of disturbing the tranquillity of Ger- 
finany. As a proof of this, at an interyiiew with ^p^ *^- 
the protestant Priaceis in Francfort, hi3 apibas- 
sadors agreed that aU concessions in their fa- 
vour, pjirticul^rly those contained in the paci- 
fication of Nuremberg, shoyld continue in force 
for fifteen months ; that during this period all 
proceedings of the Ii^iperial chamber against 
them sl^pu}4 he s.uspende;d ; that ^ conference 
should be held by a few divinps of each party, 
in order to discuss the points in controversy, 
^dto propose articles of accommodation which 
should be laid before the next Diet Though 
the Emperor, that he mijght not irritate the 
Pope, who remonstrated against ' the first part 
of this agredment ^s impolitic, and against th^ 
latter as an impious encroachment upon his 
prerogative, never formally rajdfied this conveur 
tion, it was observed with considerable exactr 
ness, and greatly strengthened the basis of that 
^cc.lesiastical libertVi for which the jProt.ei^tants 

♦ . 

A FEW days after the convention at Fjranc- Va 24. 

fpft, G^Qrge Duke of Saxony died, and bis tion egtal 

death, wjjs m eyef}t of great advantage to the ^^^^ ^^ 

Reforpiation, That; Prince, the head of the />^ Saxony. 

* F. Paul, 82, ] Skid. 2^7. Seek. 1. iii. 200. 


^^f^ Albertine, or younger branch of the SaXoii {%- 

vJi^vW mily, possessed, as marquis of Misnia and Thn- 

^^^^' ringia,, extensive territories, comprehending 

Dresden, Leipsic, and other cities now the 

most considerable in the electorate. From the 

first dawn of the Reformation, he had been its 

• If 

enemy as avowedly a$ the electoral Princes 
were its protectors, and had carried on his op- 
position not only with all the zeal flowing from 
religious prejudices, but with a virulence' inspir- 
ed by personal antipathy to Luther, and im- 
bittered by the domestic animosity subsisting 
between him and the other branch of his fami- 
ly. By his death without' issue, his 'succession 
fell to'hi^' brother Henry, whose attachinent to 
ihe PrQtestan^ religion surpassed, if possiljle, 
that of his predecessor to popery. Henry no 
sooner took possession of his new dominions, 
than, disregarding a clause in George's will, 
dictated by his bigotry, whereby he bequeath- 
ed ail his. territories to the Emperor and King 
of the Romans, if his brother should attempt 
to make, any innovation in religion, he invited 
some Protestant divines, and jsimong them Lu- 
ther himself, to Leipsic. By their advice and' 
assistance, he overturned in a few weeks the 
whole s^'stem of ancient rites, establishing the 
^iill exercise of the reformed religion, with the 
universal applause of his subjects, who had long 
wished for this cliange, which the authority 
of their Duke alone had hitherto pr€i\^nted^, 

* Sleidan, 249. ' ' 



TThis revolution delivered the Protestants from ^^t^*^ 

•( I . . VI. 

the danger to which th^y were exposed by 
having an inveterate enemy situated in the 
middle of their territories; and they had now 
the satisfaction of seeing that the possessions of 
the Princes and cities attached to their cause, 
extended in one great and almost unbroken 
line froni the shore of the Baltic to the banjks 
of the Rhine. 

Soon after the conclusion of the truce at a mntinjr 
Nice, an event happened, which satisfied all periai 
Europe that Charles had prosecuted the war to ^'^^'"^ 
the utmost extremity that the state of his af- 
fairs would permit. Vast arrears were due to 
his troops, virhom he had long amused with vam 
hopes anti promises. As they now foresaw 
What little attention would fee paid to their de- 
mands, when by the re-establishment of peace 
their services became of less importance, they 
lost all patience, broke out into an open mu- 
tiny, and declared that they thought themselves 
i^ntitled to seize by violence what was detained 
from them contrary to all justice. Nor was 
this spirit of sedition confined to one part of 
the Emperor's dominions; the mutiny was al- 
most ias; general as the grievance which gave 
rise to 'k. The soldiers in the Milanese plun-* 
iJered ther open colintry without controul, and 
filled th6 capital itself with consternation. 
Thosef iil^arrison at Goletta threatened to give 
up that important fortress to Barbarossa. lu 


* vL* ^ily the troops pr^icee^c^ to still greater ,9^- 

causes; having driven away their pfficers, they 
^^^' elated others in their stead» defeated a body 
Qf man whom t|ie viceroy sent against them» 
took and pillaged several cities* conducting 
themselves all the while in such a manner, thai 
their opefa,tioi]^ resembled rather the regular 
proceedings of a conc^rte4 rc^ellioif^ than the 
rashness and violence of a military mutiny^ 
Bat by the address and prudence of the gener 
rals, who partly by borrowing money ip their 
own name^ or iu that of their master, partly by 
extorting large sums from the cities in theier 
respective provinces, raised what was sufficient 
t^Q discharge the arrears of the soldiers, these 
insurrections were quelled. The greater part 
of the troops were disbanded, such a number 
only be;ing kept in pay as was i^^cejssary for 
garrisoning the principal towns, a^ protecting 
the sea-coasts from the insult^ of t|te Turks*. 

c*^ held ^^ ^'^ h«ppy for the En^perpr that the abir 
at Tdedo. iities of his gener^U extricated him put of these 
difficulties, which it exceeded his own power 
to have removed. He had depended, as his 
chief resource for d.ischarging the arrears, due 
to. his. soldiers, uppp the si^bpidies lyhich he ex- 
pected frotm his Ca^tilian . subjects. For this 
purpose, he assembled the Corte^ of Castile a^; 
Toledo, ai)4 having rjepreseQ4;ed tp them the 
extraordinary exlp^nce pf his ^jilitary Ojpfera^ 

* Jovii Histor. 1. xxxvii. 203. c. ' Sahdov. Berreras, 13^. 209* 



%ibaas9 togetbetr with .'the .g^toat deirts ia :which 
ithese iiad:|leoes8ltrilr^invol]redihini, h^ prqpixsh 
fid to levy siscb supplies is^h^ present exrg€d»- *^^ 
cy dfi ills affairs demaaded, by a general excise 
^eti 4C»)imiiodfties. But the i^poniards alroady Tiiecom- 
^ftlt themselves oppretaed : with a load of ttaxes di^tTs&c. 
-^nfcaownlio ttteir ;ancestioi^.'^Tbey had often ^^^^JJf 
k:mnpiai&i^d tiia:t theinr cduntr;y i^ draiaed riot 
<mly df iits wealith ^ut i6f .its inhabitants, in of- 
4Gter' to pit)^qute quarrels, in was not 
iliterested) ^tnd-tOv^ght battles from i/t^hich it 
t^xiSH reap n^ b^n^fit,. and they determined not 

> to ^dd Voluntarily to their < bwtn bardrens, or to 
fortiish th^ iEmperor with the means of engag- 
ing in hew ^terprises, no less ruinious tq the 
icingdom' lihan most of those which be had 
-kith^to carri^ oh. The nobles, in particular, 
'inveighed with gnga^ vehemenoe against the 
vmposition profposed^ as an eneroacltm^it uptm 
^he vaynable' ^tnd distinguishing privilege of 
their order^ that fo£ h^vsi^ «±emp ted from the 

; payment (pf any tax; They;dfaraanded a conr 
Ibreiyce with the r^tmseioitatives 'of tiie citiiss 
^€^0(nc&r^irig the ^tarte of tlre^ nation. Ti&ey con- 

! timded ^that if Char)^ would imitsle Ibe exam- 
pie of h(S ^eAdc^s^t^ wto had resided con* 
'Stdl^l^ In >S|pkin, ai«l ^4)uU nevoid eRtamgiimg 
himself in a mufltiplicity of tramsdctimis foreign 

ib the concerns of ^h'^^P^^ish'^^i^'''^*^^^'^^^ 
stated revenues of the crown would be fully 
sufiicient to defray the necessary expences of 
govemmentij They represented to him, that it 


^yP^ would be unjust ta lay new burdens upon thi& 
S^-v^ people, while this prudent and effectual method 
*^^^* of re-establishing public credit, and securing^ 
national opulence, was totally neglected*. 
Charles, after employing arguments, entreaties^ 
and promises, but without success, in order to 
overcome their obstinacy, dismissed the assem^ 

^'tiSn ^'y ^^^^ great indignation. From that periofl 
9fthe€or- neither the nobles nor' the prelates have been 
ei ^*^ ^called to these assemblies, on pretence that 
such as pay no part of the public ta}|:es, should 
not claim any vote on laying them on. None 
have been admitted to the Cortes but the pro- 
curators or representatives of eighteen cities. 
These, to the number of thirty-six, being two 
from each community, form an assembly which 
' bears no resemblance either in power or digni- 

, ty or independence to the ancient Cortes, and. 
are absolutely at the devotion of the court in 
all their determinationsf. Thus the imprudent 
zeal with which the C^tilian nobles had supr- 
ported the regal prerogative, in opposition to 
the claims of the commons during the commc^ 
tions in the, year one thousand fiye hundred 
and twenty-one, proved at last fatal to their 
own body. By enabling Clmrles to depress 
one of the orders in the state, they destroyed 
that balance to which the constitution owed its 
security, and put it in his power, or in that of 

* Sandov. HisL rot ii. 269. 

t Sandov. ibid. Le Science du Goavernem^hty par M. d^ 
Real, tono. ii, p. 102. 


his successors^ to bumblG the other, and to strip ^-^^ ^ 
it 'gradually of its most valuable privileges. 



At that time> however, the Spanish grandees IjJl^JS^ 
still possessed extraordinary power as well as. ^ p?»«- 
prrvileges which they exercised and defended privileges. 
with an haughtiness' peculiar to themselves. 
Of this the Emperor, himself had a mortifying 
proof during the meeting of the' Cortes at To^ 
ledo. As he was returning otie day from a 
tountament accompanied by most of the nobi- 
lity, one of the . Serjeants of the court, out of 
officious zeal to clear the way for the Emperor, 
struck the Dqke of.- Infantado's horse with hist 
batton, which that > haughty grandee resenting, 
drew his sword, bieat and wounded the officer. 
Charles, provoked at such an insolent deed in 
his pres^ice, immediately ordered Ronquillo the 
judge of the court to arrest the Duke^ Ron- 
quillo advanced to execute his charge, when 
the constable of Castile interposing, checked 
him, claimed the right of jurisdiction over a 
grandee as a privilege of his oiSice, and con- 
ducted Infantado to his own apartment. All 
the nobles present were so pleased with the 
boldness of the constable in asserting the rights 
of their order, that, deserting the E^pperor, they 
attended . him to his house with jnfmite ap- 
plauses, and Charles returned to the palace un- 
accompanied by any person . but the cardinal 
Tavera. The Emperor, how sensible soever of 
the affiront, sav^ the danger of irritating a jea- 


^vP^ iQits and Mglvspirited border: lofi «lLea^ whotDcttiieK 

slightest dppearaiice of 6ffeti€^ migbt drive to' 

^^^' the most unwarrantable extremities^ For that 

; reasoi^; in^ead dPstrainiBg atanjrUUtkded ex* 

elation 6f hisprerpgatiT^^ he prudently coqniyu 

eid at the anrcigance of a body tod .p^etnb iop 
him to' coAtn(^ll; and ^septcoext morning to ithv 
Dukfi of Infaritador otfering to inflict what: pii-i» 
nishment he pl^asdl oaitbe^perMn who liad anA 
fi*ofit0d^ hinii The 4uke- considering' this ad a. 
fttU r^paitati^n t»:his bononr, instantly £tegaiv€f 
the officer; beBtbwing on tiim, bdsides^.a» qott.-! 
siderable prelsdnt as a< ci»n|>endafaioa ibr iHi^ 
wobnd. Thus ith^ ^alir ^wak etatimly'&>rg6tlieii^> 
liAt w^cmld tt liaved^rredf t^ be meittioiied, i£ 
it were not a sbrifcmg > essariipl^ qE the. high and 
independent spirit of the SpanisH nobies^in that 
age> as w^il as an' instance of ithe ' Emperor's 
dexterity in. accommodating: his icodduot to the 
eircatn^tances in which be was piaiced. - 

insnrrec- CharliStS wtife f9iT fr<*i discov^ring thb sanid 
o^. odndeko^skffif dr lenky towards; the ^^itizeiiis. of 
Ghent, wbo^ ttidltlcfiig after b^okeoirtt into opea 
rebellion against his g^vertimenU An eveiit 
which happened in the ydar one thousand 'Ave 
hundred and ^ thirty-six, gave occasion to. 'thie 
raish insnrreotion so ' fetal to that Bouriafaing 
city. At' that time the Queen dowager : of 
HiUigar}'', govefbddsof |he Netl^erliai^db^ liaving 
received orderls from »her brother to invade 


* Sandov. ii, 274. Ferreras, ix. 212. Miniana, 113. 


l^^tice mUi ctlitheforees ^idvshe cbuid i*ai»e^ 
eh^ dis^^ifiibled tiie Slates of the ^United Provia^ 
ces, and oiWail^d (torn ttem a stibeidy of twelve ^ "^' 
htindinMl tbotii»and iioHM> to defhiy the expence 
<>f that undertaking. Of this sum, the eountjr 
<if Glanders vros obliged to pay. « third part as 
its prCbttrtidh. Bn t thfe eitii^^s > of Ghent^i Ifae Pret»»iom 
toost corii^^table ^ty in tbatccmntiy. airerse feT ^^ 
to ia war iiHfh iFVancei with which the^;aarpif6d 
oil dh exteil8rV6 htsi gainful 6(smmbrtit^ le&iati 
to pay theif q^ota^ and c<mibtadtd». that ia cwh ' 
s^ueikse of stipulations 'bet wdeQ' them and the 
bucestors of th^b present sotereign theiEtnper 
Vor, no fax Coulld^b^ levied lipon them, ilnlbfls 
they had gi^eii tWii^ expretsi cowsetat tp the. inh 
][>dsitic]fn' of ii TM^'gdvemetfi^ "Dun tiie: Dtber 
hand> tnslititaihedj ^bat as kihh subsidy bf twelve 
lityirekl thousatid florins :ha4 b^^^ 8>rAn<^ by 
ttt6 StI&tes i0f'^#ndprS) of whjich tfabir represcip- 
tatiVeft w^re meiftbers, they were' bouad, lof 
course^ to <x)lifo#m td wha^ was enacted by 
thern^ as it-is the 'fir^ prindpie in sociidty^.^n 
^hich^tbe trat]lt}iii11tty atid order of go wrament 
d^liend, that the inclinations of the minority 
niust be oveMnled by tlie judgment and deci- 
sion of the superior num^ber. 

The citiarehs of Ghfcnti however, wew nx}t wil* procced- 
ling to relinquish a piriVil^e ^ such high im- 1^^ 
pdrtance as that Whifch they claimed. HaYing 
Ijeen accustottied, tftider the government of the 
house of Burgundy, to enjoy extensive immii- 



ni^es, and to he treated with mulch mdalget^c^v 
they disdained to sacrifice to th0 . delegate^ 
power of a regent, those rigtits and liberties 
which they bad often ,and sucqessfully asserteid 
against their greatest Princes. The Queea, 
though she endeavoured at first to sooth them, 
and to reconcile them to their dijty by various 
concessions, was at last soinuch irrit£^t^d by tbe 
obstinacy with which, they adh^ed . tg^ tjieir 
claim, that she ordeted all tl^ citij^e^s of Q^iit^ 
on whom she could, lay hold in aoy part of the 
Netherlands, to be ari'ested. But this rash ap- 
•tipn made an impression ye^y different- fr<Mii; 
what she expected* on men,' wbQSie minds^ were * 
agitated with all tbe violent pussions )y.hic|;v in- 
dignation at oppression and ^al for liberty iiv* 
spire. Less afiect^d with .the danger of their 
friends and cotnpations, than irritated ait the 
goveriuess, they openly despised her jauthj^rity^ 
and sent deputies to tjbe i>i\^x towns of Flan- 
ders^ conjuring them not^ to abandon their 
country at such a juncture, but to cqncur with 
them, in vindicating its i:ights;^e. en- 
croachments of a woman, who; either did not 
kndw or did not r^ard, their impiunitie?. . All 
but a few inconsiderable toyfU^ Reclined cater- 
ing into any confederacy against the governess: 
tliey. joined, however, in petitjioning her to jput 
off the term for paym^&t of tbe tax. so long, 
that they might have it in. their power to send> 
some of their number into %>ain, in order to la^ 
their title to exemption before their sovereign. 



This ^e granted with some difficulty* But 
Charles, received their commissioners with a^ 
haughtiness to which they were not accustom^ 
ed from their ancient Princes, and' enjoining 
them to yield the same respectful obedience to 
his sister^ which they, owed to him inperson^ 
remitted the examination of their claim to 
the council of Maiines. This court, which is 
properly a standing committee of the parlia* 
ment or. staties of thef country, and which pos« 
sesses the supreme jurisdiction in ail matters 
civil asiwdlais^riminaP, pronounced the claim 
of the citizens of Ghent to be ill-fouufded,* and 
appointed thiem forthwith to ^ay their propor- 
tion of the tax. . 

EniIagep at this decision^ which they con4 Th«y tak* 
sidered as notoriously u'hjust, and risndered des-* ^tosub- 
perate on seeing their rights betrayed by that "^ 
very court which was bound to pi;dtect them, 
the people df Ghent 'ran to arms' in ja^tumultu^ 
ary manner, drove such of the nobility as.resid-* 
ed amdng them out of the city $ secured seve* 
ral of the Emperor's officers ; put one df them 
to the torture, whom they accused of having 
stolen or destroyed the record that <^Ointained a 
ratification of the privileges of exemption from 
taxes' i^hich they pleaded; chose a. council to 
which they committed the directioti of tbeiil af^ 
fairs y gave orders for repairing and adding to 

* Descrtttione di tatti t^aesi Basst di Lud. Guicoiardini. 
Ant. 1571. fol. p. 53. 

VOL. m. M 


l7tJ "THE weiGN or 

^ ^^ * thieir for t)ficati6n$; and openly ewcted tite stadT- 

dard of refoeHkm agaanst tibeir Mvereigit*; Sen-^ 

fiii>le, hoiirever^ of th«ir inabiltfty ta-sappdrt. wh^t 

^heir ^eat HsmJ proinpted thent tcr und^take^ ahd 

desinom of sjecaring a protoetor agl^iist the . for- 

mhfa^e.forces by ivfa^oh ti»^ aadgbt expect 

BOonio be ia(iback€d9' diiey seat some of their 

number to FraiRcis^ bfTering iMt oniy to acknowv 

ledge him as tbeir sovereign, and tto.pnt'faim ia 

immediate'possessioi>..of> Ghent, but to asMt 

him with all their ^niHsea'iii reeoverii^ those 

provinces in:'tke Nethertaiid^ which had an* 

ciently • belonged to itbe er okh of France, and 

had been. 90 kitely re*united to it by the decree 

of the parliament of Paris. This un^cpected 

proposition coming from persons who had it in 

their pdwer to hAre perfori»ed instantly one^ 

pai^t of nHtot they onidertook, and i;vho ocnild 

Contribute bo effedtnufty toifrards :tfae eKecMion 

of thid whfiAe, opened gie«t as w^H as alkiring 

prospeeite 'taiFr»ncis's aabitiocu Thfii><paiiBties 

ef Flanderik a^d' Artcfts iwere of greada* vakie 

than Aie datchy of M Qan; wbieii ^ he had 60t 

foing'ialK)ured<'to aoquiite ^ifith passioaisite >bi]t 

fruitl^ desire"; tiieir sittratioii wathi^re^pect ta 

France reiadered it mt^e eai^y to^ cmiidpref or ta 

dtefeadltbepi.; and they ^Inftigit b^ farmadinto a 

sep^t^aibe principality for tb^ Du^ke '^ OtleM^f 

no less siiitable to hts dignity than that which 

* Memoirs sur la Eevoltb de Gantois eji 153^, par Jeai^ 
tf Hbllandor, ecrit «» xp^7. A la Haye, j7.4J» P. Heoter. Rcr, 
Aastr» lib. xi. p. 262. Sandov. Eistor. torn. il. p* 212- 

tils Alth^r aimed at obtalnirtg. To this, the ^%^^ 
Ftemin^, in^ho were acquainted with the French \i#-v^ 
lAaMiefs and go^remment, wodd not hare been *^^** 
AireMe; and hts^ own objects, weary of their de- 
stnidiire estpeditiond into Italy, wouM have 
ttimed thin^ir arms towards thii^ quarter Avith more 
good-wrfl, and with greater vigour. Several Jj^'* ^J* 
cohdida^fttiMii^, netertheleiiiji, prevented Francis offBr. 
from lay btg hold of this opportunity, the most 
&voufabIe in appearance which had ever pre* 
settited itMlf, 6f esttending his own dominions, 
or distk^essing the Emperor. From the time of 
their interview at Aigtiesmorteis, Charles had 
contfmilfed to court the King of France with 
wonfi^fa} attenfioti; and often flattered him 
with hopes of gratifying at last his wishes coii- 
eerhing' the MUabete, by granting the investi- 
ture of it either to him or to cme of his sons. 
But though these hopes and promises werd 
throwi) ont with no ot^er intention than to de- 
tach^ him from his Oonfederaciy with the Grand 
Seignior, or to raise suspicion^ in Solyman*^ 
mind by the appearance of a cordial and fami- 
liar intercourse subsisting between the courts of 
Paris and Madrid, Francis was weak enough to 
catch at the shadow by which he had been so 
often aihused, and from ^ eagerness to seize it, 
relinquished what must have proved a more sub- 
stantistl acquisition. Besides this, the dauphin, 
jealoils to e:seess of his brother, and unwilling 
that a Prince who seemed to be of a restless 
and enterprising nature should obtain aa esta- 


lap THE : |l£IG)N OF T»B 

^ v?^ blishmcnt, which from itsj situation might be 
considered almost as a domestic one, made use 
of Montiporency, who^. bj a sipgular piece of 
good fortune, was at the same time the favourite 
of the father and of the son,, to defeat the ap- 
plication of the Fleipipg?^ and to divert, th? 
King from espousing, thejr cause,. Mputmo- 
rencj , accordingly, represented, in strpng terms, 
the reputation and power which Fran^^is w,9uld 
acquire by recovering that footing whijch he 
had iormerly in Italy^and that nothing |C0^ 
be so effiea9iQU& to. .overcome the En^peror's 
aversion to a.s^qred adhere^ce^jto ,t];ie 
truce, and refusing, .Qn.a]:) occasjop so ioyitii^, 
to countenance the rebellipus subjects :^ his 
rival. Francis, apt of himself to over-ratp the 
Value of the Milanese, because he estimated it 
from the length of time as ,iy,ell as ffpij^ the 
great efforts which he had employed i|i ^orfleir 
to reconquer it, and fon^ of, every action .which 
had the appearance of , generosity, .assjented 

without difficulty to sentimepts so £(greej^l) 
his own, rejected the propositions of th^ citi- 
zens of Ghent, and dismissed their deputies 
with an harsh answer*. .« . . 

Cbnfmuni- ]sjoT satisfied with thig,- t)V a farther Vefme- 

^tes their ,. . .^ :• .. i .v , .i • j, . 

intentions mcnt iu geiierositv, he communicated to the 

to the Em- ^^ ** * t i ' " ' . . •.!*■< * ' < ^ 

peror. Empcror his whole negociation with thp mal- 
contents, and all that he knew of their schemes 
Snd intentionsf. This convincing pipof of 

* Meidr« dtf^Bellay, p^ 263^ . P. Heuter. Rer. Austr. lib. %L 
203. f Sandov* Histori torn. ii. 284. 




Francis's dishrterestedness relieved Charles from ^ 9 p ^ 
the most disquieting apprehensions, and open- 
?ed a way to extricate himself out of all his dif- 
ficulties. He had already received full infor- 
mation of all the transaetioos in the Nether- 
lands, and of the rage with which the people of 
Ghent had taken arms against his government. 
He was thdiroughJy acquainted with the genius 
and qualities of his subjects in that country ; 
witii their love of liberty ; their attachment to 
their ancient privileges and customs; as well as 
l^e iaviiicibie obstinacy with which their minds, 
»low bat firm and persevering, adhered to any 
measure on which they had deliberately resolv* 
ed. He easily saw what encouragement and 
^support they might have derived from the assis- 
tance of France'; and though now free from any 
danger on that quarter, he was still sensible 
that some immediate as well as vigorous inter- 
position was necessary, in order to prevent the 
spirit of disaffection from spreading in ^ couni- 
try wh&re the number of cities, the multitude 
of people, together with th6 great wealth dif- 
fused among them by commerce, rendered it pe- 
culiarly formidable, and would supply it with 
inexhaustible resources. No expedient, after Charles's 
long deliberation, appeared to hinqi so effectual tions con- 
as his going in person to the Netherlands; 'and /o,]^e^tr 
the governess his sister being of the same opi- {Jj^j^®*^^' 
nion, warmly solicited him to undertake the 
journey. There were only two routes which 
be could take ; one by land through Italy and 


® ^.j^ ^ Germany, the other entirely by s^, fcoiia some 
Wv^ port in Spam to one in the IiOW-^Countries. 
^^^' Bat the former wa^ oKMce tedious than suited 
the precept exigency of his affidrs ; ; nor could 
he in Qon$i)^ency witii.his.digmty» oreven his 
^fety» pass through Oiermaiiy wttliout sueh i^ 
train both of attendants and q£ troic^s, as would 
liave added greatly to t^e tiioe that' he must 
have consumed in his jfourney ; the latter wa^ 
dangero«id at this steason^ and while he remaiiied 
uncertain with respect to the frie^drisiip of the 
King of En^knd, was not to he ipentured upon^ 
unless nnder the convoy of a powcfful fieet. This 
perple:{cing situation, in which be was under the 
necessity of choosing, and did not know what 
to ch<H)ise> inspired him, alt Iiast with the sin^gti- 
lar and seemingly extravagant thought of pasr 
sing through France, as the most expeditious 
Proposes to j^^y ^f feaJching the Netherfajads. He propos* 

through ed in his council to demand Francis's, permis- 
sion for that purpose. AH his counsellors Jom- 
ed with one voice in condemning the measure 
as no less rash than unprecedented^ l^nd which 
must infallibly expose him to dbgrace or dan- 
ger; to disgrace if the demand were rejected in 
the manner that he had reason to expect ; to 
danger, if he put his peffson in the power of an 
enemy whoud he had often offended^ who had 
ancient injuries to revenge^ as we]i aa siubjectf 
of present content still remaining undecided. 
But Charles, who had studied the character of 
his rival with greater care and more profound 


£Nt£ltQB CHABLE& V. 1S3 

^jiSU^ernpiient ihaii:aoy of his ministersiy persirt^ 
ied in his plan, and flattered himself that it might 
be accomplished not only without danger to 
^ 05^1) p^*8on^ hut .^^n without the expence /. 
^f atiy cpMeMiwi 4f$tirmeQtol to his. orowiL 
• < 

. With this view b^ cornmuiiicated the mat- TonhicK 
tier to tbe French lonbasaador at his cotirt, and cw^!^ 
^elit. Granville hi9 ^Imf minister to Paris, in or* 
<der to c^tain from Francis permission to pass 
through his dami9>iotts» and to promise that he 
would tsoon settle the affair of the Milanese to 
his satisfaction. But at the same time he enr 
treated that Francis would not exact any new 
promise, or even insist on former engagements, 
at this juncture, lest whatever he should grant, 
under, his present circumstances, mig^t seem 
rather to he extorted hy necessity, than to flow 
from friendship or the love of justice. Francis, 
instead of attending to the snare which such a 
slight artifice scarcely concealed, was so daz- 
zled with the splendour of overcoming an ene^ 
vny by acts of generosity, and so pleased with 
the air of superiority which the rectitude and 
disinterestedness of his proceedings gave him on 
this Occslsion, that he at once assented to all 
that was demanded. Judging of the Emperor's 
heart by his own, he imagined that the senti* 
meats of gratitude, arising from the remem* 
brance of good offices and liberal treatment, 
would . determine him more forcibly to fulfil 
what he had so often promised, than the most 


precise s^tipiilatiorii^ that pould be inse^'ted m 
any treaty.' i 

SLnirXt Upon this, Charles, - to whoib every itioment 
kinsdom. was pTecious, set out, BotwitWtandiiifg the .fears 
and suspicions of his Spanish subjects, .with a 
small but i;ptendid train of about a hundred per- 
sons. - .At Bayonne, on the frontiers of France, 
he was received by the Dauphin and the Duke 
of Orleans, attended by the constable Mont* 
morency. The two Princes offered to gp into 
Spain, £lnd to remain there as hostages for the 
Emperot*s safety ; but this he rejected, declar- 
ing, that he relied with implicit confidence on 
the King's honour, and bad never demanded, 
nor would accept of any other pledge for his 
security. In all the towns through which he 
passed, the greatest possible magnificence was 
displayed ; the magistrates presented him the 
keys of the gate$ ; the prison doors were set 
open ; and, by the royal honours paid to him, 
he appeared, nwre like the sovereijjn -of the 
country thai^ a foreign prince. The King ad- 
vanced as far as Cb'atelherault to meet him; 
^540. tjiejj. interview was distinguished by the warm- 
est expressions of friendship and regard. They 
proceeded together towards Paris, and present- 
ed to the inhabitants of that city, the extrar 
ordinary spectacle of two rival Monarchs, whose 
enmity had disturbed and laid waste Europe 
during twenty years, making their solemn en- 
try together with all the symptoms of a confi- 



harmony, as if they had forgotten for ^^p^ 
ever past injuries, and would not revive hostili- v-vW 
ties for the future*. '^**^ 

Charles remained six da5's at Paris; but The Em- 
amidst the perpetual caresses of the French citude, 
courts and the various entertainments contriv 
ed to amuse or to do him honour, he discover- 
ed an extreme impatience to continue his jour- 
ney, arising as much from an apprehension of 
danger which constantly haunted him, as from 
the necessity of his presence in the Low-Coun- 
tries. Conscious of the disingenuity of his own 
intentions, he trembled when he reflected that 
some fiital accident might betray them to his 
ri^l, or lead him to suspect them ; and though 
his artifices to conceal them should be success^ 
ful, he could not help fearing that motives of 
interest might at last triumph over the scruples 
of honour, and tempt Francis to avail himself 
of the advantage now in his hands. Nor were 
there wanting persons among the French mini- 
sters^ who advised the King to turn his own arts 
against the Emperor, and as the retribution due 
for so many instances of fraud or falsehood, to 
seize and detain his person until he granted 
him' full satisfaction with regard to all the just 
claims of the French crown. But no consider- 
ation could induce Francis to violate the faith 
which he had pledged, nor could any argu- 
ment convince him that Charles, after all the 

* Thuan. Hist. lib. i, c. 14. Mem. de Bellav, 264. 


^ vt ^ pronuses that he had given, and all tbe fciTi^ttA 

w * *^^ idiieh he had receiyed> might stiJJi be capable 

^^^ of deceiving him. Full of this fabe confideooei 

- he accompanied him to St. Quintin ; and the 

two Princes, who had met hiiA on the borders 

of Spaiai, did not take leave of him until be es^ 

terediiis dominiona in the Low^-Coimtcies* 

•iidd»n^. As goon ^ tiie Emperor reached,hi0 own t^-- 
ritories,^ the French ambassadors demanded the 

tenary^^. accomplishment of what be had promised cw^ 
ceming the investitare of Milan ; bat Cbarles* 
under the plausible pretext that his whole aU 
tention was then eagrosiaed by tbe coQSoltationa 
necessary towands suppressing the jrebeUi<m in 
Gbenty pnt off the matter for aome time. But 
in order to prevent Francis from siispectitig his 
sincerity^ he. still conttnUQd to talk.of has resor 
Nations with respect to that matter in the same 
strain as when he entered France^ and evea 
wrote to the King: much to -the same prurposei 
though in general terms> and with eqnivocal 
expressions, which he might afterwards exj^aia 
away or interpret at pleasure^. 


iwiuctioii Meanwhile, the unfortunate qijtizens of 
rf Ghent i Ghent, destitutie of leaders capable either of 
directing their councils, or conducting their 
troops ; abandoned by the French King, atid 
nnsupported by.the^r conatrymen^ were uftable 
to resist their offended sovereign, who yfm 

^ Memoires de Bibi«r» i. 504% 



ready to advance against them with one body 
of troops whiek he had raised in the Netlicr- 
iands, with another drawn out of Germany^ 
asid a third which had arrived frcmSpain by sea« 
Tfee near apptoach of danger made them^ at 
Ittst, so sensible of their own foIljr» thai thejr 
aent amfaasvadors to the Emperor, imploring hb 
mercy, and o£R&iing to set open their gates at 
bis approach. Charles, witkont Touchsafing 
tkem any other answer, than thai he would ap 
peaur among them as their sovereign, with the 
aeeptre and the swofd in his hand, began his 
march at the head oi his troops. Thongh he 
chose to enter the city on the twenty-fourth of 
February, his bhrth<day, he was touched with 
itotfaing of tl^tt tenderness or indulgenGe which 
was natural towards the place of his nativity. 
Twen^|A«six of the principal citizens were put and pimigh. 
ta death ; a greater number was sent, inta citizens. 
hanisbmeht ; the city was declared to have for*- ^^"^ ^^' 
felted all its privileges and immunities ; the re^ 
fetuses belonging to it were confiscated ; its anr 
oient form of gove mamen t waa abolished; the 
nomination of its magistrates was vested for the 
foture in the Eoorperor and his succesNBors; a 
new system of tews and politicid administration 
was prescribed^ , and in ordev to bndie the se- 
ditious %gmt tof the citizens, orders were given 
• to erect a strcmg citadel, for defraying the ex-, 
pence of which, a fine of an hundred and fifty 

* Les Coutmxias & Loixdu Comiple de Fla«idre» par Alex. 
^ Gr^nde^ 3 torn. foL Camhniy, l7i9>.toaK i. j^. 169. 


^^p^ tbousaiKd florins . was imposed; on the mhabi* 
>^*v^ tants> together with an annua] tax of six thou- 
^^^' j^and florins . for the support . of the garrison^* 
By these rigorovs proceedings^ Charles not only 
punished the citizens c^ Ghent, but set an aw- 
ful example of severity before, his other subjects 
in the Netherlands, whose immunities and privi- 
leges, partly the effect, partly the cause of their 
extensive commerce, circumscribed the prero- 
gative of their Sovereign within very narrow 
bounds, and often stood in the way of measures 
which he wished to undertake, or fettered »id 
retarded him in his operations. 

4 f 

^wtoSt Charles having thus vindicated and re-esta- 
m his en. blished his authority in the Low-Countries, and 
IsIf^^ being now under no necessity of continuing the 
same scene of £a.lsehood and dissimulation with 
which he had long amused Francis, began gra- 
dually to throw aside the veil under which he 
had concealed his intentions with respect to 
the Milanese. At first, he eluded the demands 
ef the French ambassadors, when they again 
reminded him of his promises ; then he propos- 
ed, by way of equivalent for the dutchy of Mi' 
Ian, to grant the Duke of Orleans the investi?* 
ture of Flanders, clogging the offer, however, 
with impracticable . conditions, or such as he 
knew would be rejectedf. At last, being driven 
from all his evasions and subterfuges by their 

^ Harsei Annales Brabantiae, toI. i. 6I(5< 
t Mem. de Ribier, i. 5P9. 514. 



inttifiting for a oategorical answer, he perempto* book 
rily refused to give up a territory of such value, 
or voluntarily to make such a .liberal addition 
to the strength of an enemy by diminishing his 
own power^.' He denied at the same time, that 
he bad ever made aaiy promise which could bind 
hkn to an .action so fooliish^.atid so contrary to 
his o)wn interestf. 

, Of all the transactions in the^ Emperor's life, 
this, without doubt, reflects the greatest disho- 
nour on his^ reputation|. Though Charles was 
not extremialy scrupulous at other times about 
the means which he employed for accomplish* 
inghis end% and was not always observant of the 
strict precepts of veracity and honour, he had' 
hitherto maintainjed some regard for the maxims 
of that less precise and rigid morality by which 
Monarchs think themselves entitled to regulite 
their conduct ' But, on this occasion, the 
scheme* that he formed of deceiving a generous 
and open-hearled Prince ; the ttiiberal and mean* 
artifices by which he caifried it .'on ; the insen- 
sibility withi wktofa^ he received all the marks of 
bis friendship, as well as the ingratitude witfai 
which he requited them ; are all equally unbe* 
coming the dignity of his character, and incon*. 
si^tbnt with the grandeur Q% his iriews. 

This transaction exposed Francis to as much 

* Ribier, \.6\7. t Bellay, 365-6. 

X Jorii Hist, lib, xxx.ix. p. 238, a. 

^ I 


190 'pfiE ft£i6N or T&t: 

sGora as it did the Emperor to oeiiMra After 
the ^cperience of a long reign, after sol masij 
opportitntties of discoTerisg Ibe dupUoitjr a^d 
artifices of his rival, the credulous simplick^ 
vnth , wfaiieh he tfinsted him al; . this jimctiiM! 
»eemed to i merit ao other return than what it 
actually met with. Francifl^ however, remon- 
strated and exclaimed, as if this had been tfa^ 
first instance in which the Emperor had deceiy- 
^.him. Feeling, as is usu^, the insult wUch 
wa3 offered to his ni^erstandtng .still more sea* 
sibly than the injury done to his interest, he 
discovered sueh \ resentn^ent, as .made it ofaviMs 
that he would lay hold on t^i first .opportanity 
ctf being rer^iged, and tbait . a. war^ no . less / tin-* 
eofous than that which had so latelyi raged> 
would soon break <mt anew iHaEunofKCi 

• . :. . . . . \ ■ > . /■' 

'^^^ BtIT singiiliir as the traMJtctioa wfatob has 

authorizes ^ 

the instita- bei^u related may. Appear, tUs yctOT. is rendered 
^^'c^'' still more memmable by tte dstabliafame^ 
^'''^- d»e Order ofji^snitta; a bedy whosisi mfluetoe 
on eoclesiatstical as well as oiril affiwrs hatkboto 
so comiderabte^ that an aocomMl of the geaias 
of its lawli and goremweat justly mctitfta^plaoe 
in history. When men take a vie^ of. the rfr- 
pid progress ctf this sociely towards wealth and 
power; when they, conkemplale the. admirable 
prudence with which it has been governed; 
wben they -attend to the perserierrirng and syste- 
matic spirit with which its schemes have be^ 
carried on ; they are apt to ascribe such a sin- 


gnkr inrtitution to the (Superior wisdom of ite 
foimdef , and^o stippose that he hud formed and 
digeatdd hie pfei« with prc^ound pcdicj. Bmt *^^ 
the Jesuits, as weU as ihe other mooaatic oordenst 
arc^fiodebted for the ^eKi^ence of th^ir order, m)* 
t^ the ivifidom of their founder^ but to his ^nthu* 
sibHiiK Ignatio I^yola^ whosi I have alreiMiy 
menti^ed otk occasion of the wound which im 
fteeeiyed in defeading Pampduna^, i^s a feika- 
tie distinguished by extrava^aaioiee in seatimefl^ 
and eonduct,no;tess incompatible with the maisc^ 
kns^ of sober peasoQy Hhan repugnant to Uie spiiut 
of troe Deligion. The wild adrentiure^^ and vi^ 
lAoaadrysehemeS) \A which his enithusiasni en-. 
gaged bim, eqaal any thing recorded in the le- 
gends of the Romtsh saints ; but are nnwortfajr 
«f aotice in historj« -/. - .^ - / - . 

Prompted by this fanatical spirit, or incited Faaaticisni 
by the love of 'power and distii^ction, from itij^od^. 
wbieh such preteifdears to superior tanctity are 
Hot exempt, (Loyola was ambitiDus of .becoming 
tbe.iiMihder of a religioiis order. The pian, 
H^Uch.he formed' of its conititniioii and laws, 
ijras suggested, as he gave ont, and as l^s felw 
lowers stdll teach, by the immediate iaspiration 
^ heayenf. 9ut notwithstanding this hi|^ 
pretension, his design met at first with violent 
opposition. The pope, to whom Loyda had 

* Vbl. ii. Book ii. p. 192. 

t Compte rendu des Constitutions des Jesuitesj au Parle- 
jaent de Provence, par M, de Mbnclar, p. 285. 

19^ *rHE REIGN OF THfi 

applied for the sanction of his authority to colf^ 
firm the institution> referred his petition to a 
^^^' committee of Cardinals. They represented the 
establishment to be unnecessary as well as dan- 
gerous, and Paul refused to grant his approbar 
tion of it. At last, L«oyola removed all hi9 
scruples by an offer which it was impossible 
for any Pope to resist. He propoised, that be- 
ThePq[»»8 sides the three vows of poverty, of chastity, and 
confirming o£ monastic obcdience, which are common to 
' all the orders of regulars, the members of his 
society should take a fourth vow of obedience 
to the Pope, binding themselves to go whither-^ 
soever he should command for the service of 
religion, and without requiring any thing from 
the Holy See for their support. At a timp 
when the papal authority had received such a 
shock by the revolt of so many nations from 
the Romish church; at a time when every part 
of the popish system was attacked with so much 
violence and &uccess, the acquisition of a body 
of men, thus peculiarly devoted tb the See of 
BxHiie, and whoin it might set in opposition to 
all its enemies, was an object of the highest 
consequence; Paul, instandy perceiving this, 
s«pt 27. confirmed the institution of * the Jesuits by his 
bull; granted the most ample (irivileges to the 
members of the society; and appointed Loyola 
to be the first general of the order. The event 
^ hath fully justified Paul's discernment, in ex- 
pecting such beneficial copseqUences to the^Spe 
of Rome from this institution. In less than 

£l!tI>£Rait eUAKLES V: 

hsklfa centurys the society obtained establish* 
ments in every country that adhered to the 
Roman Catholic church ; . its power and wealth 
increased amazingly; the number of its mem* 
bers became great ; their character as wdl as 
accomplishments were still greater; and thef 
Jesuits were celebrated by the friends^ and 
dreaded by the enemies of the Romish faiths as 
the most able and enterprising order in the 



The constitution and laws of the society were lisobuBtitu. 
perfected by Laynez and Aqua tivd) ^ the two SSi^^ 
generals who succeeded Loyola, men far supe- gj^^^ 
rior to their master in abilities, and in the 
science of government. They framed that sys- 
tem of profound and artful policy which dis- 
tinguishes the order. The large infusion of fa^ 
naticism, mingled with its regulations, should 
be imputed to Loyola its fotmden Many cir- 
cumstances concurred in giving a peculiarity 
of character to the order of Jesuits^ and in form*" 
ing thc^members of it not only to take a greater 
part in the affairs of the world than any other 
body of monks, but to acquire superior influ- 
ence in the. conduct of them- 

The primary object of almost all the iiionas- the object 
tic orders is to separate men from the wotld, ai^uiv. 
and from any concern in its affairs^ In the so- 
litude and silence of the cloister, the monk is 
called to work out his own salvation by extra- 



im THE RWGN. w rm 


iedead tb 'the worlds and. ought not to mitigie 
^^^ ill ilg'traFHtactkm&i He *'ciui. he c^nd benefit ti> 
mudki ttdV tiiotby-^hia example ^d hjt bis pFsyejSr 
@{i >f htf eid^titmr^y the Jissuks^are t^tught taioon^ 
^dl^r ifbemselves ^.sliftM-ixittd .fan actioBi. , They 
aJreJ^hebeii *bldi€rs,.hbiliid to^ exerfc themselyea 
^mlMiitllj^ mthe service o£ God; attdiMfthe 
Bo^e^ his Vioar oa enrtiii Wiiatevw tends to 
instruct the ignorant; whatever can be of use 
to reclaim or to oppose the enemies of the Holy 
: &ie^//i3(ltheir pcoptr object Tbdi;> they may 
Vili haift fell leisure^ fat this aactive &trvi6e^ithey are 
^ ^^/tatfilly'' exempted frdnl^ those funetioiit^ thq 
peHonmance of i^hidi i»: the chief business of 
ether laboksu Tbey^ ftppewr in no pircio6dsioiis ^ 
t^ey {>p»tttse>e> ^igonotn austentiea ; they de: 
not oon^ume o»e. half ol their ttme in therepe-* 
tbnfOUk'Of ctedidtid' <Qffice#. ' But tl^ejr a^erequir- 
ed to itttcjnd ta aUl the transkctione cl the world 
€h;> aeoeimt of tke^ influtociei whioh. these may 
hare iipic)4» feUgion j they ai% diteerttfd tx» study 
the^s^peisitioiks^^f |»ersons m high i^sak^ fiod to« 
cuhi^l^ their ft*itadsbipt; attd by the vdryi oon« 
stitmtk))»y %9 Amelias g@nius( of the Murder, a' spirit 
of action and intrig^ieis it^fosed into all it» 

;* t ^ 

As the* tobjeet of th« sodety of Jesuits differ^ 

> < ' » . 

* Compte rex^duj par M. de Mopdar^ p. xiii. 290^ Sur J» 
I)esfnict. aes Jfesdites, par M. lyATembert, p. 42; 

t Cwiapte par M. de Monclao p. 12.^ 

iiiPEiiOR CHAliLt:s V. 


fed frotei thkt of the other monastic orders, th^ *^^^ 
di v^witjr Was no less in the fonft of its govern- v&vw 
mettt The other orders are to be considered pj^^^rf. 
as^* tolnntary associations, in which whatever ^««th« 
drfifecils the whole body, is regulated by the com- jKdicy, i^r- 
iWott snffi'aig^ of all its members. The execu- tJkhr^^t 
tifv^ 'power ii^ vested in the persons placed at Jj^e m!^ 
the head of each convent, or of the whole so- ^^ 
ciety; the legislative authority resides in the 
community. Affair^ of moment, relating to par- 
tictiilr converts, are determined in conventnal 
chapters; such as respect the >^hole order are 
considered hi general congregatiOhs* But Loy- 
ola, Aill of the ideas of implteit obedience^ 
which he had derived from his military profes- 
sion, appointed that the government of his or- 
der should be purely monarchical. A General^ 
choi^ for life by deputies from the set^eral 
proviiices, poi^essed . power that was supreme 
and independent, extending M every person^ 
GLtkd to every case. He, by his sole authorityi- 
nominated provincials, rectors, and every other 
officer employed in the government of the so- 
ciety, and could remove them at pleasure. In 
him was vested the sovereign administration o/ 
the revenues and funds of the order. Every 
member bekmging to it was at his disposal ; and 
by his ttncontrolable mandate, he could impost 
on them any task, or employ them in what ser- 
vice soever he pleased. To bis commands- tlxey 
were reqiuired not oftly to yield outward obe^ 
dience, but to resign up to him theinciiuAtions 



of their own wills^ and the sentiments ^ theif 
own understaiidings. They were to listen to 
his injunctions^ as if they had been uttered by 
Christ himself. Under his direction, they were 
to be mere passive instruments,: like clay u> the 
hands of the potter^ or like dead caripases incar 
pable of resistance^. Such a singular form of 
.■ policy couM not fail to impress its ehsM^acter 
on all the members of the prder^ and to give a 
peculiar force to all its operations. There is 
not in the annals of manjcind. any example of 
such a perfect despotism, exercised not over 
monks shut up in the cells of a convent^ but oyer 
men dispersed ' among all the nations of the 

* * • 

^^' As the constitutions of the order vest, in the 

stances , t • 

which en- General, such absolute dominion over all its 
exereiM^t members, they carefully provide for his being 
ipJ«t^\d. perfectly informed with respect to the charac- 
^^■^"N'** ter and abilities of his subjects. Every no- 
vice who offers himself as a candidate for en- 
tering into the order, is obliged to manifest his 
conscience to the superior, or to a person ap- 
pointed by him; and in doing this is required 
to confess not only his sins and defects, but to 
discover the inclinations, the passions, and the 
bent of his soul. This manifestation must be 
renewed every six monthsf. The society, not 

* Coropte rendu au Parlerm. 'de Bretagne, par M. de Cha- 
lotami p. 41, &c. Coinpte par M. de Monclar, SS. 185. 43. 

t Compte par M. de Monclar^ ^^12\, &c« 


satisfied with petietratmg in thiis manner into 
the' innermost rieefesses of the heart, directs 
each member. to observe the words and actions' ^^^' 
of the novices ; they are constituted spies up-'' 
on their conduct; and are bound to disclose 
eveiy thing of importance concerning them to* 
the superior^ In order that this scrutiny into 
their character may be as complete as possible,; 
a long noviciate must expire, during which they 
pass through the several gradations of. ranks in 
the society, and they must have attained the 
full age of thirty-three years before they can 
fee admitted to take the final vows, by which 
they become professed members*. By these 
various methods, the superiors, under whose im- 
mediate inspection the novices are placed, .ac- 
quire a thorough knowledge of their dispqsir 
tions and talents. In order that the General, 
who is the soul that animates and moves the 
whole society, may have under his eye every 
thing necessary to inform or direct him, the 
provincials and heads of the several houses are 
obliged to transmit to him regular and frequent 
reports concerning the members under their in- 
spection. In these they descend into minute 
details with respect to the character of ep^clii. 
person, his abilities natural or acquired, his tem- 
per, his experience in affairs, and the particu- 
lar department for which he is best fittedf. 

* Compte par M. de Moncl. 215. 241.. Sur la Destr. dca 
Jesk pj^ M. d'Alemb. p, 39* 

t M. de ChaloUis has made a cateulation of the number 


^ vp ' These reports, when dige9ted apd afriwaged^ are 
Vp^y-w entered ipto registers kept on purpose that the 
'•^^' General majr, at one comprebensite view, sur- 
vey the state of the society in every cornet** df 
the earth; observe the qualifications and talents 
of it3 members; and thus choose, with perfect 
information, the instrtimeots, which bis absolute 
power can employ in any service for which be 
thinks meet to destine them^. 

p,,,^^ As it was the professed iqtention of the or^ 
the pojrcr |jer of Jcsuits, to labour with unwearied jseal in 

and mflu- 

prder. of these reports which the General of the Jesuits must an* 

rnially receive according to th^ regulations of the Society. 
Tbeie amptiiit in 9H to 5384. If fhitt raai be diridad by n, Iba 
number of provinces in the order, it will iippear that 177 re- 
ports concerning the state of each province are transmitted to 
iKome annuallyf ComptOi p. 52. Besides thi9> there may be 
extraordinary letters, or such as ^te sent by the monitors Of 
spies whom the General and Provincials entertain in each 
house. Compte par M. de Moncl p. 43 !• tiiil* des Jemitey, 
Amst. 1761 1 torn. iv. p. 56. The provincials and heads of 
houses not only report concerning the members of the Society, 
but are bound to give the General an account of the civil af- 
Jhirs in the coimtry wherein they are settled; as fer as their 
l^nowiedge oi tbesf may be of beaefit to veligion. This con- 
dition may eo^tend to every particular^ so that jhe General is 
furnished with full information concerning the transactions of 
every Prince and State in the world. Compte par M. de. 
Moncl. 443u Hi«t des Jesuit, ibid. p. 58. When the affair* 
with t'eepect to which the provindiaU or rectors write are of 
importance^ tbay are directed to ufe cyphers; and iteb of 
them has a particular cypher from the General Compte par 
M. Cbabtais, p^ 54. 

* Compte par M. de Mond. p. 215* 459.— Compte par Bf . 
de Chalotais^ p^ $2. 2Q2, 

ffTMAdfting th« «i^vttti6n of mm s thi« ' ettgtigeA 
tfaetti) df et^Arsi^ in many ^live fuh€tt6ns. 
¥t0m th^r fifM itMiitatl(»i!i, th^y «oti9ide^e4 the 
i^UC^tkiti of y^utti fitl^ tlk^ir {^ecnlUr ^^viil(3e> 
tliey ikiiiied at h6iti^ ^{nHtiml guideiK «tttil C6kv^ 
fimtt)r4S ; tb^y pi^eoeh^ fre<|uently in order t6 
iii#truidt thfe people i^ they »et out ^s tnitisioii*^ 
iirie^^tb iHiiiv^rt tmbeli^fvi^g nMions. Tbe at^ 

velty of the institution, as well as the singtilai^p- 
ty of its objects, procured the order naany ad- 
tiiir^fft Mid ^fttr^ns. Th^ Governoi-i^ 4>f the' so* 
t^i^ty talk] the addf«fB to kv^il thetfinelve^ 6f 
evety eli^cum^tane^ in its ftttour^ and in a shoh 
time tbe i^umber as wdll as inflttenoe of its mem^ 
btrs iiiofM<$6d iv^MderfulIy. Before the e&plv^ 
tioh of the «istieMth Dentufy^ the J^e^its hdd 
<it>tikined the chief direetion of the educatioi^ of 
youth in erery Catholic country in Europe. 
They had heoome the ciMfe6€k)r9 of kittiosrt h\l 
itfc> monarchd) n fcmctiott of no I9m^ll inipottanee 
in any feign> btit under a weak Pk*inee, supe- 
rior even to that of minister. They Were the 
^pit'itual guides o( almost every person eminent 
for rank or power. They possessed the highest 
degree of confidence and interest with the pa- 
pal court, as the mo&t zealous aad able cham- 
pions £o€ its authority. The advenCages which 
an active and ent6rj)t*isltig body of men inight 
derit^e from all these ctrcumstaiice^ ar^ obvioua^ 
They formed the mincls of men in their youth. 
They retained sua ascendant over diem in their 
advanced years. They pos$e9Sed, at different 



*i W/, » 

I MO. 


periods^ the direction of the most comideraUe 
courts in Europe. They mingled in ail affairs. 
They tppk part ip every ipt^gue and revolu- 
tion. The Qener^l, by mpans of the extensive 
intelligepce which he received, could regulate 
the pperatjons of the order with the most pen- 
fept discernment, and by means of his absolute 
power, could caf ry them pQ with the i|tmos$ 
rigour and effect*. 

ffottm of Together with the power of the order, its 
wealth continued to increase^ Varied ^pe- 
dients were devised for eluding the obligation 
of the yow of poverty. The order acquirol am- 
ple possisssions iQ every Catholic country ; and 
' by the number a$ well as magnificence of its 
public buildiQgs, together with the value of its 
property, moveable or real, it vied with the 
xqost opulent of the monastic fraternities. Be- 
sides the sources of wealth common to all the 
regular clergy, the Jesiiiits possessed one whiqh 
was peculiar to themselves. Under, pretext of 
promoting the success of th^ir missions, and Of 

* When Loyola, in the year 1 5 40^ .petitioned tlie Pope to 
authorize the institution of the order« he had only ten disciples. 
But in the year 1608, sixty-eight years af^er their first institu- 
tion, the number of Jesuits had increased to ten thousand five 
hundred and eighty-one. In the year 1710, the order passes* 
sed twenty-four j»rQ/e9itf«{ houses; fifly-bine houses of proba- 
tion ; three hundred and forty residencies ; six hundred and 
twelve colleges; two hundred missions; one hundred and fifty 
seminaries and boarding-schools ; and consisted of 19«098 Je- 
suits. Hist, des Jesoitei^ torn. i. p. 20. 




fusiliti^tiag the support of theic missionariesi 
they obtamed a special licence from the court 
of Rome, to trade with the nations which they 
laboured to convert: In consequence of this, 
Ihey engaged in an extensive and lucrative 
4X>mmerce, both in the East and West Indies. 
They opened warehouses in difiieient parts of 
Europe, in which they vended their commodi- 
ties. Not satisfied with trade alone, they imi- 
tated the example of other commercial societies, 
^nd aimod at obtaining settlements. They ac- 
quired possession accordingly of a large and 
fertile province ifi the southern continent of 
America^ and reigned as sovereigns ovf^r some 
hundred thousand subjects^. 

Unhappily for mankind, the vast influence perniciooB 
which the order of Jesuits acquired by all these th^on 
different means, has been often exerted with Jl^yf^ 
the most pernicious effect. Such was the ten- 
dency of that discipline observed by the society 
in forming, its members, and such the funda- 
mental maxims in its constitution, that every 
Jesuit was taught to regard the interest of the 
order as the capital object, io which every con- 
sideration was to be sacrificed. This spirit of 
attachment to their order, the most ardent, per- 
haps, that ever influenced any body of menf, 
|s the characteristic principle of the Jesuits, 


* Hist des Jes. iv. 168<— 196, &c. ■ r >. - 

\ 7 ^' 

t Compte par M. die Mancl. p. 285. 


%o(^i: aad serves m a key to the genius of tlidtr poUL 
v^^^v^ ^Jr fts well as to- the fM^caiiarities in th^f ' gieati^ 
*^^ meats and conduct 

As it was for the honour Mid adfvmntage of 
the society^ that ita memhers^ sdmidd posscM Mi 
ascendant over persons in high rank orof gMat 
pomBTy the dei^iiie of atq^ivrinf a»d prenenritig 
aooh a direction of their- cendnety with greater 
fyjcilitj, has led th« Jesuits to jiropagoie a isya- 
tern of relaxed and pliant morality^ whioh a«- 
eommodatei iteelf to the passionid of men,* whkili 
justifies their lices^ which tolerates their iitipeiv 
fections, which authorised almost «every aetieti 
that the most audacious or ^^rofty potitician 
would wish to perpetrate. 

As the prospei;ity of the ord^r mM intimater 
Ijr conheeted with the presenat^ of the papal 
authority J the J^uits, influ^&need by the 6ame 
principle of attachment to the inter^ste of th^ 
society, have been the most aealous patrons of 
those doctrines, which tend to exalt eoclelia^A- 
cal power 4n the ruixis of ci^il govet-ntnenl. 
They have attributed to the court of Rome a 
jori^tction as expensive and absolute as was 
<;^ined by tfoe most pr^umptuoas pontiffii in 
the dark agea. They hftte contended lor • the eti- 
tire dependence of eoclesiai^ics Wi the civil ma- 
gistrate. They have published such tenets con- 
cerning the doty of opposing Princes who were 
enemies of the Catholic fi^thf as countenanced 



tine mcMrt mtrDoiottto -erimes, and ti^iided to di^ ^^^.^ 


solf e all the tietf whioh (XMUitet i^Ubjecls with 
their rulem. . . ! ^^^ 

As the order derived both reputation and au- 
thority froiu the seal with whidi it stood forth 
ii^ defeoice of the lipniish efauroh against the at* 
tacks of the Reformert, ito nvembers, proud of 
this distinction^ have considered it as their pe« 
caUar funbtion to combait the opiniona, and to 
check the progress of the Protefitaot& They 
have made use of every art^and have emplc^** 
ed every weapon .gwast them. Theyimvese* 
themselves in oppo«tion .to every gentle or to« 
l^rating measure in their favour. They have 
incessantly stirred up against them all the rage 
of ecclesiastical and civil persecution. 

Monks of other dfinominations- ba?ve, i 
ventured to teach the same pemici^oiis doc-* 
trineS) and have held opinions equally inconsis* 
toot with the order and happiness of citil socie- 
ty. Bat they, from reasons which are obvious, 
have either delivered such Opinions with greater 
reserve, or have propagated them with less suC^ 
cesa Whoever recollects the. events which 
have happened in Europe during two centuries, 
will find that the Jesuits may justly be con- 
sidered as responsible for most' c^ the pemici- 
ous effects arising from that corrupt and dan- 
gerous casuistry, from those extravagant tenets 
concerning ecclesiastical power, and from th^t 


BOOK, istolerabt spirit^ whicfa have been the disgrace 
WvW of the church of Rome throughout that period, 
^^^* and which have brought so many calamities 
upon civil society*. 

Some acu BuT amidst many bad consequences flowing 
]||^|^ from the institution of this order, mankind, it 
^niSrf^ ^^^^ ^ acknowleged, have derived from it 
^"^i some considerable advantages. As the Jesuits 
made, the education of youth one of their capi- 
tal objects, and as their first attempts to esta- 
blish colleges for the reception of students were 
violently opposed by the universities in differ- 
ent countries, it became necessary for them, 
as the most effectual method of acquiring the 
public favour, to surpass their rivals in science 
i»articuiariy and industry. This .prompted them to culti-* 
tine. ' vate the study of ancient literature with extra- 
ordinary ardour. This put them upon various 
methods for facilitating the instruction of youth s 
and by the improvements which they made in 
it, they have contributed so much towards the 
progress of polite learning, that on this account 
they have merited well of society. Nor has 
the order of Jesuits been successful only in 
teaching the elements of literature ; it has pro* 
duced likewise eminent masters in many 
branches of science, and can alone boast of a 
greater number of ingenious authors, than aft 

* Encyclopedie, 2LTt. Jemites, torn. viii. 513, 




*he otlier religions fraternities tak^n toge- ^^^^ 
ther*. ^-i^vw 


BifT'it is in the nevr world that the Jesuits Mm ^pe* 
hkve exhibited the most wonderfol display <rf ^l^ 
their abilities, and have contributed most effec* »«"*«? «»<^ 

... ' Jesuits in 

dually to the benefit of the human species. Ptomgoay., 
The conquerors of that unfortunate quarter of 
the globe acted at first as if they had nothing 
in view, but to plunder, to enslave, aud to ex- 
terminate its inhabitants. The Jesuits alone 
made humanity the object of their settling 
there. About the beginning of the last century 

* M. d'Alembert has olMeryed, that ibougb the Jemits have 
made extraordinary progress in erudition of every speeies: 
thoagh they can reckon, up many of their brethren who have 
been eminent mathematicians, antiquaries, and critics ; though 
they have evea formed some orators of feptttatton ; yet the or- 
der has never produced one m9Sk». whose msiid was so much 
enlightened with sound knowledge, as u> merit the name of a 
philosopher. But it seems to be the^ unavoidable efiect of mo- 
nastic education to contract and fetter the human mind. The 
partial attachment of r monk to the interest of his order which 
is often incompatible with that of other citizens ; the habit of 
implicit obedience, to the will of a superior, together with the 
frequent return of the wearisome and frivolous duties of the 
cloister, debase his faculties, and extinguish that generosity of 
sentiment and spirit, which qualifies men for thinking or feel- 
ing justly vrith respect to what is proper in life and conduct. 
Father P^ul of Venice is, perhaps, the enly penan educated 
in a cloister, that ever was altogether superior to its prejudices, 
or who viewed the transactions of men, and reasoned concern- 
ing the interests of society, with the enlarged sentiments of a 
philosopher, with the discernment of a man conversant in af« 
f^ra^ and with the liberality of a gentleman. '^' wo . 


-.vv.r•^♦ /I.' ;«' -- » _• '.. 1 <^.- .' ^r 

S06 TSE S£IGN or TfiC 

they obtained admisuoti into the fertile pro- 
vince of Paraguay, which stretches across: tfta 
^**** southern continent of America, from the east 
fiidte of Hie: imittenise ndgp» of the. Andes, to the 
, confines of the iSpaoisb and I\)rtiiguete settle- 
ments oa the baa&ks of the riirer de U . Plate. 
They found tlie iidnabitants in a state tittlei dif 
lerent from AaA which takias place among mien 
when they ir$t begin tounitie: togethei'; straoh 
g^s to the furts; sobsisting precariojn^ly bjr 
. hunting or fishing ; and hardiy acquainted with 
the first principles of siibordinatioa and:go^er» 
ment Th^ Jesuits set thetnselire^i t(> -in3tnitt 
and to civilize these savages. They taught 
them to cultivate the grouhd, to rear tame ani- 
mals, and to build houses. They brought them 
to live together in villages., They trained them 
to arts and manufaetures.. Theyi made them 
tasle the si^^eets oi society; and aceustohied 
them to the blessings of security and order. 
These people became the subjects of their bene- 
factorsi; who have governed them with a tendeir 
attention, resembling that with Which a father 
directs hisf cbtldren. Respected and beloved 
almost to adoration, a few Jesuits presided over 
some hundred thousand Indians. They main- 
tatned a perfect equality aoiong all the mevor 
hefB of the community. Each of them wa§ 
obliged to labour not for himself alone, but M 
the public. Tlie produce of their fields, toge- 
ther with the fruits of their industry of every 
species, were deposited in common, storehoufei^ 


fwjta iwfeicb Moh iodWidttil recaived craiy thiing ^^.^ 
necQMmry for the tufipljr oH hisrwaatav By this Vi^»rW^ 
ioatitutioiXi i atlmofiyl; all tbo pasaons^ whitoh cHs- ^^^' 
turh tlie.pQaciQ :of$aciety» aad render tbe men^. 
bet^ of il uolM^y^ ; extiagui^ed. A few 
miagistrates, cfaofitn from anMngtheiv country- 
m<lli, byitkelfidiansliieqftiyivts,' Watckei^ otrer 
tfefi' public ftratiquilUty, abdi stcured^ obedteMe 
to the ^laWi^ ' Th^ <i&ngttinary puAiibment j» lre» 
qnMt uiuler other governments were unknown. 
An admomlKHi fri^tMi a Jesuit 3 » slight maik of 
infamy % or, on some singulis' occasion, a iem 
lasbes v^itb a wbi^, wore 9uffi4)tent to maintain 
gQiod ord W' affiiong these innocent and bappjf 

,; BdT- e'veli in ; tbit liierltorioqa elFort of th6> Je«- Even hem 
i^its far the ^ good of mai\kiiid»^ the geniua and tk^^d ' 
spirit of their order have vDbingled and are dia-^ the ^t^ 
eemiUe. Tbey plainly aimed at esteblishing d»cermbie. 
in Paraguay an^ independemfi empire^ suligect 
tov the. society alon^^ and:ierhich, by tbe superior 
excellence <4>f its ^constitution and police,, could 
scardelry haTe failefd to extend its dominion over 
all the southern contineqt of America. With 
\i^ view, in order to prov^ent the Spaniards or 
Portuguese in the adjacent settlements, from 
acquiring any dangerous influence ov^r the 
pl^ople within the limits of the provinpe subject 

\,^ Hist, du Paraguay par Pere de Charlevoix, torn. ii. 42, &c. 
Voyage au Perou par Don G. Jiian & D. Ant. d« Ulloa, torn. 
i. 540, &c. t^an 4to. 1752. 



to the society, the Jesuits endeavoured tcr ii 
spire the Indians with hatred and contempt of 
these nations. They cut off all intercourse be^ 
tween their subjects and the Spanish or Porta* 
guese settlements. They prohibited any pri« 
rate trader of either nation from entering their 
territories. When they were obliged to admit 
any person in a public character from the 
neighbouring govemm^itSi they did not peormit 
him to have any conversation with their sub* 
jects, and no Indian was allowed even to enter, 
the house where these strangers resided, unless 
in the presence of a Jesuit. ,In order to render 
any comlnunication between them as difficult 
as possible, they industriously avoided giving 
the Indians any knowledge of the Spanish, or 
of any other European language; but encourag- 
ed the. different tribes, which they had civilized, 
to acquire A cert JBun -dialect of the Indian tongue, 
and laboured to make that the universal lan- 
guage throughout titeir^dominions. As all t^ese 
precautions, without military. force, would have 
bden insufficient to have rendered their empire 
secure and permanent, they instructed their 
subjects in the European arts of war. They 
formed them into bodies of cavalry and infantry, 
completely armed and regularly disciplined. 
They provided a great train of artillery, as well 
as magazines stored with all the implements of 
war. Thus they established an array so nu- 
merous and well-appointed, as to be formidable 
in a country, where a few sickly and iltdisci- 


t piined battalions composed all the military forbe ^^^ ^ 
kept on foot by the Spaniards or Portuguese^. 


The Jesfuits gained no eonaiderable degree ^^"^^ 
of power during ; the reign of Charles V* whoj fou « ^iew 
with his usual sagacity, discerned the dangerous vemment 
te^ency <rf the instiftuttoni and checked its pro- ^^the 
gressf. But as the order was founded in the ^^«^- 
period of whrch- 1 write the history, ai^ as the 
age to- whiich I aMress this work hath seen its 
fall, the view which I have exhibited of ihe laws 
and genius of this foraiidable body will not, I 
hope, be unacceptable to fny readers ; : especially 
as one circamstance has enabled me to enter 
into this detail with particular advantage. Eu- 
rope had observed, for twO' centuries the ambi- 
tion and power of the order. But while it felt 
many. fatal effects of these, it could not fully 
discern the causes to which .they were to be im- 
puted^ It was unacquainted with many of the 
singular regulations in the political constitution 
or government of the Jesuits, which formed the 
enterprising spirit of intrigue that distinguished 
its members, and elevated the body itself to such 
a height of power. It was a fundamental ma:?t- 
im with the Jesuits, from their first iiistitiitibn, 
not to publish the rules of' their order. These 
they kept concealed as an impenetrable mystery. 

* Voyage de Juan & de Ulloa, torn. i. 549. Recucil des 
toutes les I^ieces ((ui ont para sur les Affaires des Jesuites en 
JPortwgal, torn. L p. 7, &c. 

t Compte par M. de Mono), p. 512. 

vot. in.: o . 

t ' 

sria niE reign of tat 

BOOK they never commUnicaEted them to strangers; 

^n^H^"^ nor even to the grenter part of iJfieir own mem- 
'**^* bers. Thej refused to produee them .when re- 
quired by courts of justice* ; and by % atraoge 
wiecism id policy, the civil power in different 
countries^ authorised or connii^ at the estvr 
blishmeiit of an order of men, whosi^ constUu- 
tion and laws were concealed with a solicitude, 
Whach adoae was a good reason for excluding 
them; During the prosecutions latdy carried 
On against them in Portiigal and Framiie, the 
Jesuits have been so incQOside^^ as to produce 
the mysterioua ▼vdwins of tbnr institisle. By 
the aid of these authentic records, the principles 
of their govenunent may be delineated, and the 
sources of their power invesligaled with a decree 
of certainty and preeision>' which, previous to 
that evei^t, it was impossible to attainf. Bat 
as I have pointed out the dangerous tendency of 
the constitotioEi and spkrtt of fche endei^ with the 
freedom becoming an historian, the candour and 
impartiality no less requisite m that charaK^ter 

* Hist des J«i. tain# iii« 2)dr &c« Comptg par ]^ ae 
Chalot. p. 38. 

t The greater pert of •my infortnation concerniog the go« 
temment and laws of the order of Jesuits, \ have derived from 
the reports of M. de Chalotais and M. dto Mondar. I rest not 
tonf narraidvc^ however, upon the authority even of these re* 
spectahle magistrates and elegant vrriter^ but upon innumer-^ 
able passages which they have extracted from the constitutions 
of the order, deposited in their hands. Hospinian, a Protes* 
tant Divine of Zurich, in his Historia JeHiiiica, printed A. D. 
i6l9, published a small part of the constitutions of the Jesuits, 
of which by some accident he had got a copy; p, 13**-54. 

fiH^EllOR CltAKL£8 V^ 211 

call on me to aM om observations That no ^^^^ 
class of regular clergy in the Romish church ^^ ^ vW 
has been more ettiitoent for de<iencyi and even ^^^' 
purity of manneri», than the major par^ of the 
order of Jeraits*. The maxims of an mtrigu^ 
esb ings ambitious^ interested policy^ might im 
m fluence those who governed the society^ and 
mi^t even corrupt the hearty and pervert the 
conduct of some individuals^ while the greater 
iraml^i engaged in literary pursuits^ or em^ 
ployed in the functions of religion^ was left to 
the guidance of those common principles which 
irestratn men fr^mi vice> and excite them to what 
id becoming and laudable^ The causes which 
occasioned the ruin of this mighty body^ as well 
as the circumstances and ejects with which it 
has been attended in the difli^rent countries of 
Europe, though objects extremely worthy the 
attcfntion of every intelligent observer of human 
afFiairs, do not fall within the period of this his* 

No sooner had Charles r^est^ilished order i^"^ 
in the Low-Countries, than he was obliged to 
turn his attention to the afiairs in Germany. 
The Protestai)ts pressed him earfteistly to aph 
point that Conference between a select number 
of the divines of each party^ which had been 
stipulated in the convention at Francfort* The 
Pope considered such an attempt to examine 

into the points in dispute, or to decide con* 


^ Sor la X>efitnict dtfi Jes. par M . T/Aiembtti, p. St5. 


cerning them» as derogatory, to his right ef 
being the supreme judge in controversy j and 
A wifCT. b^ing convinced that such a conference would 
t^^^^e ^^^^^^ ^^ ineffectual by determining nothing. 
Popish and or prove dangerous by determimng too mucli> 
divines, he employed every art to prevent it. The Em- 
June 25. peror, however, finding it more for his interest 
to sooth the Germans than to gratify PauUpaid 
little regard to his remonstrances. In a diet held 
at Haguenaw, matters were ripened for the con- 
i>ec. 6. ference., In another diet assembled at Worms, 
the conference was begun, Melancthon on the 
one side and Eckius on the other,, sustaining 
the' principal part in the dispute j but after 
they had made some progress, though without 
concluding any thing, it was suspended by the 
Emperor's command, that it might be renewed 
with greater solemnity in his own presence iu 
a diet summoned to meet at Ratisbon. This 
1541. assembly was opened with great pomp, and 
with a general expectation that its proceedings 
would be vigorous and decisive. By the con- 
sent of both parties, the Emperor was entrusted 
with the power of. nominating the persons who 
should manage the conference, which it ^was 
agreed should be conducted not in the form of 
a public disputation, but as a friendly scrutiny 
or examination into the articles which had 
given rise to the present controversies. He ap- 
pointed Eckius, Gropper, and Pflug, on the 
part of the Catholics ; Melancthon, Bucer, and 
Pistorius, on that of the Protestants ; all men of 
distinguished reputation, among their own ad- 



herents, and, e^&ept Eckius, all eminent for 
moderation, as well as desirous of peace. As 
they were about to begin their consultations, 
the Emperor put into their hands a book, com- 
piosed, as he said, by a learned divine in the 
Low-Countries, with such extraordinary per- 
spicuity and temper, as, in his opinion, might 
go far to unite and comprehend the two con- 
tending parties. Gfopper, a cannon of Co- 
logne, whdm he had named among the mana- 
gers of the conference, a man of address as 
well as of erudition, was afterwards suspected 
to be the author of this short treatise. It con- 
tained positions with regard to twenty«-two of 
the chief articles in theology, which included 
most of jthe questions then agitated in the con- 
troversy between the Lutherans and the church 
of R6me. By ranging his sentiments in a na- 
tural order, and expressing them with great 
simplicity 5 by emptying often the very words 
of scripture, or of the primitive father's ; by soft- 
ening the rigour of some opinions, ahd ex- 
plaining away what was absurd in others ; by 
concessions, sometimes on one side, and some- 
times on the other; ai^d especially by banish- 
ing as itiuch as posl^ible scholastic phrases, 
those words and terms of art in controversy, 
which servers badges of distinction to different 
sects, and for which theologians dften contend 
more fiercely thaii for ^opinions themselves j he 
at last framed his work in such a manner, as 
promised fairer than any thing that had hithe)> 


* ^J^ * to beea attempted, to compose and to tenuis 

ft^<w«. BifT tha att<JHtion of the age was turned, 
with sach acute observatiQo, towards theologi^ 
cal controversiesj that it was not eftsy to im- 
pose qn it hy ^y gloss, how a?tf»l or specious 
soever. The length and eagerness of the dis- 
pute had separated the contending parties so 
completely, and had set their tninds at such va* 
riance, that they were not to be reconciled by 
partial ponoessions, All the aealons Catholics, 
particularly the ecclesiastics who bad a seat in 
the diet, joined in condemning Gropper's trear 
tise as too fipfyourahl^ to the Lutheran opinion, 
the ppisoR of which h§«'^y it conveyed, as 
they pretepdedj, witH greatejr daqger, becau^o 
it w^p in some degree disguised. The rigid 
l^rotest^nt^i, especis^Uy I^uthcir hims^f, and hif^ 
pf(,tron the Elector of Raxotty, were fw ? qjecfr- 
ing it as an impious compound of error and 
truth, craftily prepared that it luigH^ ^I^PP^c 
on the weaks the timid, aud the untfefinhihg. 
But the diviuei^ to whom the eKanaiaation of it 
was comn^itted, entered upoifi that |i>ttsiness 
With greater deliberation and temper. A^ it 
was more easy in itself, as weH as more incon- 
sistent with the dignity of the church, to make 
concessions, and even alterations with regard 
to speculative opinions, th$ discusskHd whereof 
is confined chi«^y to schools, and which pre- 
sent nothing to the people that either strikes 

* Goldast. Constit Imper. iL p. 182. 




tbair knagiiiatioii <kt ftfibcts their senses, they 
came to an accommodation about these with* 
. out much labour, and evea defined the great ^^^^ 
articie coucertiin; justification to their mutual 
satiftfiaGtion. But^ wfadb they proceeded, to 
points of Jwrts^iction, where ti^ interest and 
autlKMnty of the Reman See were coni^rned, or 
to the rights aud* forms of external worship, 
nrhere every change that could be made must 
be puUto, and drlili^. the. observation, of the 
people, there the Catholics were altogether un<« 
tractable; nor could the church leither with 
safety 4>r with honour abolish its aneient insti- 
tottons^ All the arttdes relative to. the power 
of the Pope, the authority of coimcils, the ad-^ 
ministration of the ^craments^ the worship of 
aaintSi and xuioy o^er particulars^ did not, in 
their nature, admit of any temperament \ so 
that, Wter lakonring long to bring about an 
acoommodation with mspect to these, the £^-» 
peiot found all his> endeavours ineffectual 
Being impatienti howevor, to close tlie die|, \A 
at last prevailed on a majority of the nuambem 
to approve of the tallowing recess ; 1' Thit thir ^^^^^ ^ 
articles conoerniag which the di^^N^s bad lutisboii m 
agreed in the oonfewnce, should be ^dd as ^^^* 
points decided, and be obsen^ed uriiiobl}]^ b)^ jTts 
all I tk«t th^ other grticlei aboiit wiiidi.they 
had differed) should be referred Xfl: the determt^ 
tiation of a general council, or if that could ^' 

not be obtained, to a naticmid synod of Geit- 
many ; and if it should prove impracticable, 
lil^ewise, to assemble a synod, that a generf^ 



^^f^ diet of the Empire should* be called . within: 
eighteen itiontbs, in order to give^aonve final 
judgment upon the whole controi/ersy^; that 
the Emperor should, use all his interest and aur 
thority with the Fofie:^^ tojprociure thetneeting 
either of. a:.general coufncil or synod ^ thak, iii 
the mean time, no indoratiiQiis. should be at-. 
tempted, no endeavours should be employed 
to gain proselytes y and x^ither the revenues of 
the church, nor ' the . rights of monasteries, 
should be invaded?*^. . 

s'veso^ All the proceedings of this, dief^aff well as 

to Papists the recessr in which they Jterminated, 'gave. great 

tSitsf*^*^ offence to the Pope. Thei power which the 

Germans had assumed-of appointing their onm 

divines to examine apd tdetenmae. matters of 

controversy, he considered as. a very idai^erous 

invasion of bis rights ; tbfe ^newilig of theitian- 

cient , proposal ooncepmng ia^ natianal synod, 

which had been so often rfejebtedhy him and 

his predeodssocs,. appeared extremely: undatiful ; 

hot the bare .mentioii.of aIl((Hv!ing a diet^com* 

p6sed chiefly oflaymeh^tOipassJiidgfaeiytcfvith 

< i^speet to articles of faith, -was ideemfd :ao less 

. criminal and profoofi^ ftbaiilibe wdrstiiof those 

heresies! which they, stem^di aealous to duppness. 

On the other hand, this Protestants wiere no less 

dissatisfied with a recess, thai considi^rably 

abridged .the liberty which . they enjoyed at 

courts that time. As they * murmured loudly against 


* Sleidaii, 267, &c; Pallav. I. iy. c. 11. p. 136. F. Paul, 
p. 86. Seckend, h ill. ^56» -'• 


it, Gharks, anwiUiug to le^ve :any seeds of dis- ^^^ 
content in the EBapire, granted tb^m a private ^^p»yW 
declaration in tbe most ample teems, exempt- ^^^' 
v»g tbem from whatever they thought oppres- 
sive or injuriow in the recess, and ascertaining 
to them the full possession of aU the privileges 
-which: they had ever. epjoyed*i . 

Extraordinary as these concessions may A&inof 
appefikr, the sitaation of the Emperqr's a£&irs at. "°^'^' 
%hU juncture made it necessary iw him to grant 
them. He foresaiv a rupture with Frsmqe tOr 
be not onlyfiiaiWQtdab^, huti ikear aMiand, and 
dar^% not gi^e any such cause of 4isgus|t or f<par 
to the Protestl^nts, as might force them^ in self* 
defepcie, to cqurt, the protection of the French 
King,. from whom^ a([ presenl;, they were much 
aliwated. Tbe fsfiid progress of the Turks in 
HiuQgaryf v?a9 a more pow^ul and urgent mo- 
tive to that moderatic^} wJaich Charles disco- 
yeiredf. , A grefit. revolution had happened in 
that kiti^om-; John Zapol Scsepi^ having cho* 
sen, as has been r/elated, rather to possess a tri* 
hwtary kan^^m, thim to i^-eaounce the royal 
dignity towhich be had been accustomed, had, 
l^y ,t)}e assistanpe of his mighty protector Soly- 
maq, wi;ested from Ferdinand a great part of 
the country, and left him only the precarious 
possession of the rest But being a Prince of 
pacific qualities, the frequent attempts of Ferdi- 
nand, or of his partisans among the Hungarians, 

* Sleid. 283. Seckend. 36S. Damont Corps Diplom. iv. 
ff ii. p. 210. 


to recover what they had lost, grettly ilisquiet- 
ecThim; and the n^essity <m thesd 0€Cttioii8» 
^^^' of calling in the Turks, whom heco&fiidered 
and felt to be his masiers rather than auKittar 
nes, was hahlty lessinoitifykig* In oi»d€r, tiiere* 
fore> to avoid the^ distresseis^ as^ltrell as tose* 
cure quiet and leisure . foi* cultWatmg the atts 
and enjoying amusements in which he delight- 
A.n. T55S. ed> he secretly came io-m agteiemdM With his 
competitor, on tiN4s conditioti : That F^rdtnaml 
should acknowledge him as King of 'H«Hifgary^ 
and leave him, duritig lile,- the uiimolested po4»- 
session 6f that j^art of the kmgdMti now in liis 
power ; but that, up<Hi his d^tn4i^> the sole right 
of the whole should devolve «pcfn Ferdmand^. 
As John had never been iMirried, and was then 
fhr advanced \rt lifb, the terms of the contraot 
kerned very favouralbte to ' Ferdinand, ^t; 
soon after, semne of the Hungarian n6bles> soli* 
citous to prevent a fdreigner from ascending 
their throne, prevailed on John to pul an end 
to a long celibacy, by marrying Isabella, the 
naitiiof daughter of Sigismond King of Poland. John 
^^,^ had the satisfacti<m, befete his death, whtdi 
happened within less than a year aftfer his mar- 
riage, to see a sotibom to inherit his kkigdotn. 
To him, without regarding KIs treaty with FteN 
dinand, which he considered, ho doubly as Votd, 
upon an event not foreseen when it was con- 
cluded, he bequeath^ his crown; appointing 
the Queen and George Martinuz^ffi, bishop of 

^ Istaaobaffii Hist Hung. lib. xiu p. 1^5^ 



Warndio, guardians of his son, and regents of ®^J* ^ 
tba kingdom. Tbe greater part of the Hun*" Vl«>^^ 
garioofi inamediately acknowledged the young ^^^* 
Prince as King, to wh<mi, in memory of the 
ftmiidor of their monarchy, they gave the name 
of S^phen^. 

Ferdinand,, though extremely disconcerted l^^'^ 
hy this unexpected event, resolved not to aban- oiitaiii tbe 
doa tbe kingdom which he flattered himself 
with having acquired by his compact with 
John, i He sent ambassadors to the Queen to 
olaim possession, and to offer the province' of 
Transylvania as a settlement for her son, pre- 
paring at the same time to assert his right by 
force of arms. But . John had committed th9 
rmxe of his son to persons who had too much 
spirit to give v^ the crown tsunely, and who 
possessed abilities sufficient to defend it The 
Queen, to all the^ address peculiar to her own 
sex, ta^ded a masculine courage, ambition, and 
magnanimity. Martinuaei, who had raised Character 
himself from the lowest rank in life to his pre- of mI^!^ 
sent* dignity, . was one of those extraordinary 
meo), who, by the ^ictent as well as variety of 
their talents, are fitted to act a superior part in 
bu^ng and factious times. In discharging the 
functions of his ecclesiastical office, he put on 
the'^semblance of an humble and austere sancti* 
ty« Jn civil transactions, he discovered industry, 
<kxterity, and boldness. During war he laid 

* Jovii Bipi* libt xxxix. p. 239, a. &c« 




^Z?^ aside the cassock, and appeared oti hofsebacK^ 
with his scymitar and buckler, as active, ais os- 
tentations, and as gallahtas any of his country- 
men. Amidst all these different and contradic- 
tory forms which he could assume^ ati insatiable 
desire of dominion and authority was coh$picu*' 
ons. From such persons it ivas obvious what 
answer Ferdinand had to expect.. : He soon per- 
ceived that he must depend -on arms aiotie for' 
recovering Htmgary. Having levied fot this 
purpose a consideraible body of Germans, whom^ 
his partklins anfiong the Hungarians joined with 
their vassajs, he ordered them to nu^rph iiito 
that part of the kingdom which adhered to 
Stephen. Martinuz:ji, unable to make head^ 
against such a powerful army in the field, satis- 
iied himself with holding out the towns, all of> 
which, especially Buda, the > place of gneatest 
consequence, he provided with every thing ne-^ 
caTfe rathe ccssary for defcncc ; andin^tibe ihean'timehe 
sent ambassadors to Solyman, beseedhihg him. 
to extend towards the sofn, the same Imperial 
protection which had so lon^ maintained the 
father on his throne. The Sultan, thongh Fer- 
dinand used his utmost endeavdnrs to thwart 
this hegociation^ and eveti offered to accept of ' 
the Hungarian crown on the same. ignominious 
condition of paying tribute to the Ottoman' 
Porte, by which John had held it^ saw: such 
prospects of advantage from espousing the iur 
terest of the young King, that he instantly pro- 
mised him his protection; and commanding one 
army to advance forthwith tovVards Hungary^ 


lie himself followed with another. Meanwhile ^ y?*^ 
the Germans, hoping^ to terminate the war by ^^ii-v^**^ 
the. reduction of a citj in which the King and ^'^** 
his mother were shut up, had formed the siege 
of fiuda. Martinuzzi, having drawn thither the 
strength of the Hungarian nobility, defended 
the town with such courage and skill, as allow- 
ed the Turkish forces time to come up to its re- 
lief. They instantly attacked the Germans, 
iveakened by fatigue, diseases, and desertion, 
smd defeated them with great slaughter^. 

SOLYMAN soon after joined his victorious »>hmatfSi 
troops, and bemg weary oi so many expensive condiKt 
expeditions undertaken in defence of dominions 
which were not his own, or being unable to re? 
sist this alluring opportunity of seizing a king- 
dom, while possessed by an infant, under the 
guardianship of a woman and ' a .priest, he al- 
lowed interested considerations to triumph with 
too much facility over the principles of honour 
and the sentiments of humanity. What he 
planned ungenerously, he. executed by fraud. 
Having prevailed on the Queen to send her son, 
whom he pretended to be desirons of seeing, 
into his camp, and having, at the same time, 
invited the chief of the nobility to an entertain-* 
ment there, while they, suspecting no treachery, 
gave themselves up to the mirth and jollity of 
the feast, a select band of troops by the Sultan's 
orders seized one of the gates of Buda. Being 

♦ Istuanbaffii Hist Hong. lib. xiv. p. 150. 


thus master of the capital, of the KingV persoti, 
and of the leading men among the noble^^ he 
^^^' gave orders to conduct the Queen, together with 
her s<m, to Transylvania, which province he 
allotted to them, and appointing a Baaha to 
preside in Buda with a large body of soldiers, 
annexed Hungary to the Ottoman empire. The 
tears and complaints of the unhappy Queen had 
no influence to change his purpose, nor could 
^Martinuzzi either resist his absolute and on^ 
controulable command, or prevail on him to re^ 
cal it*. 

FeWttMBd't Before the account of this violent usurpation 
s^tyma^^ rcachcd Ferdinand, he was so unlucky as to have 
dispatched other ambassadors to Solyman with 
a fresh represeatation of his right to the crown 
of Hungary, as well as a renewal of his form$;r 
overture to hold the kingdom of the Otto« 
man Porte, and to pay for it an annual tribute. 
This ill-timed proposal was rejected with scorn. 
The Sultan, elated with succesp, and thinking 
that he might prescribe what terms he pleased 
to a Prince who voluntarily proffered conditions 
so unbecoming his own dignity, declared that 
he would not suspend the operations of wai^, im« 
less Ferdinand instantly evacuated all the towns 
which he still held in Hungary, and consented 
to the imposition of a tribute upon Austria, in 
order to reimburse the sums which his presumpr 
tuous invasion oi Hungary had obliged the 0^ 

* Istuanhaffii HisU Hang. lib. xir. p. 56* Jovii Histor. lib. 
xx\\z, p. 2476, &c. 


toman Porte to expend in defence of that king* ^%2^ 
liom*. s-^>/'mi/ 

In this fttate.were the elhirs ^ Huiigar]r4 
As the unfortunate events there had either hap- 
pened before the dissolution of the diet at Ra- 
ttsbon» or were dreaded at that timey Charles 
MW the dati^er of irritating and inflaming the 
minds of the Grermans, while a formidable ene- 
my was ready to break into the Empire ; and 
perceived that he could not expect any vigors- 
ous assistance either towards the recovery ^f 
Hungary, or the defence of thei Austrian fron- 
tiers unless he courted and satisfied the Protes- 
tants, By the doncessions which have been 
mentioiked» he gained this pointy and such li- 
beral supplies both of men and money were 
voted for carrying on the war against the 
Turks, as left him under little anxiety about 
the security of Germany during next camr 

Immediately upon the conclusion of the ^mper&r 

diet, the Emperor set out for Italy. As he ^^^ ***^^' 
passed through L^cca he had a short interview 
with the Pope ; but nothing could be conclud- 
ed coneerning the proper method of composing 
the jteligious disputes in Germany, between 
two Princes, whose views and interest with r^ 
gard to that mattei^were at this juncture so op- 
posite* The Pope's endeavours to remove the 

. * Istuauhaffii HisU Hung^ lib* is^iv. p« 159* 
t Sleid, 283. / 


CSktk^idB of discord between Charles and TnwA^^ 
and to extinguish those mutual animositielB 
which threatened to break out suddenly into 
open hostilityi were not more sficcesirful. 


Hia expcdi- ^HE EitiperOr's thoughts were bent so en* 

tion against ^ • . 

Aigie»,aiid tirely, at that titne^ on the great enterprise 

k. ^^ ^ which he had concerted against Algiers, that 

he listened with little attention to the P(^*s 

schemes or overtures^ and hastened to join im 

army and fleet*. 

Algiers sfill continued in that state of de- 
pendence on the Turkft^i empire to which Bar^ 
barossa had subjected it. Ever since he, as 
Captain Basha, commanded the Ottoman fleet; 
Algiers had been governed by Hascen-Aga, si 
renegado eunuch, who, by passing through every 
station in the Corsairs service, had acquired 
such experience in war, that be was well fitted 
for a station which required a man of tried and 
daring courage. Hascen, in order to shew hov^ 
well he deserved that dignity, car|*ied on his pi- 
ratical depredations against the Christian stat€» 
with amassing activity, and outdid, if possiMe, 
Barbarossa himself in boldness and cruelty^ 
The commerce of the Mediterranean was great- 
ly interrupted by his cruisers, and such fre^ 
quent alarms given to the coast of Spain, that 
there was a necessity cuf eneeting watch4owet?s 
at proper distances, and of ke^ng guards con* 

* Sandov. Hislor. torn. ii. 298^. 


fetantly on foot, in ' order to descry the approa&b ® y ^ ^ 
of his squadrons^ and to protect the inhabitants y>^^y^^^ 
from their descents*. - Of this the Emperor had ^^*^' 
received repeated: and cktmorous complaints 
from his stibjects. Who represented it as an en^- 
terprise corresponding to his power^- and be* 
coming his ^humanity, to redude Algiers^ which 
siace th^ conqu^t o^ Tnnis^ was the common 
reieeptafle'of all the free-booters^ and to exter* 
minat^.that laiyless .race> tl^ implqicabie ene^ 
mieiof the Christian name. Mo^^ed partly by 
thdic' entrbaties, and partly allured by -tiie hope 
of addiikg to the glory which^ he.ihad.^dquired 
by 'hifl la§t escpedittoii into Africa^ Char^es^ b^ 
fore he left Madrid^ in his way to the Low- 
Cottlitries^ had is^ed orders: both in Spaiti and 
Italy I to prepare a fleet and army for this pur- 
posris.' -No change in circumstancesy since that 
timej.cbiild divert him from this.resolution^ or 
prevail oa him to torn his arms towards Hun- 
gary j though the iuccpss of the Turks in that 
country; seeihed more immediately to require 
his presence there; though many of his most 
faithful adherents' in Germany urged that the 
defence : of the Empire :ought to be > his first 
and peculiar care; though such' as bore him 
no goodwill ridiculed his preposterous conduct 
in Hying from * an: fenemy almost at • hand, that 
he might go in quest of a remote and more 
igttoble foe. 'But to atjback the Sultan in Hun- 

r * 

* Jovii. Hist. I. si. p. 266. ' 

VOL. Ilf. P 


^ vL^ garyi . hfOiw Splendid goevffr thut metusmre mifglit 

api^fttf. Vffis t9ja undertitkis^ig which ei^eeeded his 
^^^' ppw^r, iiiwi waa not ^cowistjeijt with liis iikt6re£t 
Tp dt:aM tjroo|k$.out'Of Spam or Italjr^ tb mareh 
them .in4fO » country so did taut m Hmigaiy, to 
pr0v!i4e the rart apparattia neoeeaar j for tcans^ 
{>0^i?tifig4hithfer the artillerj/^^ ammiiBitiQi], alod 
baggage of a regular army, and4o.pu6h.the war 
in that qiiarter^ wfcjere there was 1 iHile I prospect 
of .brija[gis)g/it to an issue daring sevet^Aicam^ 
t>aigm> wes^ undertaktags :so ^pensit^ and 
widdy.tts did inoi <;orre^ond with the Idw 
tioB of th^ Efaipdror's treasui^y.- While his ^riti« 
eipal foroe m as. ihhs empk^yed^ his doktiiiioni 
in Italy and! the. Low-^Coiintries mudt haro latil 
' opi^D to the Freadr King, who wodld not: have 
allowed such a £ivourable opportunity pf attdcid* 
ing them, to go unimproved.^ Whereaethe-ACrif- 
ean expedition, the pcepanalions for which- wev6 
already finished^ and almost the whole ekpence 
of it defrajred, would depend upon a sibgle ei^ 
fort ; and i^edilss the security and satisfaetioti' 
which the .success ol it must give hi8 subjf ctSy 
would detaiJi' him during^ so 'Short a spad^, that 
Francisi coiiild hardly take adizantage of his ab* 
sence, ta iavade his dominions^ in Europe. • 

1 1 

Hi» pfcptf- On all * these accounts, Charles adhere^ to 
his first plan, and with such determined obsti^ 
nacy, that he paid no regard to the Pope, who 
advised, or to Andrew Doria, who conjured him 
not to expose his whole armament to aln^ost 

UOArftiMa^te <k;ptr«^fe«»/ l?y..V!eBti»rmg ^'pp- 9;Q.^ 

hiB: teimpjQfi often liptfta^iM^ iMithml tJgl^/: irt^imm''^ 
stranMs tafrAtmiPoperant^/Dom^Dor f(her;^«|i^c 
to wHifihtheihrtdfaUreadjf )l»eri.exp«tti hylf^ 
reg«rdiogKthQrft; ^^^ice^ jhdjt: My other. d^^Ql 
than toi>icb!ifiriQi i^imi iubi^. .fatal. ;r^QlitCiiim% 

such a4 lXBg^4i hfife .intsfittced a. Prini>e^ Itsa; ad? / 
v^htnDoua; aiid Itoscoo^deht in:hU OH^oisbbeiliesi . 
with the most sanguine hopes of sneoess;. li 
consisted of twenty thousand foot, and two thou- 
sand i bar3e/; Spaeri^ds, . it^t^ns, atod iQermans, 
mostly ¥Qteteii8^ tQgofher With threa thduis^nd 
TohxntcerB^i the flower :o^ the Spanish .and Italian 
nobiKtyi fdndof paying court to the ldEti:p6rchr 
by atireodinghim in. bis. favourite, okpt^itioo^ 
and eager to: share in the; glory .w^i^h. they b^ 
lieved he usas going to? reap; to thise were addl- 
ed a tbonfisod soldiibrs 'sink from* Malta by thf 
order of St. JohD> If d t^ aft baiodred !of its^most 
gallant Kniglits. . . . , . 

.•■<. '/ 


Lands in 


The v6yage from Migotca. tp tlid kfric^aii 
toast, 'Mras liot less tedious, or full of bazardy 
than thai; which he had just finished. When 
he approached the land, the roll of t/he sea^ and^ 
vehemence of 'the windi^, would not* p^m^it the 
troops to disembark. But at last; ^the^ Empe- 
ror, seiiirig' 41 favouh-able opportunity, landed 
them without opposition^ not far froin Algiers^ 
and iteitiediately advanced towards* the town. 
To oppose this mighty army^ Hasceh bad only 
eight hundred Tiirks^ an4 five thousand Moors^ 
partly liailvies of Africa^ and jiaftly refugees , 
from Granada. 'He returned,, however, a 'fierce 
dfnd haughty answer when summoned to sur- 
render. B»t with such a handful of soldiers^ 
neither his desperate courage^ nor consummate 
skitl'in war, could have long resisted forces su- 
perior to lihose Which: bad defeated Barbarossa 
at the head of sixty thousand men, and which 
had reduced Tunis in spite of sdl bis endea^ 
vours to save it. 

The disas- 
ters which 
befel bis 

.. But bow far soever the fimperpr might think 
himself beyond the reach of any danger 'from 
the enemy, he was suddenly exposed to a more 
dreadful* calamity, and one against which bu^ 
man prudence and human efforts avail nothingJ 
Oh the second day aftier his landing, and be- 
fore he had time for any thing but to disi 
perse some light^armed Arabs who molested his 
.troops on their march, the clouds began to ga- 
ther, and the heavens to appear vyrith . a fierce 



aind threatening aspect. Towards evening, rain ^^^ ^ 
began to fall, accompanied with violent wind ; 
and the rage of the tempest increasing, during 
the night; the wldiers, who, had brdaght no- 
thing ashore but their arms, remained expoi^ed 
to all its fury, without tehts, or shelter, or co- 
ver of any kind. The ground <wa8 soon so wet 
thP't they could not lie down on it; their camp 
being in a low situatiion was overflowed with 
water, and they sunk in every step to the an- 
kles in mud; while the wind blev^)" with such 
impetuosity, that, tp prevent their falling, they 
were obliged to thrust their spears into the 
ground, and to support themselves by taking 
hold of them. Hascen was too vigilant an of- 
ficer to allow an ^nemy in 3uch distress to re* 
main unmolested. About the dawn of morning, 
he sallied out with soldiers, who having been 
screeqed from the storm under their own roofs, 
were fresh and vigorous. A body of Italians, 
who were stationed nearest the city, dispirited 
arid benumbed with cold, fled at the approach 
of the Turks. The troops at the post behind 
then\ discovered greater courage ; but as the 
yaiii bad extinguished their matches, and wet 
their powder, their muskets were useless, arid 
having scarcely strength to handle, their other 
arms, they were soon thrown into confusion. 
Almost the whole army, with tlie Emperor 
himself in. person, was obliged to advance, be- 
fore the enemy could be repulsed, who, after 
spreading such general consternation, and kil- 



BOOK march, even in a friendly country ; nnd* being 
dispirited by a succession of faardsliipa,: which 
victory itself would scarcely have rendered to* 
lerabl^, they were in no condition to undergo 
new toils. But the situation of the army wasi 
such^ as allowed not one moment for delibera- 
tion, nor left it in the Jeast doubtful what to 
phoose. They were ordered instantly to march, 
the wounded, the sick, and the feeble, being 
placed in the centre ; such fis seemed most vi- 
gorous were stationed in the front and rear. 
Then the sad effects of what they had suffered 
began to appep.r more manifestly than ever, 
and new calamities were added to all those 
which they had already endured. Some could 
hardly bear the weight of their arms; others, 
spent with the toil of forcing their way through 
deep and almost impassable roads, sunk down 
and died; many perished by famine, as the 
whole army subsisted chiefly on roots amd ber^ 
ries, or the flesh of hWses, killed by the Empe^ 
ror's order, and distributed ampng .the several 
battalions ; many were drovvned in brooks, which 
were swollen so much by the excessive ra,ins, 
that inp^^sing them they waded up tpthe chin; 
not a few were killed by the enemy, who, dur- 
ing the greatest part of their retreat, alarmed, 
harassed, and annoyed thena night and day. 
At last they arrived at Metafuz; and the wear 
ther being now so calm as to restore their com- 
munication with the fleet, they were supplied 
with plenty of provisions, and cheered with the 
prospect of safety. 



During this dreadful series of calamities^ ^yp^ 
the l^mperor discovered great qualities, many v^*-v-*/ 
of which a long continued flow of prosperity Hiffortu 
had scarcely afforded him an opportunity of 
displaying. He appeared conspicuous for firm- 
ness and constiancy of spirit, for magnanimity, 
fortitude, humanity, and compassion. He en- 
dured as great hardships as the meanest soldier; 
he exposed his own person, wherever danger 
threatened; he encouraged the desponding; 
visited the sick and wounded; and animated 
all by his words and example. When the army , 
embarked^ he was among the last who left the 
shore, although a body of Arabs hovered at no 
great distance, ready to fell on the rear. By 
these virtues, Charles atoned, in some degree, 
for his obstinacy and presumption in undertak- 
ing an expedition so fatal to his subjects. 

The calamities which attended this unfortu- Returns to 
nMe enterprise did not end here ; for no sooner 
were the forces got on board, than a new storm 
arising, though less furious than the former, 
scattered the fleet, and obliged them separately, 
to make towards such ports in Spain or Italy 
as they could first reach ; thus spreading the 
account of their disasters, with all the circum- 
stances of aggravation and horror, which their 
imagination, still under the influence of fear, 
suggested. The Emperor himself, after escap- 
ing great dsyjigers, and being forced into the 
porl; of Bugia in Africa, where he was obliged Dec. 2. 



*vt?^ by ccmirary winids to remain seveml weelfs, 
arrived at last in Spain, in a condition very dif« 
ferent from that in Iwhich be had returned from 
his former expedition against the infidels*^ 



* Carol. V. Expeditio ad Argyrlam, per Nicolaum Village 
nonem Equitem Rhodium, ap. Scardiumi v. ii. 36i5. Jovii 
HisU L xl. p. 669, &c. Vera y Zuniga Vida de Carlos V. p. 83. 
Sandov. Histor. ii, 299, *&c. 

• * 







U\' -j * 

BOOK vir. 

HE ^DAlatkiitleA which the Em^6Wr suffered ^%^^ 
\ti his littforttttiate enterprise against Algiers v,^-v-^ 
i^*re great J and the accotint' of the^e, which Rci^tliof 
fragmented in pr6poMibn as it spread at a great- b***F«Kis, 
ef dtstatjce frdtn thd Scaie of his disasters, en- and his mo- 
couraged' Francis to begin hostilities, on which 
he had been for s6me time resolved. Bat he 
did not think it prudent to produce, as the mo- 
tives of this resolution, either his ancient pre- 
teftsions to the dutchy of Milan, or the Empe- 
t*or's disiitgemiitjr in violating his repeated pro- 
ttiises with regard to the restitution of that 
country. . The former might have been a good 
jfeas0n against concluding the truce of Nice, but 


^vr?^ was none for breaking it ; the latter could not 
K^fsr^m^ be urged without exposing his own credulity 
^^^' as much as the Enaperor's want of integrity. 
A violent and unwar'rantiable p-ction of one of 
the Imperial generals furnished him with a rea^ 
son to justify his taking arms, which was of 
greater weight than either of these, and such 
as would have roused him, if he had been as de^ 
sirous of peace as he was eager for war, Fran- 
cis, by signing the treaty of truce at Nice, with- 
out consulting Solyman, gaye (as he foresaw) 
great offence to that haughty Monarch, who 
considered an alliance with him as an honour of 
which a Christian Prince had cause to be proud. 
The friendly interview of t][\e French K^ng with 
the Emperor in Provence, followed by such ex-^ 
traordinary appearances of union and confi- 
dence which distinguished the reception^ oT 
Charles when hep^^Siised tjirpugh.the dominions 
of Francis to the I^ow-Countries, induced the 
Stdtan to s^spect that the two rivals had at last 
forgotten their ancient enmity, in order that 
they might form such a general confederacy 
against the Ottoman^ power, as had beei^ long 
wished for in Christendom, and often attempted 
in vain. Charles^ with, his usual art„ endeavour- 
ed to confirm and strengthen these suspicions, 
by instructing his emissaries at Const'iintinople^ 
as well as in those courts with wl;iich Solyman 
. held any intelligence, to represent the concord 
between him and Francis to be so entire, that 
their sentiments, views, and pursuits, would b^ 


EftPEUdtt CHARLES V.' 237 

the same f6t fchfe fatuire*. It was not without ^y^^ 
difiiculty that Francis dJaced these impressions; 
but the address of Rincon, the French ambas- 
sador at' the Poftei togeihef w^Ith the manifest^ 
adH^aiitage of carrying on hostilities a^inst the* 
house' of Austria in concert with France, pre4 
vailed at length 'on the Saltan not only toba^ 
ATsh his suspicions, but to enter into a closer: 
<^onj unction > with Francis than even Rincoh 
returned into France, in order to communicate 
to his master a ^scheme of the Sultan's, fov gdin^ 
iiig the concurrence of the V^eaetiaAs in their 
operations against the common enemy* Soly- 
ikian having lately concluded a peace with that 
^republic, to which the mediation of Francis and 
the good offices of Rincon had greatly cantri* 
bated, thought it not impossible to allure the 
senate by siich advahtages, as, together with 
the example of the French Monarch, might 
overbalance any scruptes aHsing either from 
decency or caution, that could* operate on the 
other side. Francis, warmly approving of this 
measure, dispatched Rincon back to Constan- 
tinople, and, directing him to go by Venice 
along with Fregoso, a <5en6ese exile,' whom he 
appointed his ambassador to that republic, em^ 
powered them to negociate the matter with the 
Senate, to whom Solyman had sent an envoy 
for the same purposef. The marquis del Guasto, 
governor of the Milanese, an officer of great 

* Mem« de Ribier, torn. i.. p. 502. 
t Hist, de Venet. de Paruta, iv. 125. 

N^ yW Qutkhg the; MOrt . ath^diftits ftctifiiis, gpt ^^t? . 
^*^ g£»oe of the inotiowtand !d6«t;i»aJi6n;irf f thf»0 
ambaasadort: .A» he. knew b^mifrnqb hi^mUh 
t€j: widaed. to diat^Vier . tjnj; jti^fptioQs j^fi :*lte 
Fropgh Kii^, and joC wb»tjdoiim|tt0iicie it wM( 
to retard the. exwtJftkm Qf ;his^ iswswmiea^ he eliBh- 
pbyed.soiiie j&aldierjSi h^longing j$o ih^ g^rri^PA 
Themurder ofvPavia to.Ke ill. Wait for Rincon and F^^^ 
bas^re' as ihiey ' fiaoied dowfit the iPo> whQ ni urdf^^ t^)emr 
£tw^ and most of thejr iitte»(iftn*«^; aiid^ seized tihiew 
papers.. Upoa. receiving an: ^ai>e9!ii^ o£ tbm 
barbarous outrage, committed (di]:ring:;thfi^i»^ 
sifitence A»f-a trace>: a^wt pensons held-sltccedi 
by: the indst' unekrilJ^Bd oatsoas, .Ppaocid'ivgfiief 
for. tbe iiiihappjr fate, of two . servautt. whom: bo 
loTi^d . and drufited^ hia . uneasiness at the iv^mn 
riiption of hie schemes by: their deaths ami' eiMfy 
otber : pais£ion> : were swalloNned. upi and lost iir 
the .inctigDation .which, tllia insult: on the hotoouo 
of hi& crow^n exicited:. He' exclaimed Icmdl)^ 
against Guasto^ irho^ having drawn upo&MinH 
self) ali the infamyi of assassination: without nrakM 
ing>any diecoveigic o£ importance^ ai tike .ambas<^ 
- sadorg Jbad left thetp instriH^ions andi other pa^ 
pers .of consequence behind thoni^. now boldiji 
denied his being accessary in any .wise. t(h .'tbe 
crime. H^ sent an aaibassador ta the Empe>r 
ror, to- demand: suitable^ reparatron for aa indigi 
^ nity, which no Pr-ince, howancbnsidei^le .or 
pustllgnimous soever, could tamely eadure : and 
when Charles, impatient at that tipie to set out 

rr • : , - 

, ' I J • • 1 . ' ' • P .•♦.•..'. 

rcOnaiito^a^eitedihidiown: itinoefince, the 
accusatibp& of 'the:.Fc)tirich. ghineii. igrqaEteii : Gh&- 
dit iiian^ alii tiiiau ipixittesliatk>n&^ ' aiid Bdlajr^: ithd 
Fi»hclii otouaMUiddr !in: Piejiiiqnti piKicurcid^ . .at 
lengthy by hisibidtlsttiyfaQd adire$s»;«ui;h a xcof 
Biite detail of 'tha tfotisaGtiiin^ witk^the testU 
i^imy.df'4iO t»a«y;of thi^ paf^tyei^^ncerned, » 
ainoua^ted ahn^st to a'legal-probf; of the majv 
qoie*s^aUt< ' la xionbequeilce of: thk' opinion of 
thie |iQbIic, coa^dhed'by sitch »trofi^g evidence, 
Fmuiicis's com plaints^ were tiniversally oil^vfred 
to. be wel) founded, and the slops-wbioh he tdk>k 
towards renewing hostilities- were i ascribed not 
mep^y to ambkion Or resentment, but. to the 
unavoidable necoi^sity of vindicating- ^he honour 
of his crown*, 

s ' ' 

I . \ * * . , , 

HoarfiVER just Francis might est^pm his own 
eaoise, be did* not< trust so much > to that, a& to 
neglect the proper precautions for gaining 
other allies besides the Sultan> by whose aid he 
might counterbalance tlie £mperor/^ superior 

* Bellay, 301, &c. Jovii Hist lib. xl 268- 


JEtt BEROR €HA£L£S V. 3S9 

ott his Afirican eitpeditifisi, endaawured to pnf 
hiin off with an evasive ansivt^r,/ ht. appMledb to 
wAh iihe; courts! of ^Euirojpei^ setting, fortli the boun^ 
Qutoeftsof iJnd JnjuiTy, tha sfkitl 6£ .tngidccajkioil 
Mdih Which ine had applied fiirredressi, aad .<2ie 
inriqnilrir of th{e;:£na|ieror m Jdiaifegasding tUsr 

jjiist l^uest. . ;>•::. Mi '•'.' 



^ vi? ^ fwwer. ■ But his' begoctatibns . to this effitet wetel 
attended' with . v^ry littie success* Henry VIII* 
eagerly bftfat* at lJ[^t time upon schemes against 
Scotland^ which t he kifew; woiald at oace di&> 
solve his anion with France^ iwas inclinable- m* 
ther to take paH: .with the Hmf^ror, than to 
contribute in any degree towards favouiiiig th^e 
operations against him* The Pope adhered in- 
vtoiably to ^ ihis ^ancten t system : of: Heiitralfty. 
Tiie Vatietians^ nofcwithsthnding Solymah'i^ soli<^ 
citations, imitated the; Pope'siiei^ample. Ttie 
Gnermans, sa^tisfied with tisiei frel^ions' • Hbierty 
which they enj oy ed» found it i more ^ theiar • ^nte*" 
rest to gratify tfatun to irritate, tsbe Emperdr ^ sd 
that the Kings of Denmark aiid Sweden^ wba 
on this occasion were fiir^t drawsu in 4o interest 
themselves in the qiiarr^Is. of the . more ^ potent 
Monarch&of the^soutbi andtheDukeofCleyesi 
who bad a dispute with the Eoiperor abou^ the 
possession of Guelders^ were the only confetde- 
rates whom Francis secured* Bttt: the domi-^ 
niQns of the^twoJorinei: lay at such a distance^ 
and the pi^wer of the latter was, so inconsid^- 
able, that be gained tittle by their alliance. : ; 

Francis's guT Francis by vigorous eiForts of bis own 

industry in , •f o 

preparing activity suppHedfevery defect.- Being afflicted 
at this tiitee < with a distemtper, which was the 
effect of his irregular pleasures^ and which pre- 
vented his pursuing th^m with the -sarnie licen- 
tious indulgence, he applied to business with 
more than his usual industry* The same cause 

£MP£ROR CHAftLES V. 841 

Which occasioned this extraordinary attention ^ ^^ ^ 
to his affairs, rendered him morose and dissatis- Ni-^*v-«^^ 
Bed with the ministers whom he had hitherto ^^*^" 
employed. Hiis accidental peevishness being 
sharpened by reflecting on the false steps into 
which he had lately been betrayed, as tvell as the 
insults to which he had been exposed, some of 
those in whom h^ had usually placed the great- 
est confidence felt the effects of this change in 
his temper, and were deprived of their offices. 
At last he disgraced Montmorency himself, 
who had long directed affairs, as well civil as 
military, with all the authority of a minister no 
less belovdd than trusted by his master j and 
Francis being fond of shewing that the fall of 
such a powerful favourite did not affect the vi- 
gour or prudence of this administration, this 
was a new motive to redouble his diligence in 
preparing to open the war by some splendid 
and extraordinary effort. 


He accordingly brought into the field five „ ^54«. 
armies. One to act m Luxembourg under the fiveawr 
Duke of Orleans, accompanied by the Duke of fi^d. 
Lorraine as his instructor in the art of wan 
Another commanded by the Dauphin marched 
towards the frontiers of Spain^ A third, led by 
Van Rossem the Marshal of Guelders, and com- 
posed chiefly of the troops of Cleves, had Bra- 
bant allotted for the theatre of its operations. 
A fourth, of which the Duke of Veridome was 
general, hovered on the borders of Flanders* 


fl4? *|i| REIGN af ru^ 

jH>ifl^e4 \o ^ppunai^d ur^ri? the efeief e^«pti<m^ 

reijipec} ^ |I>e: sir?f»y «f t)>e ioxms^x ttpoQUpte4 tP 
fprty tlioiis?ip4, i\\}A ^f \he Ifttt^ tp i^hirty tbe«- 

^ud nj^p. Nothing ?ippe^9 mor^ ^^UTpri^ittg: 
t^ajB t)^t FmiK?!^ did apt pow witfe <iH^p uu- 
jBierpB^ ap4 irfesi^tiWe^ armies into tlt^ Mil^ 

laesfi, vf hipiji hawt 3a loog bi^^atba ot^jipct of his^ 
lyjsh?^ a? ^^U £fcSi oatefpri^,^ j 9«i th»<i h^? . 
fitiould fi^^pojie mk^v tq t»ro ail*Wl Wsi whoiU? 
ptr^ng^h into ^r^io^hep dir^Qtipn, 8»d ^owwd*^ 

' f^vf po^^eft$, :^t the re^j^hr^nce of tU^p 

4isast€frsi ^vtijcht fee ^d aiet. w***?^ iix Wsi Corw^r 
^peditiQ^ iftto Jta^, toa^etl^ with tl^ diffi- 
p\L\ty of sflBPWtii^ ?^ w^ar carried op *t s\i€j), 9; 
di^tapee froag hi^ own dappiniot;^ had grg^dwJr 
ly abated his violent in^Un^iqn to obt^O foot' 
ing in that country^ and joaade him willing to 

%Yj th^ fontap^ erf* W^ ara» in aw^thex quvter. 
At the &a^^ tiia^ h^ e^^p^tied tQ ffl^e §wGb # 
ppw^rfol ^apresiii<w W Uhe froftti?r <>f !^R> 
wh^r© the^e w^§ few tawD^i of ?iriy jtjengttv 
jind no arflfgy ^^^^qo^bl^ tp «fppK)se hinc^ 9-5 W.ijgb* 
§^^a^b^e hi»» tc* recwet* po^^^gjio^ <^f th^ QPttUr 
try <)f EUM^siUon^ Ijjtely disiwi^^njb^i'^d frpgfi th?: 
Frepcjh *rowp^ ^.a;6?r§ (^lwl^9 C9.\ild bfilJjg' iftt«^ 
the field ^y for c^ i^e tq Qb*truet hisi pirQgres?. 
The necessity 9f SK^i^jvvtip^ his. al\jr tbe da^^ 
of Cleves, apd the hf>p;e of draining a consider- 
able body of soldiers out of Germany by bi^ 

meMs» datarmined him to act with mgons in ^%^^ 

The Dauphin and Duke cf Orkani openad tm^- 
the campaign mneh about the same tine ; the nticms. 
former laying alege to Perpignan the capital of 
Rousilloa^ and the latter enterung Lmcembonrg; 
The Dttke c^ Orleaoa pnahod hi& operations 
with the greatest rapidity aad snceess, one 
town fidlin^ after a(iicitber> until no place in 
that laiige dntohy rema'med in the Emperor^s 
hands bat ThionTilIe. Nor eould he have MU 
ed of orer^runntng the ad^iacent provincee with 
the same easQ^ if he had not Tolmitariljr stopt 
short in this career of victory. Bat a report 
prevailing that the Emperor had determined tc^ 
hazard a battle in order to sare Perpign^, on 
a sudden the Diik^ prompted by youthful ar^ 
doury or moTed» perhaps, by jealousy ef his bro* 
ther, whom be both envied and hatttd, abandon- 
ed his own cTonquest, and hastened towards 
Rousillon, in 6rdcr to divide with him the glory 
of the victory.* 

On hi$ d^arture, some of hit droops were 
disbanded, others deserted their odlours» and 
the rest, cantoned in the towns which he had 
taken> remained inactive* By th|s conduct^ 
which leaves a dishonourable impntation either 
on his understanding or his hearty or on both> 
he not only renounce whatever be could have 
hoped from such a promising coxmnencement of 
the cainptign^ but gave th^ enemy an (^ipor- 



^ ^^ ^ tunitj of recovering, before the end of summery 
v«^v.i«/ all the conquests which he had gained. On the 
't** Spanish frontier, the Emperor was not so incon* 
sid^rate as /to venture cm -a battle, the ioss of 
whidi might have . endangered his kingdom: 
Perpignan^ though poorly fortified, and briskly 
attacked, having been largely supplied with 
ammunition and provisions by the vigilance of 
Doria*, was defended so long and so vigorously 
by the Duke of Alva, the persevering obstinacy 
of whose temper fitted him admirably for such 
a service, that at last the French, after a siege 
of three months^ wasted by diseases, repulsed 
-in several assaiilts, and despairing of success, 
relinquished the undertaking and retired into: 
their own country f. Thus all Francis's migh- 
ty preparations, either from some defect in. his 
own conduct, or from the superior power and 
prudence of his rival, produced no effects- which* 
bore any proportion to his expence and efforts, 
or such as gratified, in any degree, his own 
hopes, or answered the expectation of Europe. 
The only solid advantage of the campaign was* 
the acquisition of a few towns in. Piedmont, 
which Bellay gained rather by stratagem and 
address,^ than by force of arms;];. 

i^repara- The Empcror and Francis, though both con- 
anothJ ^siderably exhausted by such great but indeci- 
Campaign, gj^^ effortsi discoveriug no abatement of their 

* Sigonii Vita A. Boriae^ p. .1 191. 

t Sandor, Hist torn. iL 315- 

i Ibid. ii*.318. Bellay, 387,. &c, Ferrer, ix. 237. 



mutual animosity, employed ^1 their attention, ^^^ ^ 
tried every expedient^ . and turned themselves v^yW 
towards every quarter, in order to acquire new ^^^' 
allies, together with such a reinforcement of 
strength as would give them the superiority in 
the ensuing campaign. Charles, taking advan- 
tage of the terror and resenti^ent of the Spa- 
niards, upon the suddeii invasion of their coun- ' 
try, prevailed on the Cprtes of the several king- 
doms to grant him siibsidies-with a more libera) 
hand than usual. At the same time he borrowr 
ed a large sum from John King of Portugal, . 
audi by way of security for his repayment, put 
him in possession of the Mohicca Isles in the 
East Indies, with the gainful con^merce of pre- 
cious spices, which that sequestered comer of 
the globe yields^ Not 8atisfie4 with this, he 
negociated a marriage between Philip his only 
son, now in his sixteenth year, and Mary daughr 
te'r of that Moujarch, with whom her father, the 
most opulent prince in £urope, gave a large 
dower ; and having likewise persuaded the Cor- 
tes of Aragon apd Valencia to recognise Philip 
as the heir of these crowns, he obtained from 
them the donative usual on siich occasions^. 
These extraordinary supplies eqabled him to 
make such additions to his force's in Spain, that 
he could detach a great body into the Low- 
Countries, and yet reserve as many as were suf*- 
6cient for the defence of the kingdom. Hav- 
ing thus provided for the security pf Spain, and 


* Ferreius ix. 238. 241. Jovii Hist. lib. xlii. 298. 6. 

^^ tHE hfelfeM OP tiHE 

*^^ <^otninitt«d th0 g«vertmient 6f it td his s«ii, h« 

sai(e4 for Itaiy, ia M^ wftj to Gemmtty. Bat 
mI^; tiow ftttentW^ -soevcfr to i^i^se the ftincb for oar- 
rjiiig (m thfi w|tr, <ir ^^r to gradp at toy i^eit 
expedient for tlwtt putpose, he wfts not so in* 
i^onsrderiito ws to acbept of an ovierttire which 
Faul, knowing his necessities, artfully thr^w 
out to him. That ambitions P6htiff« ti6 less sa^ 
gacions to dibcern, than watchftil to sei^n 6p« 
portunHi^s of aggranfjising his faintiy> solicited 
him to gra^t OctaviO his grand-child, whom 
the Eiqperot* had admitted to' the hofnoiir of ht^ 
ing his smifin-law, the investitnre of the dutchy 
of Milan, in return f^r which he promised snch 
a sum of money as would have gone far to- 
wards supplying a'1 his present exigencies. But 
Charles, a» well from nnwiHingn^sS to alie- 
nate a proTinee of so mtkch vaJne, as from di^ 
gust at the Pope, who had hitherto refhsed td 
join in the war against France, rejected the pro- 
posal. His dissatisfaction with Paul at that 
juncture was so great, thiat he even refa^ tb 
approve liis aliepatif^g Parma and Placentia 
from the patrimony of St. Peter, and settling 
them on his soil and grand-ison as a fief to be 
held of the Holy See. As no other expedient for 
raising money among the Italian states remain- 
ed, he consented to withdraw the garrisons 
which he had hitherto kept in the citadels of 
Florence aiui Leghorn j in consideration for 
which, he reteived a large present from Cosmo 
dj Medici, who by this means secured his own 

ibdetietlden^e^ and g6l |)d$«e9si6n of tvfo foHs* *vU * 
Which W^fejttdtly cdl^ the fetters of Tustiarly** ^;--vO 


Bur GharteJS) WhH« he fee*i4i«a to hiiv* tertt^ !\*^ ^"p*- 
£d his Whole att^ntioti towafds tiisitig the strmS ciatioiis 

vith HeArv 

feetJessftty for defraying the eiipeiiceA of the vul 
year, hdd not b^eett negtigertt bf objects xAdt-e 
. dii^tant, though ti6 le&s Importfttiti dnd had con- 
winded a leagrie offehSive dad deferisive With 
Henry VII t fr&rti \*hi€h he derived, in the end^ 
^('eater adv^titfi^e than fmm all his othe** pre^ 
(>arMioti$; SeverttI flight circun>j$tdncfes, vvftrch 
have alr'eady beeiri meittJoried, hs^ begtfft to 
litienate the alTeetf e^ns of that Mofiiireh ftoxA 
FranciSy with whoftt he had heen fOf imtie i\tne 
in close ftllianeeis ifid tiet\r incidents of greatet 
jfnotneAlfr Ivsld oectir^ed t^ increaite h'ri» disgoisit 
fttld ttftittidsity. Henr'y^ de^rttns of estaM?stt- H«»y'8 
teg an linifofttiity in religfiort iifi both the Britisri with France 
kingdoinfs, as well as fc^nd of making p^rosely tes ^^'^ 
fO his ovVti oprmotfs, had fofmed a scht/ne of 
^rsnading his nephew the Ring of Scots to re- 
nounce the Pipe's supremacy, and to adopt the 
Same? sy^teni o^ refitfrmation, which he had in- 
ti^bduced into England. Tfcrs Weaiure he pur- 
sued \Vith hfs lifsufcl eaigerneite and impetuosity, 
inaking such advantagebus* orfers to Jitme^, 
Whom he coi^Mchsd as not over-scrupulotiisly 
jaftached to any feligioui^ tefitits, that he hardly 
dOtibted of Success. Hfe propositions* were ac- 
cordingly received in smjh a manner, that he 

^ Adriani latoria, L 195^ Sleid. 312. Jotii Hiifc. Hb. xliii. 
p. SOK Vita di Cos. Medici di Baldinj, p. 34-* 



^ ^^ ^ flattered himself with having gained his points 
.^^vw 3ut the Scottish ecclesiastics, foreseeing hovr 
'^*^' fatal the union of their Sovereign with England 
must prove both to their own power, and to the 
established system of religion ; and the partij»ans 
of France, no less convinced that it would put 
an end to the influence of that crown upon the 
public councils of Scotland ; combined together, 
apd by their insinuations defeated Henry's 
scheme at the very moment when he: expected 
it to have taken effect*. Too haughty to brook 
such a disappointment, which he imp^ted as 
much to the arts of the French, as to the levity 
of the Scottish Monarch, he took arms against 
Scotland, threatening to subdue the kingdom^ 
since he could not gain the friendship of its 
Kiug. At the same time, his resentment against 
Francis quickened his negociations with the 
Emperor, an alliance with whom he was now as 
forward to accept as the other could be to offer 
it. During this war with Scotland, and before 
the conclusion of his negociations with Charles, 
James V. died, leaving his crown to Mary his 
only daughter, an infant a few days old. Upoil 
this event, Henry altered at once his whole sys- 
-tem with regard to Scotland, and ftbandoning 
all thoughts of conquering it, aimed at what 
was more advantageous as well as more practi- 
cable, an union with that kingdom by a mar-^ 
riage between Edward his only son and the 
young Queen. But here, too, he apprehended 

* Hist of Scotl Yol. i. p. 71, &c. &th edit. Svo. 


e vigprovs oppositipn from the French factiou ^^^ 
la. Scotland, which began to hestir itself in order v<-y^ 
to thwart the measure; The neflessity of crtish* ^^' 
ipg this party >afnong the Scots, and of j^rev^at- 
ing Francis frbm furnishing; them any e0QC<mal ' 
aid, confirmed Henry's resol|ition of breaking 
with France, and pushed him on to p«t i^ &m^}h 
ing hand to the treaty of confederacy with the 

* . • . . - « 

In this league were contained, first of all, ar^ Feb. n. 
ticles for securing their future amity and mutual between 
defence; then, were enumerated the demands ^^^ ""^ 
which they were respectively to make upon 
Francis; and the plan of their operations was 
fixed, if he should refuse to grant them satisfac- 
tion. They agreed to requi re that Franci s should 
not only renounce his alliance with Solyman, 
which had been the source of infinite calamities 
to Christendom, but also that he should make 
reparation for the damages which that unnatural 
unjon had occasioned; that he , should restore 
Burgundy to the Emperor ; that he should desist 
Hmmediately from hostilities, and leave Charles 
at leisure to .oppose the common enemy of the 
Christian faith ; and that he should immediately 
pay the sums due to Henry, or put some towns 
in his hands as security to that effect If, witfak 
i» forty days, he did not comply with these de* 
maudsy they then engaged to invade France 
each with twenty thoqsand foot and five thou<» 
sand horse, and not to lay down their arms until 
they had recovered Burgundy, together with thq 


^ ^1? * '^^'^ ^^ **^* Soiflttie, for the JEirtpe Wr, aiiji llbi^ 
m^tidy atid Gbientie^ 6t e^eH the wtlote re&ltat 
ot VtAnde^ for Hefiry * Their htiralds^ acdwa^ 
mgly> tet out with th6^ lAMtghty requiisitioiis ^ 

imd ttough tft^y^ ivt^re hot permHteid t6 ^ tei* 

France^ the t#b Moti^fchss^held thetiisdirfes fulljr 
entitidd <d fekeibiite wb^ttive^ Was stipttlated itt 


Fmndirt Francis, on his part, was not less dilis^ent 

with^y- lit {>repiirt!ig for tb6 approacntng catmpaigii, 

ti^VlMg early ob^ertred ^yirtptoms 6f Meni*y*s ^ 

6itgmt and al]eiiatidn> ^nd findrrrg all Ms en- 

dearoiirs t6 iiboth and reconcile bim iiieifecJ- 

ttial, b* knew his temper to6 well ftot to 6S> 

^t thut open hostiMtics trortld quickly Ml6vf 

Upon this cestotioti of frienclship. For this 

r^asfon he redotrbled bis endeavours toobt&lft 

fmn Solymati sudfa aid as might eotrnterbd- 

lanee the great aecessiOit of irtrength whicfh tM 

Emperor would reddre by fits alfiaftce wkH 

Etiglaud. In order to supply the pldcd df th$ 

two ambasi^addn^ who bad beeii murdered b^ 

Go3sto, he sent as his euvoy, first to Venice,' 

Wd then to Constantittople, Paulitt, \^hd, 

though in no higher rank than a estptaiti dt 

tooty was deemed worthy of feeing raised to this 

important station, to trhich he Was^ re^iommetidf- 

ed by Bellay, who had trained hiiti to the drtS 

of tiegociatiOn, and made trial of hh talents 

and address on several occasions; " Nor did he 

* Rym* ^rirr^fi^. Herb. 25&. 




beKe the opmioii conceived of hfe towk^e and *5,^* 
^ilities. Hastening to Constantinople, witlv* 
out regarding the dangers to which he was ck* 
}>osed, he urged his master's demands with 
snch boldness, and availed himself 6f every cin- 
^mm^tance with such dexterity, that he soon re- 
moved all the Snltati*s diflkmlties. As some of the 
Bashaws, swayed either by their own opinion, 
or ififiQenced by the Emperor's emissaries, who 
had made their \vay even into this court, had 
declared in the Divan against acting in con«- 
cert with France, be found means either to 
convince or silence them *. At last he obtain- 
ed orders for Barbarossa to sail with a poweN 
ifo) fleet, and to regulate all his operations fo^ 
the dh-ections of the Trench King. Francis 
^as not equally succesisful in his attempts to 
^am the Princes of the Empircf. The extraor«- 
Rttary rigour with which he thought It neccjj^ 
Sary to punish such of his subjects as had em- 
|)raced the Protestant opinions, in order to give 
some notable evidence of his own zeal for the 
Catholic faith, and to wipe off the imputations 
to which he was liable from his confederacy 
"with the Turks, placed an insuperable barrier 
between him and such of the Cermans as inte- 
irest Or inclination would have prompted most 
readily to join him f . His chief advantage?, 
however, over the Emperor, he derived on thij?, 
fts on other occasions, from the contiguity of 

^ SftfittoT. Hi^tor. torn. ii. 546. Jotii. HitU lib. xU. ^%%, 
Ibc, 300, ^. Bnuitom^. f Seek* lib. iii. 403. ; 


^ viL ^ his dominions, as well as from the extent of the 
s^»v-»»^ Royal authority in France, which exempted 
^^^ him from all . the delays and disappointments 
unavoidable wherever popular assemblies pror 
vide for the expences of government by occa* 
sional and frugal subsidies. Hence his domes- 
tic preparations were always carried on with 
vigour and rapidity, while those of thq Empe- 
ror, unless when quickened by some foreigii 
supply, or some - temporary expedient, were 
extremely slow and dilatory, ; 

pTpenokm LONG before any army was in readiness to 
i^ouDtries. ' oppose him» Francis took the field in the Low- 
Countries, against which he turned the whole 
weight of the war. He made himself ipasteip 
of Landrecy, which he determined to keep as 
the key to the whole province of Hainault; 
and ordered it to be fortified with great care, 
Turning from thence to the right, he entered 
the dutchy of Luxembourg, s^nd found it. in the 
same defenceles state as in the former yean 
While he was thus employed, the Emperov 
having drawn together an army, composed of 
all the different nations subject to his govern- 
ment, entered the territories of the Duke of 
Cleves, on whom he had vowed to inflict exem? 
plary vengeance. This Prince, whose conduct 
and situation were similar to that of Robert 
de la Mark in the first war between Charles an4 
Francis, resembled him likewise in his fate. 
Unable, with his feeble ^rmy, to face the Euj- 
peror, who advanced at the head of forty-four 


thousand men, he retired at his approach; and ^^,^^ 
the Imperialists being at liberty to act as they Vi^ y ^ 
pleased, immediately invested Duren. That tJ Empe- 
town, though gallantly defended, was taken nr^»cxm» 
I" by assault; all the inhaSitants were put to the thcDt^oi^ 
sword^ and the place itself reduced to ashes* Aii^Td4. 
This dreadful example of severity struck the 
people of the country with siich general terror^ 
that all the other towns, even such as were ca- 
pable of resistance, sent their keys to the Em- 
peror; and before a body of. French, detached , 
to his assistance, . could come up, the Duke 
himself was obliged to make his: submission to 
Charles in the most abject manner. Being ad- 
mitted into the Imperial presence, he kneeled, 
togethar with eight of his principal subjects, 
and implored mercy. The. Emperor allowed him 
to remain in that ignominious posture, and eye- 
ing him with an haughty and severe look, with- 
out deigning to answer a single word, remitted 
him to his ministers. The conditions, however, 
which they prescribed, were not so rigorous as 
he had reason to have expected after such a 
reception. He was obliged to renounce his al- Sept. r 
liance with France and Denmark ; to resign all 
his pretensions to the dutchy of Giieldres; to 
enter into perpetual amity with the Emperor^ 
and King of the Romans. In return for which, 
all his hereditary dominipns were restored, ex- 
cept two towns which the Eirfperor kept as 
pledges of the Duke*s fidelity during the con- 
tinuance of the war ; and he was reinstated in 
htf privileges as a prince of the Empire. Not 



fcmg iLfter, Charles, as a proof of fcbe Bmcerityr 
of bis reconoileineDt^ gavQ him in marriage erne, 
of the daaghters of his brother Ferdinand ^» 

HaVinq thus diastiaed the presqmptiaii off 
the Duke of CJeires» d^ached one of his allies 
from Francis, and annexed to hh own doroir 
nioos in the l/yr4[k)iintries a cdnsiderable prfin 
Yince whidi laj contiguous to them, Charles 
advanced towards Hainanlt, and laid siege feo 
Landrecy. There, as the first fhiits of hit al* 
baace with Heniy^ he was joined bjr sbc Hioiin 
sand English under Sir John Wallop. The garh 
risen, consisting of veteran troops oommandad 
by De la Lande and Des56, two officers of r^ 
putation, made a Tigorous resistance. Francis 
approached with ail his forces to relieve tbak. 
place; Cbarlea covered the siege j both were 
determined to hazard an engagement; and alL 
Europe expected (o see this cenc{uiest, which 
bad continued so long, decided at last by a. 
battle between two great armies, led by.dieir 
respective monarchs in person. But the ground 
which separated their two camps was such,, 
as pat the disadvantage manifestly on his side 
who should venture to attack, and neither ' of 
them chose to run that risque. Amidst a va* 
riety of movements, in order to draw the ene-^ 
my into the snare^ or to avoid it themsaLves^ 
Francis, with admirable conduct and equal 
good fortune^ threw first a supply of fresh 

* Haraei Annab Br9l>aQt. torn, u G28. Recueil des Traitez^ 
torn, ii; 2204 


ir9o^9 apd th^n a convoy of provi^ions^ into * ^^ * 
ijsu^ towni $u> tl^at the £mp«ror» despairing of v«rv-^^ 
succ^as, withdrew ioto wiaterH]uartera *, in or^ ^^*^- 
d«F to. prep^ve hh army from bciing entirely 
rained by the rigour of the reason. 

J>UftiNO tbi« campaign^ Solyman fulfilled bia ^J^ 
«ngage(nmt» to th^ French King with great Hungaiy. 
pi^nqtuality. H.e hiwaelf marched into Hun- ^*''*°**'- 
(^ry with a numfirpm army ; and aatb^ Princaa 
of the &9pire made no great effort to save a 
cpi)fitry which 9hvl^i by employing his own 
^rqe gainst Fr<|ncUi ^emed wiling to sacrifice, 
tb^r^ wa^ no appearance of any body of troops 
Ip ppp9fe his progress. He besieged, one after 
iii>PtWi Q^i^iinc Igcclesisdy Alba» andGran, 
tbf three most con^erabie towns in the kjng- 
d(NB, of w^wh Ferdinand had kapt possession* 
Xb? Arst 1^ a» taken by storm ; the other two 
sii^rei^ered ; and the whole kingdom^ a small 
gqrner ^ceptedi was sul:geqted to the Turkish 
yok^f- « AbcH^t the same time^ Barbaro«sa lail- Baitero*. 
f4 with a fle«t of an hundred aad ten gallies, S^^iuaJT"^ 
^d cofMHing along tb^ shore of Calabria, made 
^. d^S99nt at Kh^ggio* whic^ he plundered and 
Wm%i and ad[vancing from thence to the mouth 
^ th^ Tiber, be ^pt tb^re to water. The cir 
ti^tis pf jtom^h ignorant of hia destination, and 
filled with t^rrprt b?gan to fly with $«ch general 
precipitation^ that the city would have been to- 
t^jy de^t^ if t^y bad not re^mcid W«rage 

* BelJigri 405, *«? 


ttfE REIGN 6f tut 



Upon letters, from Pauliti the French envoy, as^ 
snring them that ho violence or injury would 
be offered by the .Turks to any state in alliance 
with the King his master*. From Ostia, Bar- 
barossa sailed to Marseilles, and being, joined by 
the French fleet with a body of land-forces oa 
board, under the Count d'Enguien, a gallant 
young prince of the house of .Bourbon, they 
directed their course towards Nice, the sole re* 
AngaA 10, treat of the utifortuiiate Duke of Savoy^ There, 
to the astonishment and scandal of all Christen* 
dom, the Lilies of France and Crescent of Ma-^ 
hornet appeared in conjunction against a fortress 
on which the Gross of Savoy was displayed. 
The town, however, was bravely defended against 
their combined force by Montfort a Savoyard 
gentleman, who stood a general assault, and re-^ 
pulsed the ei^my with great loss, before he re- 
tired into the castle. That fort], situated upon 
a rock, on which the artillery made no impres- 
sion, and which coald not be undermined, he 
held out so long, that Doria Imd time to ap- 
proach with his fleet, and the Mar<j[uis del 
Gaasto to march with a body of troops front 
Sfcpts. Milan. Upon intelligence of this, the French 
and Turks rallied the siegef ; and Francis had 
not even the cbnsolation of success, to render 
the infamy which he drew on himself by calling' 
in such an auxiliary, more pardonable. 


&ew cam- 

From the small progress of either party dur- 

* Jovii Hist lib. xliii. 304, &c. Pkllavic: 160. 
t Guickenon Histoire de Savoye> torn. i. p. 6^i. Beliay,' 
425, &c. 


iog this campaign, it was obvious to what a * vil ^ 
length the war might be drawn out between v^^v^-i^ 
two Princes, whose power was so equally balan- ^^^' 
ced, and whp» by their own talents or actiTitj^ * 

could so vary and multiply their resources. The 
trial which they had now made of each other's 
strength might have taught them the imprudence 
of persisting in a war, wherein there was great- 
er appearance of their distressing their own do- 
minions than of conquering those of their adver- 
sary, and should have disposed both to wish for 
peace. If Charles and Francis had been in^ 
fluenced by considerations (^ interest or pru- 
dence alone, this, without doubt, mi^st have 
been the manner in which they would have rea- 
soned. But the personal animosity, which 
mingled itself in all their quarrels, had grown to 
be so violent and implapable> that, for the. plea? 
sure of gratifying it, they . disregarded every 
thing else ; and were infinitely more solicitous 
how to hurt each . other, than how to secure 
what would be of advantage to themselves.. Nq 
sooner then did the season force them to suspend 
hostilities, than, without paying any attention 
to the Pope's repeated endeavours or paternal 
exhortations to re-establish peace,, they began 
to provide for the operations of the next year 
with new vigour, and an-activity increasing with 
their hatred. Charles turned his chief attention 
towards gaining the Princes of the Empirci and 
endeavoured to. rouse the forn^idable but iin^- 
wieldy strength of the Germanic body against 
VOL. m. R 

«5« Tlte REftm OF THC 

w-v^^ of ibe^ep^^Moh^heto^.folr thtKt piki*pose^ it 
Aflkht rf i* ti^e^SBty: tb fev4e^v the- fchlef' tralt^iax^tibm ih 
ccraumy. tfaat cottiiftry ' siiidfe the diet of Hsrtlfebbtii Ha^ thi» 
* yeir one thou^^a^d^'il^^ hmidt^ed ^wi forty-one; 

»• ■* - • « 

Maurice of Mucip ^BcWr tH^ ti«€f iHsU) assottibly brok^ 
cee^^hiT^' up, MauHco 9ucc€ed(S&1iis ftAtee^ Heftiy- itt tfre 
**"'*'• .gdivernitiient of thai? part df Sax<>fiy which: be^ 
longed tb' the Altiertine tirttiVch' of ihe S*xoii 
family^ Thi^ y*«ng . PTificfe^ t^6n» ottly in hi9f 
V^refBti^th year, had; cVeir at that ^arly period 
b^gun to dWcbvev tte grett* tedetrt^.whlc^ qua^ 
Kfied him for actibg suck el di^itigtrisfiifed {^art 
ki the ai&ir^ bf Q^ikmyi As sobn Ss- he eri*- 
t^ei^d upon the' admimstr^ibii^ he struck oUt 
into such a-^ iie#' a:nd' mngUtar pafth;, as^ dhewM 
UlTithe^aimed^ from the- b^ginningj at sbiti-etlii hg 
The views . great and utitsommc^ii - Thbugh zealously at- 
of thb tached «o< the Pjrotestant opTniotiB, both from 
princl educatibn and priireipfei lie- refiisfed* tio stecedc 
to the league of ^Shlalftaldei beiiig detertiiinfed; 
k& be sstids tb mamtam the purity' of rellgioto^ 
Which \fas;the origitiaT object^ ihat confedei 
PJKjyi but nbt^ ta entttiigie Wttiself iii the politi*- 
cal. interests?' or cbmbinatibns to wltich it had 
given risb. At tbe^^satEifetime; (yre^se^ 
ture betweetf Cliarles arid the confederates of 
Smalkalde, arid^ perceiyihjg' which of tliera wias 
most lifely- tO' prevail in the* cohtibst, instead of 
"ttiat jealousy and diistrii^l which tile other Pro^^ 
testaufe eiipresised of ail tile fihiperbr'S^ designs, 
he affected to place in him s^ unbounded con- 




assiduity. When the other Protestants, iiii tWe 
year fifteen hundred and forty-two, either de- 
cliiied; aaastiMn^: F«arditiBnd in ^Mubgar^f^ lor. af- 
forded: bdm teltcctmi 'sriutfearibisliaid; Mmiii%% 
Ynarched^" tlHi}i<^ in peinU>i)y atid r^ifdei^bdhitti^ 
self dfmspi^hoti^iliyf hb zeaA md 'oowagb^ 'From 
the aaftne ino^^kei^ be htd kS • tov the Bmpen$f'$ 
assistainbd, dorivgr thci rlasi cmcipaigii, arb^dff ^ 
hisrmmt tcoopn^Tanii th6 giBcefii|ifa;s of hiB pef^ 
miny hfi^ dbj&feejcitjrin'all mRitarjl^ ^dpciili^ to^ 
gether 'wilh his/ intas9fidk^; ivtiicfa) cmiMed uttd 
delighted iHi ^ilaii^ii;; did' aobt distiligtiikshr hittt 
more iml flifiifidti, tfaAolii&gteat mBil^^ 
shiualBn^)aUdiies9;#on)^Dniitflie3^^ con^ 

finiienc^ vaod! faacdurf . /WliiU hythih iciMdnCtl 
vfbMk tippesrdd eartirawdilaary ^6 tHdfeer whii 
hdd tbe saitie i^niotis -itv^ithi hifiiA fc<mb^Di<^ 
religion^ Maodce^^eiidiiayour^d ds psay 4»>m>i td 
theEmperorj hebii^iirtb^discdir^ soatos) degree 
06 jieaitEuisyofihisi cousin ibfae Ekcbn** of Saxony. 
This,. nidiicH-pmifed ini tfae.seqruel ^solfatal ixi tiie 
Elector, hieid aiinbstocdagione^ab^ 
befevfrifeeoithemj aiidrsbcat'ait^r &^tefiee% dc^es^ 
sion tor the gdv^&fUmnty ti»^- bd^ took'arti»9r 
wvHt eiiftisd rage, trpoih' accouiHn iiif ' » dispute 
sd)oiitl:hd rtgfatof jaradibtfdn^wet^apfdtry tb\m 
situ»ted( our tfi^ Mbldawi^ Tbtf^y wer^ preven t^^ 
hoM'ev^r, fhimproceiediii^.tbuibtioft 1^'ltie me- 
dtationi o£ the Land^mve: of ^9s^ whrosil 
daughter Maurice' badfmamed, as w«4i^ idis by 

* Slcid.^317. Slack, tiv. 3^1:; 



^ ^^ ^ the . powerful and auttM>ritiattve admonitiocfs of 
Luther*. : 



PK^^to Amidst these transactions, the Pope, though 
hold a ge- extremely irritated at- the Emperor's concessions 
^ at Trait' to the Protestants at the diet of Rattsbon, was 
so warmly solicited, on all hands, by such as 
were most devoutly attached to the See of 
Kanie, no less . than* by 'those whose ^fidelity or 
designs he suspected, to: summon a- general 
council,' that he found it impossible to avoid 
any longer calling thai! assembly.. The impa- 
tience for its meeting,^ and the expectations, of 
great effects from its decisions, seemeft to grow 
in pro'portion to the* difficulty of obtaining it: 
He:^till adhered, howler,, to his original reso* 
lution of holding it 'in some; town of Italy, 
where, by the number of ecclesiastics, retainers 
to his court, and dependibg on his favour, wha 
- could repair to it without, difficulty or expence, 
be might influence aiid even direct all its pro- 
ceedings. This propontiohy though :often re- 
jected by the Gteilmans, he instructed* hiatiuncio 
i^iarchs. to the diet held at Spires, in; the yeait one thou-, 
sand five hundred and fprty^-two, to renew once 
more; and' if he found it 'gave no greater satis-> 
faction than formerly^ he emjpowered hitn,\as a. 
last concession* to propose for the place of meet-, 
ing, Trent; a city in Use Tyroly subject to the 
King of the Itbmans, and situated on the con-^ 
fines between.' .G^niaay:aAd Italy. The catho^. 

*\fSiwi.^92. Sectt. i: iih 403. 


He Princes in the diet, iafter giving it as .theitf ^^^^^ 
opinion that the council might have b^en* held v^i^v^ 
with greater advantage ; in Ratisbon, .Ceiogne^' ,."*^' r. 
or some of the great cities of the Empire, were - 
stt length induced to approve of the place which 
the Pope had' named. The -Protestants lunani- . . ^.>. 
mously: expressed their! dis8al2isfaetk>n> tand .pron 
tested that they would pay. no. regard to. a cciun* 
^ held beyond the predi Acts of the Empir^e, 
Gsdled by;the Pope's authority, and in .which he 
assumed the bright of pnesiding*^ ! , » 

- .• ': ^. • . . . . • . • ^ , 

. ,• - .1 . ..... i> 

THE' Pope, without taking any riotice of their May sa. 
<ibjections, published the; bull of intimation^- summons it 
named diree cardinal^ to preside as bis/legates, ***'"***• 
and appointed them to repair .to Trent, before 
the first of' November^ theiday. he had fixed for 
opening the council/ . But if Paul had desired 
ihe meeting of a council .as .sincerely as he pre- 
tended, be would liot :have pitched on such .ain 
improper time for calling it. Instead of that 
general union land, tranquillity, without which 
the .deliberations of a council could neither be 
conducted with security, nor attended with au- 
thority, such a fierce war was just kindled be- 
tween the Emperor and .^Francis, as jrenderied; it 
impossible forthe ecclesiastics from'i}iany p^rte 
of Europe to resoW thither iii safety, The le- 
gates, accordingly, remained several' months at . 
Trent ; but as ho person appeared there, except 
a few prelates from the ecclesiastical state, the 

« Sleid 29 U Seek. }. iii. 283. 



^ vn ^ Pttpc, 'in DitJ'pr: to airoidl the ridiode and^t^ou- 
w»v,^»^ tempt which this >dreiv^ iipon bim frcaoDL the ^iie* 
cbii^'to m>e3'<if>the^cbiijri^;rQcatte!l thenar 

prorogue it. jtfae <€O^IUSit^f .' : 

f f 

ty» Empe- 'li^N^A^PiLr ^dTthe ^thdiilyiaf Ite |)ii^t see, 
th^p^ 9* ithe tf^rf tkne illMrf; the Gdimmt |4o^kaQte 
^^»^^ tO0k ie^^^ 'occa^^oii of ^Mmi|^ t^eitEitetaprt oifKm 
it> (^ £fi>peiior «i^ ^Kitig <>f thei^Bianisiiibiiid 
)<; aeoessar^ qpiM .. w^f !to ^aha^te ail itti^i^ tsiiw* 
duct, but to coy\xt\)iifAtibfi^^ 
of indulgence. In the same diet of Spires, in 
' irbich ' tirey had itrotesfetl iik; : thr ofD^^t . disre- 
^p^titil ^ertfis against asbom^liiiig; a^coabc^at 
H^te^j ^Eerdinadd^ ivfiotd^nended ion idveiraid 
for this d^n^e tof Hqngaiy, iioN; o«i)j' qpecmittfad 
th)ai |j7dtto4t»dnN'to^fa6ii]|!i^€^ imkHdc 

bfithe>(£w^i Ibrttt.r£«idattd ijii'lh0a-^fsvic)u|t:aJid)be 
-Siqpe^^o^ vOoneessioRs -iat JUtti8boi|,:addiaB^ io 
•hem whil^^ar Ule^ ^teniatoded (for 3t^ 
4;ecufit;^. ^Aitiiong^ Ql^r ^rticufaon^heigmnted 
>a sdspdiK$t<ih 4A% ^ci^e ^ the Imperial :icfaa«%- 
t^er agaitt^^th^ '^xAVfxi 4Gr<>elar c(o!^ ^ iilm&e 
ivli ich had' 4f nt^^red into ' «be ^l^dBtgael df Smdb- 
ial^^) ^Hf &<K:pi»it'df ks>havmg sei2^dtMeje^^ 
^^lesia^ical i^^^ues' : Witllin >il%( fdomaifis, ^and 
o^i^jcjifted il€e«^y Dt&43 <tf Srdtinwiek to desist 
•fpotti liis {Cttem|)is^t(y4<;arry ^I*ea1? deor6e:iiito:jexe- 
Theirvigor- eutiori. But Heiity, »«i fftriotfes Jbig<9t, jQiid up 
^^^dlk!^. less <A>stl«>aite^^MH'f^ <bis unfdtei-tqfcmgs, 

^dntiiltting^to'<il$iq4il^'tfee' ^ptecf^i^ster by 

* F.vPaiil, p..«7. . SItli2S^,. • 



grave of Hesse, that they nx%ht:.n<^t;sofr(fer4^D^4 
member of the'Smalkaldic body to be oppres- 
sed; .^^sCTiiblKjd :tteeir femps, i 4eclOTed war in 
form lagamst :ilen[ty» jabd M. Ille> s|)tace of a few 
we^fe^iStKipipiiigibidPh^ ^i^ti^ely^^hiafdoxnimitiis, 
4rQte kiih'dMl a >w<rebehfid :^^H«It<i>Aake.nQfuge 
iiiithe"c0«rt^ :)Bik?aHa. ;£^y ;thk ;iictifoC ym* 
pssavn&d^: noeiiess^ji&it^QithAQ ^sudden, Jhey ifiik< 
4ll':Gftfiii|i^ .*^ii^ lAread.ioif. tUeir power, ifnd. 
Ufe^tQjblM^iiiteS'bfiSmal^ b^ this 

fidrst «£brt.^f dh^ATJODS^^^to ^areadj^ aaithejy* 
trenei^kUf >to fvt£>tf»t . t hp«ii. wto bad ^critied. 4rho 

r » ', < 

IgMMiuUlNfip Iby, ,%o man^ .oonce^ions. . in 
ekj&mmt, iskiW^/m by the ' pooigDesB, Mtbich 
^bttif:^llfimons daily m^d^, the'Priincea: of thb 
lfta^u^/>of JMnaUcftlde '4obk a soteinn protest 
agwn^t tfa^ in|>arml , ohan^^* iund declined its 
jarjadie<i6n jket tfap liibiiife,' because : that . Iqout^ 
bad .not bom Bdited.or re£toa»eii aocording to 
tfaeidodree.of ilUtisboOy attd cgntinjied: to disk 
tover « most indeceni %|paAraiity in all its 
ffroceedijiga. 'NM long oilier this, they ventuN 
edia sti^ i&rtber ; ;ind/ pi^esting i^ainst thie 
ve^ss^'adwA hiekl at NuAinberg, lyhich ^ro« 
nded ifdr the <^fe^K» <|f Huli^ry, refused to Apnisa. 
iiirmsb theki^ooitkigept f^^^^ parpose, unless '^^^' 
tfae.Imp^iaL^haibber were deformied, and full 

mm*' f • 

* Sleid 296. Commemoratio succincta Causarum Belli^ &c. 
a Smalkaldicis contra Hear. Bruasir. ab iisdem cdita : ap. 
Scardiam, torn. ii. 307. 


^ ^,^ ^ dfecurity ^ere granted them in every poifit with 
v-p-v-**^ regard to religion*. 


sp^^ Such were the lengths to which the Protes* 

1544. tahts had proceeded^ and such their confidence 
in their ^own power, when the Emperor retoro- 
ed from the Low-Countries, to hold a diet, 
which he had summoned to meet at Spires* 
The respect due to the Emperor, as well as the 
importance of the afiiairs which were to be laud 
before it, rendered this assembly extremely fulL 
All the Electors, a great number of Princes ec- 
clesiastical and secular, with the deputies of 
most of the cities, were present Chari^s soon 
perceived th^t this was not a time to offend the 
jealous spirit of the Protestants, by asserting in 
any high tone the authority and doctrines of 
the church, or by abridging, in the smallest ar-« 
ticle, the liberty which they now enjoyed ; but 
that, on the contrary, if he expected any. sup- 
port from them, or wished to preserve Germany 
from intestine disorders while he was engaged 
in 'a foreigiv war, he must sooth them by new 
concessions, > and a more ample extension of 
their religious privileges. He began, accord- 
ingly, with courting the Elector (^Saxony, 
and Landgrave of Hesse, the heads of the Pro- 
testant party, and by giving up some things in 
their favour, and granting liberal promises with 
regard to others, he secured himself from any 
ganger of opposition on their part. Having 

* Sleid. 304. 307. Seek. 1. iii. 404. 416. 


gained ihii; capital point, he then ventured to ^^^^ 
address the diet with greater freedom. He be-. V-v-i^ 
gfaa by representing his own zeal, and unwearied xhe e^^- 
effoTts with regard to two things most essential ^^^^^ 
to -Christendom, the procuring of a general against 
council in order to compose the religious . dis-« "^^' 
senstons which had unhappily arisen * in Ger- 
many, and the . providing some proper means 
for checking the formidable progress of the 
Turkish arms. But . he observed, with deep re* 
^et^ that his pious endeavours had been entire? 
ly defeated by the unjustifiable ambition of the 
Frepch King, who having wantonly kindled the 
flame of war in Europe, which had been so late^ 
ly extinguished by the truce of Nice, rendered 
it impossible for the fathers of. the church to 
assemble in council, or to deliberate with secu- 
rity ;. and obliged him to employ those forces in 
his own defence, which, with greater satisfac- 
tion to himself, as well as more honour to Chris- 
tendom, he would have turned against the infi- 
dels : That Francis,- not thinking it enough to 
have called him off from opposing the Maho? 
metansji had^ with unexampled impiety, invited 
them into the heart of , Christendom, and join- 
ifig his arms to theirs, had openly attacked the 
Duke of Savoy, a member of the: Empire: That 
Barbarbssa's fleet was now in one of the ports 
<rf France, waiting only the return of spring to 
carry terror and desolation to the coast of some 
Christian state: That in such a situation it was 
folly to think of distant expeditions against, the 
Turk, or of marching to oppose his armies in 


him ^to tJbft^OQB^re fA ;EumfH»» r^ttd^ gjBtiie ifto. 

ffiiaaexik dan j$er», ha^^xM raR^ and . ii>y;. Jmolhiii^ 

tuml c<rofed<f a«^ ibiwi^^^ jwiira 

Monarch wi^^tdfilkittKiigpiAi^ th6r ngmeaQClMpA 
QirbtiAn :! . Tli^t^ , i& (t(si;^> : iii^Iwar jKgamat! ^e 
iiieiich l£^rig;ajld tJsk^.Sali^ Aeo^ 

sadeired asitfaa .'sad9ifiJbbaigr;\^a»d tfaat^^ier^ 'ad^ 
isaQt£^>gi^a^d(jm^ tteifbri^^ vras^lt iBevei^ 

cxHisii6> hevCohri::lQd$d,^ ^iieir.aid 

agaiiiflt Fraadb^'inot a»£»dy jiis anlex](€iiay>Qf the 
Geimafiic b0dyviiif Ipf ^Um.iii^ its ifaeaii* 

fantas can $cvcxvv9«dqa% ofuthe!.I|9^^ 

In order :to give ^greater .we»^ tp tjiis ido< 
fent.iiiioectiAje oiFitbe £niperpi:>.lJ!ie'^fiii»gvof ;l^ 
RQnaanst.stoc4^iq>>:^M&d.!r£iai^ rtb^ bn^)fid ^xxy^ 
qaeists iof the Sniltaa m )M«ffl(;at^,70|hiaiiaiied 4S 
he^id, byilbe fatal: aaceasiltgriifapiiied .oahii 
brotber^jof eni(do5{big:Ui$ abdd a^gaiBKi: FranpK 
When: he j|nd issushsd, cUie ; amhMsac&r j o£ : Sill 
vcgrcgaare a < detail of fiart^arassa^&^iDpeGactioak^ai 
NiQe,a3Qd:ofLtfae!ira¥a^sriivhiph ifaie had isemitt))!^ 
ted oh thatvjcoa^ Aii tb^^aidded^to the ge^ 
nesral iodignation; wl^ch tFratioisfs uliprecedetit^ 
ed.'UQTQQ with the [Tui^. excited 'in Europe, 
made such .aa dinpT^ession oh :the diet a^ the; 


or tsvbhedy. an} ^i^dposed snost of ite *^^^^ 
liMXDiiiens tojgteiik:fbim Buohi0&ctO!sd;aid as .he s^-v^i^ 
]si«id jdem£MS^A« The aiabiassiulods cwhoid Emiif- ^^^^ 

^mstr^etBinbt petra^ted itoumt(S]& tibe.iiouiids.of 

Msfaed. 'fcr itfac^n ma0t<s«, i vibdkatidg ■ hi& iattiaQce 
tKitbiSn3|rmliD^,di^v>«x8^ fi«Da»;SGrip«> 

tenei, imi tl»nrpibMB(kioei6f OunflifciaEi /ptrilvcQ^^ ^was 
kiikei|y ^oegalid^Wdiij^iihenrvi^ iv^se tdri-iitated .ai^ 

f(eald3r,<xirifioejiidiQj^d<fifip^^ a de^ 

gpekym^t^iii moapdate of ialto\vi»g iteir (pco^ 
flier iwei^prtxiM Jaiijr/aii^^ behalf. 

'^ ■ J 

•♦ » ■ » '("♦,• 

tSklOlilbciiig^Aieiavoora^U dis43iM^ ^'^^^^^ 

-~ ' -^, , . ,, ,, ,, concessions 

Germaas, Charles perceived that nothing could in order to 
»i)«rriDb9ib:ink^aic%m heanoaedut, protj^ts 

%ntj[tle £mc^; miuk^9$A6\kum of ithe. Pcotestaoxlfii, 
wtiiGhIhe, quiet bgr -geantkig ' e ve^ 
rgr^ljaasig>^iitiflid<^^ pas- 

aite^^ociipbide^heef^if ibe^iecimtjr of )their r^^li- 
g!ibci; ; ' iWltQ ^^thajSiL rs&w, ' he: .conaentsiji iO b, x^ 
4m$Syymhw€iay[ ail:lheijri^&us.iedksto ^hitherto 
fiaued! agaiastelhp:^BrotestentSiiwere/8us)peai^ 
-a.'OCDiuiyisit. ceqthair gb^ besd- 

wmbledj ii^; iGter\tk^mf -tras^daclaned qneoessary, 
fa: X)gdeg ite i re H Mfcafefah 'peace i un the ; church ; 
ImV^l iiobe >ef >theffiEl 'iidib4|l{l- be«|iel4 ^{whfch the 
IS^iperar^ufldertoik Jto;hnng!^ouit-as^^^s^ as 
<^bisibl^fv the r fifBeiand. pubfig ^^^rcise of the 
i^niteataa^ ^reti^oa ^ \\^ authoriisied^ tl«e Impe- 
rial chamber was enjoined to g;ive no iinolesta* 
tion to the Protestants j and when the term. 





Aid granted 
fey the diet 


for which the present judges in that coart were 
elected should expire, persons duly qualified 
were then to be admitted as members, without 
any distinction on account of . region. In re- 
turn for these extraordinary > acti; of indulgence, 
the Protestants conourred with- the other nia:ar 
foersof the diet, in declaring war against Fusancis 
in name of the Empire ; .in voting the Emperor 
a body of twenty-four thousand foot; and four 
thousand horse, to be maintained at the vpui»h 
lie ^cpence for six montbs,^ employed a^ 
gainst France; and at the same timet the diet 
proposed a poll-tax to be levied, throughout al) 
Germany on every person without exception, 
for the support of the. war against the Turks. 

tidis with 
and Eng- 

Charles, while he gave tiia greatest atten* 
tion to the minute and intricate detail of.par^ 
ticulars necessaiy towards conducting. the .de** 
liberations of a numerous and divided assem^ 
bly to such a successful period, negociated a 
separate peace with the King of Denmark; 
who, though he had hitherto performed. no« 
thing considerable ia consequence, of his aU 
liance with Francis, .had' it in his power, how- 
ever, to make a troublesome diversion in favour 
of tfaafr monarch^, Atthe sametime, he did 
not neglect proper^ applications! to the King of 
England, -in order ta rouse him to more vigo- 
rous efforts against their common enemy. Li^ 
tie, indeed, was wanting to accomplish thiaj 

t Dumont Corps Diplom. t. iv. p. ii. p. 274. 


for isuch events had happened in Scotland as in*- ^ ^^ ^ 
flamed Henry to the most violent pitch of re?- v^y*^*^ 
tsentment against .Francis. Having conduded ^^^^' 
with the parliament of Scotland a treaty <^ 
marriage between his son and their young 
Queen, by which be reckoned himself secure 
of effecting the union of the' two kingdoms, 
which had been> long desik*^, and often at*^ 
tonpted without •success by his predecessors^ 
Mary of Guise the , Queeurmother, cardinal 
Beautoun> and other partisa,n8 of France, found 
means n<>t only to break off thSe. match, but to 
alienate the Scottish nation . entirely* from the 
friendship of England, - and to JBtrengthen/ its 
ancient attachment to France. • Henry, how* 
ever, did not abandon an objectfof so mnchriin* 
portance; and as the humbling of Francis, be- 
sides the pleasure of , taking revenge upon ad 
enemy who had disappointed a favourite laee^ 
siire^: appeared thai most effectual ■ method of 
bringing the Scots to accept .once more.of . the 
treaty which thqr had Telinqurished^ he was so 
eager to accomplish this, that he w^s ready to 
second whatever the Emperor could propose 
to be attempted against the French king. The 
plan,, accordingly, which they concerted, was 
such, if it had 4)een punctually executed, as 
nlust have ruined France in Hie first place, and 
would have, augmented so pmdigidnsly the Em^^ 
peror's power and territories, as might in the 
end have proved fatal to the liberties of Eu-^ 
rope. They agreed to invade France each 
with an army of twenty-five thousand men^ 


v^^^w tier tewQs^^ ; ta* attiranieer dinsibtlyr towards ^berkib- 

^^^ tmot pcovTiices,:and to; joih their fotcer»ii«sa- 


2 I 


St thT*!^ EftANCiSf slcoStifc ateh)^^ in: oppoBftionr to, afi" tK& 
fi^ »_^ ermwms wheat GHirte^ iii^sas tnGM^ring. ag^ikA 
him; Sol jhnan Itcidi bi^ett tif^ only :'aU|f : WUo did 
not lieserr hini^ biift tim) assidtonbe whi)(it|(^to^ 
recced from hfm^ irad^^end^re^ibim so adioM 
to. ail ChriFst'dndoai^ tllratrhe il^ol^ed 
for^ aU'tlseadi^JinPltag«S'0fi!hhl friendly 
tdbecoiiie; ontlfatr ^dGontity thfrob§ic%io6igia^ 
mraX' dtAestatioiti ' For bbisi reaeotr, he'disni»i 
sed Barbat&ssa as s6i>n ^s trialier: : wa^ dveir; 
wiiby after rav^tgiog'thGR oobsir of iNa^Ies. and 
Ttis(>aii.j:V ''returned: to;' CotistehtAaopioi: As 
EnanciBi coutd not^ hope! to eqaittl ibe fycc&s^^ 
so insin^^' pimdrs^ dortifa&ni^' agaihst: him^ fm* 0b» 
deaioiikwii tasdp^^ ttot dttf^cb bydi^atohv 
Triiicb wa6« morcK^itti :ii}s^{>o^er; aihdtt'd rgfcsb thd 
ikivest Cft- stert of : tAerfa::iiF ts^rig-ttbe fieid. ' Early tnf ttaie^ 
spring; the CocintidVBn^tdtoiihv^€Sted^C»4giiSM^ 
a:towiii mVindmuin^ iihush the Mkffqbttrdi!^ 
Guasto, tbtt Imperial: j^etaera);hia.Tiqg^tittirpH^<^ 
the'f(»iateF*7«iO',ve6ft${detied as^of^strmifchridif 
portiaiajcej l^t'be l^3tf(ix'£;>r«i^ itr 4t greats' ^sr^ 
pence ThcE Gaate pushed tb^ di€^ .wttik bmdl 
vigour^ tbctt Gba^^: ffond df fahc ownp ooh^^t, 
and seeirig no other wAy of 'sailing' if froifif fal* 

liug into: the Hands> of thi^ French^ :resd\<ed M 

, . • » 

^ Herbert^. 245. BeUa;, 44& 



gdM) ' hiis tkiamhrfrj^m MiUni: fiittr tiiis;. prrpose^ 

ScigtiiiSti, a> gkllstm ^n(|i 'em^e^^sihg" yi)isifljg relieve it 
Itiativ wisli€^^^]sid)ia<^ 9^ t^^ feiAane of 
sibatde; hidt^^ap^i dis^i^dif WffteitOvI/a^ ar* 
dcaiFr ; but? tlUjsi petBmfft(^jp Hfl§Hii|ht«oli of- tib 
lUtKg iioti t9(9}.vs^0iilttra at ^iferAil'leiiifftgttmeaxt^ 
fiowing^'fromi^ ^riichmil$ atteidaon^ to the p&E^ 
fi^nt siluatloi^ 4& afkitit^^' ag w«U as^frodi tkeim 

m Bbwk'dm C^^nativ^ whet^^ i!t: u^&s (jtisti r^ad5r 
to yields and eager'*to distangiii'^h^hhis.coftni^ 
by some memorable action, he dispatched 
Mdntuc ^toi' C(»fiit^ in ^tiep' t^ lajr hefom the 
Kiti£^ tke^ ^dvatitii^^ of fii^htfitx^itlmi enemy;' 
ftod>^' hop^d tvlii^iv 4i0'b)etd)of ^mtory:: 'Sh^ 
Jkiiig i mferM^ the mam&v toi hlspitv^ bxM^i 
alL ihe^ tt)itifi^et^tidte&lar«l(i, ^m ^vtv . wambtk^ 
against %hdng^ d.iiid:iiiipp^rted»tiiisir.9eiitimi»nts 
by rba^ons fextp^ifeiy pl^lusiffeWj Whflfe they* 
^mste deli^^rit^ their opi]iioh^^ M«iailtic; \f^h6 
VTB^ p^imet^ to be pr(^ht'^ dtec^vered ' m'dik 
tisible' aivd ^xk«t;^a^i}t ^y hiptonnrsj ' of i mp^ 
tii^noe tO'speal^, {eul-W^U as sUch disBitia&etibh 
Wtth^hat lie h6^r4v th^t Franks; dwert^ with 
hmdp^eartoc$5 dallied on Uii^ bo^kseiarewhat 
be ooutd offer m repl5> to* isentimaib^ Tv4rich 
seemed to be as? just as- they were general. 
Upon this, Monluc, a plain but spirtted soldier, 
and of known courage, represented the good 


condition of the troops, their eagemies to jneef 
the enemy in the fi^eld, their confidence in their 
^^^' officers, together with the everlasting infasay 
which the declining of a. battle, would bring on 
the French arnas ; and he urged hia arguitnents 
* with such lively impetuosity, and such a flow of 
military eloquence, as gained over to his opi* 
nion, not only the King, naturally fond of dar- 
ing actions, but several of the council. Francis, 
eatcbiiig .the same enthusiasm which had ani- 
mated his troops, siuddehly started up, and 
having lifted his hands to Heaven, and implor* 
ed the Divine protection, he th^i addressed 
himself to Montuc, ^' G^o, (says he,) retuto to 
Piedmont, and fight in the name of God^/' 

c^i^ No sooner was it known that the King had 
given Enguien leave to fight the Imperialists, 
than such was the martial ardour of the gallant 
and high-spirited gentlemen of that age, that 
the court was <}uite deserted, every person de- 
sirous of reputation, or capable of servi<ie, hurry- 
ing to Piedmont, in order to share, as volunteers; 
in the danger and glory of the action. Encou- 
raged by the arrival of so many brave oificers> 
Enguien immediately prepared for battle, nor 
did Guasto decline the combat. The number 
of cavalry was almost equal, but the Imperial 
infantry exceeded the French by at least ten 

April ^1. thousand meuf They met near Cerisol^s, in an 
open plain, which afforded to neither any advan- 


^ Memoires de Monluc 


tage of grosmd, and both had full time to form ^^^^ 
their army in proper, ordjen The shock was >^ipivW 
such as might have been expected between ve- ^^**" 
teran troops^ violent and obstinate* The Frepch 
cavalry rushing fonVatdr ta the charge withtheir 
usual vivacity, bore down every thing that op^ 
posed them ; ;but, on th$ othef hand^ the stefuly 
and disciplined valour of th^ Spanish infantry 
having forced the body lyhich they encountered 
to give way, victory remained in suspense, ready 
to declare for whichever general could make the 
best use of that critical moment.. Guasto, en* 
gaged in that part of his army which w$is thrown 
into disorder, and afraid of falling intp the hand^ 
of the FreAch, whose vengeance he dre$uled on 
account of th« . murder of Rinco and ,Fr9goso> 
lost his presen^q of mind, and forgot to. order a 
large, body of reserve tp advance ^whereias En- 
guien, with, admirable courage,, and equal conr 
duct, supported, attheheadof.h^sgensd!armes, 
such of his battalions as began to yield-; 
the same time lie ordered the 3wiss in his service, 
who had been victorious v^herever. they fought, 
to fall upon the Spaniards. This motioi^ proved 
decisive* AH tha;t followed was.confu^^n and 
slaughter. The marquis del Gua,s1<o, wounded 
in the thigh) escaped only by the swift npss^pf 
his.hqr^e. The victory of the Frenchrwas.gpni- 
pleto^ tenljhousapd of. the Imperialisl;s being, an4 a [considerable number, with all their 
tents, baggage, and artillery, taken. On the 
part ofthe conquerors, their joy- was without al- 
vou in. s : ' ♦ 

174 TBfi kSIGN OP TSfi 

' vn * ^^ ^ ^^ ^^y ^^^ kiUdty mud MMng tbcM^ 
n» o^etft of ilUtinctioti*. > 


EffectsdfH. THtg iii^lendMI nctiM^ beiidtt the i^utatioit 
Wdli whith it WM 4ii^iid«d^ dditered FranM* 
fmtn nn iMMiiKittt duAgter, ai it ruiMd the ftrmy 
^ih which Onftstd had lAMiidiid to i&mdfe the 
ciOfiKAty he ti wcn the Khatt^ wnd Smmt, where 
ih^i^e iKftf^ neither fertifled t^^m nor ref^vdwr 
ibftsed ti> opfiose bfs fit(9grtBB. 'Set H was not 
in IVeii^s^B ffowtei- «o potime the tictory with 
path tigoor as to reup all the adv«MMag6S which 
it might hftve yielded; for thoegh the Miiftneee 
fetiitttMd nmr *tMMst ^defene^lois $ tho«igh Uie 
MiAfeiMmft, who httd lottgniQtsiiiui^ mader the 
i^gottf of th« IiMi^iti govetMoeiit, wei^e ?eftdy 
to thttrw off the y^dte ^ though Eii^EM 
with Mietess, wged the King to«i^i«e t^ ^Vf^ 
t>p)^foktttfiity 4)C reoof eriiig a omnftry^ the ncqiuh 
sittoe of whkh hsMd been long his fii^rottrite eb« 
|ects y€tf M the Emf^rw Mid King oJTlSfiglatid 
w«re y ieya ri dg ijo l^k ift ^^fi the 4i^»rfe^ 
IrMMt^ ^k* iFrMy^ wifth Yittteeroiis «mii^ it he- 
M^ttue i]p^eMM-y to sacrifioe etl ^lO^ig^ft of oofi- 
^t^v^t to the pehKfc i^tifety) Md to i^ecaf «weh^ 
ithouMiyd of fitigotete's kifm troops to te^tt^oy- 

^ hi d^Aface ^f the kiugdoiA. £iig«i«n^ !»Ub- 

languid %ttd ineotefdet^e, that the redettibtK 
^ CatHgniii zvfAwmt 6«her towns ih ^^Muiont^ 


k xlir. p. 327. 6; 

all tbat h* 9«ia*d fajr iiu grMt yixti^tf •!; »^s 

The £wp€rar# as umqI, mmm Iste in taking opmtions 
thtt field, but he apfxt/ed, towanfo the b^gio. '"^^^^ 
BMig of Joiie, at the head of an wmxf rtim^m^ 
tmensiM and better cppiii»ied tium 4ny wUdi 
be iiad bitbefta ted agasnst FraBee. £t wmmtvA^f. 
edt alflMst to fifty thaasimd mn^ imii p«rt oi it 
bairing mdnced! IjoKenbiiiRg and some other 
U>wtif% in the Nelheriands, before bi^ bimsetf 
jciiied it> he now narebed with the whole Uh 
WBiidhitbeiiroatiersefGbampagiie. Cbaries, ao^ june* 
coMhag te bw agrecMetit with the King df 
England, o^gbt le hare advanced dii«stiy te« 
waeds Pantf and the i)iauphni» who eomniand* 
ed the only army te iriitdi Francis tmsled §m 
tbie eeeuFity of his domisiiont m tbit qnseteiv 
was in no coQidttton le oppose ban* Bet the 
$iu:eess with which fhe Freaeb bad idebnded 
Provence in the year one thoniaad flwr husMirsd 
and thirty-six, had taught them the most efiec- 
taal methed ef dkistneisiag pa invasliag eneaiy* 
Chamfnagae, a cooairy abofmdtng aionrin tiaes 
than ceni, wss iaeapable of amatDtaiak^ 
armr^; and before tbe fioiparor's approac^t 
wbateTsr ooald be of any nas to biii troops Jia4 
been carried off or (desteoyed. This rtmfered it 
tieceesary for hiai to be anasler of some igihuif» 
of strength, in order te swvre tbe OMVoys^ 4MI 
^\i\^ alofie be naw perceifVed tl»t b^ tsMi igy 


^ vi? ^ pcnd for. subsistence ^andhe found the frontier 

v^ ^ y''^* * ^ towns so ill provided for defence, that he hoped 

1544. j^ would not be a work either of much time w 

> difficulty: to reduce them. Accordingly Ligny 

? ; and Gbmtnercy, which he first attacked^ sur- 

The En^- rendered 'after a' short resistance. He then in- 

Tor invests 

St Disier. vestcd St. Disier, which,, though it commanded 
°^ ' an important pass oti the Marne, was destitute 
of every thing necessary for. sustaining a siege. 
But tlie Count de Sancerre:and M. de la Lande, 
who.had' acquired such reputation by the de- 
fence of Landrecy, generously threw themselves 
into the town, and undertook to hold it out to 
the last extremity. The Emperor soon found 
how capable Ihey were of making good their 
promise, ^ and that he could not expect to take 
the town without besieging it in foi^m. This 
accordingly ; he undertook ; and as it was his 
nature never to abandon any enterprise in vvhich 
he had once engaged^ he persisted in it with an 

incoiKsiderate obstinacy. 

-I . - ' • 

Henryviii. The King of England's preparations for the 
Boi^c. campaign were complete long before the Em- 
peror's ; but as he did not choose, on the , one 
hand, tfo -encounter aione the whole power of 
France, and was; unwilling, on the other, that 
his troops should remain inactive, he took that 
oppoitunity of chastising the Scots, by sending 
his fleet,, together with a . considerable part of 
his infantry, under the: Eafl of Hertford, to in- 
vade their country. Hertford executed his 
commission with vigour, pluntiered and burned 

KMPi;ROR CM;4.Ri;'ts y. 277 

jS4inburgh And/ Leitb, . laid W9,ste th? adjacent ;? ^^^^ 

country, , and. reipibarked his men jwi),^^ such \ar>r^ 

dispatch that they jQine^ thj^ir sojfjs^reign} sppipi . • ■**• 

after, his landing; in frftjace*. '^ Mf\^ '■;. 

Tivedin that kingdon^, fee /found the; Empefw 

,engaged inthe s^ige of St Disieri a,n anabassar 

dqr,. howevet:, whom? he sent to congratulate 

^the Engl ish. Monarch! pri his safe arrival pn, the 

continent, solicited hiiptQ niarch, in,. terms; of 

the treaty, ^directly tp^^vParis. ButPhsu'Jes; had 

^et his ally .such an ill example of fu,ljfiUing^tl^e 

•conditions' of their confederacy with exactness, 

.that Henry, observing him employ :^iis time 

and. forces in taking towns for his :qwn jbe^op^ 

^aw no reason why he should not attempt the 

^reduction of somq places, that lay ponveni^^tly 

/or himself. Without, paying any regard tq ,tfhp 

Emperor's remonstrances, he immediately iur 

vested Boulogne, and cpipmanded the Puke of 

■Norfolk to press the siege of Mont^e^il^ which 

;had beien begun before his arrival, by a body 

of Flpmings» in conjunction with some English 

troops. While Charles , and Henry shewed; such 

-attention each to hip own interest, they{ both 

neglected the commoB cause. Iijstead of the 

union and confidence requisite towards, .conduct- 

Jng the great plan that they had formed, they 

; early discovered a mutual jealousy of each other, 

which, by degrees, begot distrust, and ended in 

.open hatredf. 

* . Ilist. Scotland, i. 11 2. . t Herbert, 

I ■ . • ■ *.. - ^l . 4 . . . «i • . . . 



i^ THfi att^^ 6P THE 

*^** BVthi^ tim^, Fraft€ts fcad, wilH Uttw^ti^d 
V^v-*^ m^nstty, dmwti tc^etti^ at! lamy, ^ap4b)€s as 

Ga«f2f de ""^^^ fr'^Htt ttaft tiumber m fwm itie t^tif ^ the 
!^ troap^y of making htf^ >agitii^t the ea^ti^y. 
|}M the DftiUphffl, wh<> M;i)l acted aisF genm*a}> 
pre^demty declkring a b^ettle» the U)^ <tf whi^h 
W^uid hi^^ e^dafigered the kHigdtom^ satisfied 
htmi^f T^ith harassiti^ the^ Etntyeror mth his 
JKght toroo^, ctettmg off his d<«ivd|f«, atid taying 
waste the caiitHry afonmi bitti. Thdngh Big^ 
trevik/Ay d^istressed by these operatiott^ Chititos 
0tif I f>ffcssed the siege ot St. Disier, whtth Saa- 
(Mfe ^^ended with itstoni^hing fortitude and 
55bttt^tret, He $to0d repeated a^MW^ultssj rep«l«riig 
4he enemy in thetti all; ^tid uttdifc«tiaye^ eten 
hy th^ ^temh of hh bra^ a^sbciate JDte la Lande, 
iWrho was killed by a eattno^-ball, he oont^ued 
to shew il^e same bo|4 f^t(titer>a»€e and ob^- 
ftate reiolatien. At th^ ^ of fite Wiefc*, he 
wai^ still in a c<mditi6ti to hold out iMme time 
lotiger, when art artifice of GmtiiriH^'s induced 
itimto surreftdef. That <?rafty politi<»^, hav- 
hig intercepted the key t^ the cypher whieh 
the I>uke of Guise ui^ in commutiioatlug ia- 
telligeiTce to Sancerre forged a letter m his 
came, authoring Sarteenre 1s6 eapif ula;t^, m die 
King, though highly satisfied with his^behaviotif> 
thought it imprudent to hi^ifard a battle for his 
relief. This letter he conveyed into the t^rwn m 
a manner which could raise no silspi^iot)^ atid 
the governor fell into the snare. Even then, 
he obtained such honourable conditioii$ as liis 
gallant defence merited^ and among others^ a 

MMHti^ii i>f ho9tiliti0» fer eigbt di^y f, fit rtie «t » ^g^ ^ 
piratioo of which he hwtM himself to op^n ^ s^^w^ 
gftti9$^ if Frwici«, during tbikt tim^, did not $^i^ ^^*^ 
tiK^k the Imperii army, wA throw freah trooi»<; 
ioto the town*. , Tha? S^noerre, bj detaining 
the Emperbr w long bdWe i^n iacpn^iderable 
place, fdSTordod his Mtr^r^ign full ttoie to «^ffiyh 
ble ail his forces^ and wh%t r^jrely fall^ to the 
lot of ao o0ioer in ra^^h 9^ inferior commandt 
acquired the glory of hitviiig ^^wA hi* 'Qoqotryf 

As soon «$*$t* D'lmr surn^fid^redt the C;in«- Augast n. 
pieror advanced into the heart of Clirnnpagne^ S^p^iS*" 
but Sancere*$ obsttuate resistance had dai9)ped ^^^Jjjj^or 
his sanguine hopes of penetrating to Pari^, and ^^"^ 
led htm seriously to refloat on what he might; 
expect before towns of greater strengths and 
ilefended by more numerous garrisons^ At th^ 
same time, the procuring subsistence £or his 
amy wss attended with gneat diScuJty^ which 
increased in proportion as he withdrew fi^rther 
/rons bis own frontier^ He bad lost a greal: 
mumher of his best troops in the siege of St. 
Disief} and many fell daily in skirmishes^ which 
it was not in his power to avoid, though they 
wasted his army insensibly, without leading to 
any decisiye action. The seaeon advanced 
apace^ and he had not yet the command either 
of a sufficient exLtent of territory, or of any such 
considerable town as rendered it safe to winter 
in ihe enemy's country. Great arrears too 


^vi^? were rioW diie tohis soWiefs, 'trho were xxpiya 
v^»N^^i^ th^ point of mutinying for their pay, while he 
*^^' knew not from what funds to satisfy them. 
All these considerations induced him' to liisteii 
to the overtures of peace, which a Spanish Do- 
Jninican, the confessor of his sister the Queen 
of France, had secretly made to his confessorj 
a thohk oiF the same order. In consequence of 
this, plenipotentiaries were named' on both 
sides, and began their conferences in Chaupse^ 
a small village near Chalons. At the same 
time, Charles, either from a desire of making' 
one great final effort against France, or mer-ely^ 
to gain a pretext for deserting his ally, and con- 
' eluding a separate peace, sent an ambassadoF 
formally to require Henry, according to the sti- 
'pulation in their treaty, to advance ' towards 
Paris. While he expected a return fi^orii him, 
and waited the issue of> the c6nferei>ces at 
Chausse, he continued to march forward, thoagh 
in the utrtiost distress from scarcity, of provi- 
sions. ' But at last, by a fortunate; motion on 
his part, or through some neglect or treachery 
on that of the French, he surprised first Esper- 
ney and then Chateau Thierry, in both which 
•were considerable magazines. No sooner was 
♦it known that these towns, the latter of which 
is not two days march from Paris, wefe in the 
hands of the enemy, than that great capital; de- 
fenceless, and susceptible of any violent alarm 
in proportion to its greatness, w:as filled with' 
consternation. The inhabitants, as if the Em- 
peror had been already at their gates, fled in 



iXie wildest cotiftf^fdn atid dej5pair,« xbany send* * ^^ ^ 
ibg their wiveis aiid children down the Seine to 
J6oiien> others, to Orleans, and the tdwns'upon 
the Loi^e. Frawjis himself> more afflicted with 
this than with any other event during his reign, 
atKi' sensible ^s- well. of thb^triuhiph^ that < hisi ri- 
val would ^j^y in insulting' hi^^capital, as of 
the danger 6> which the kingdom ^was exposed; 
could hot I'^frfi^in^ from crying but, in. the first 
emotion of his surprise and sorrow, " Howd^r, 
my God, do I pay for this cfown, which I 
thought thou hadst grai^ted me freely t!" But 
tfecdv^ring in a moment from this sudden sally 
of peevishness and impatience, he devoutly add- 
ed; ^1 Thy Will> 4iowever> be done;-' and .pro- 
ceeded to issue the necessary orders for opp6s- 
\tkg the enemy with his usual inctivity and pre- 
sence pf mind. The Dauphiti detached eight 
thousand men to Paris, which revived the cour- 
age of the aflrighted citizens ; he threw a strong 
garrison into M^atix, andbyaforced march got 
into Ferte, between the Imperialists and the 
papital^. ' - ? . 



' tJFON%his, the Emperor, who began again to Obiigedto 
feelthe want of provisions, perceiving that the 
Dauphin still prudently dechhed a battle, and 
not faring to attack his camp with forces so 
inach shattered and reduced by hard service, 
turned suddenly to the right, and began to fall 

t>ack towai^ds Soissons. Having about this time 

• • • .• • ■ . , ^ 

'* V * Brantome, torn. vi. 3SJ. 



received Henry^s answer, whereby be refilled %9 

abandon tbe sic^ges of Boulogne and MootreuiJ, 

ol both which he expected every moment to 

^ get po8sesftioii» he thov^t t^imiielf absolve 

. from all obligations of adhering to the treaty 
with him, and at full liberty to. consult his own 
interest in what manner soever he pleased. He 

r consented, therefore, to renew tlie conference, 
which the surprise of Esperney bad brokaa offs 
To conclttde a peace between two Princes, one 

andFninds of whooi greatly desired, and the other greatly 
2"^^ needed it, did not require a long negoqiatioo* 
It was signed at Crespy, a small town near 
Meaox, on the eighteenth of September, Tb4 
chief articles of it were. That lall the oonqtiests 
which either party-had made $tnqe t^e truce of 
Nice shall be restored; That the Emperor shidi 
give in marriage to the Duke of Orleans^ eUber 
his own eldest daughter, or the second daugh- 
ter of his brother. Ferdinand; That if be chose 
to bestow oh him his own daughter, be shall 
settle on her all the Provinces of the Low- 
Countries, to be erected into an independent 
state, which shall descend to the male issue of 
the marriage ; Hiat if he determiued to give 
him his niece, he shall, with her» grant him the 
inrestiture of Milan and its dependencies ; That 
he shall within four months declare which of 
these two Princesses he had pitched upon, aa4 
fulfil the respective condations upon the cof^ 
sammation of the marriage, which shall tak^ 
place within a year from the date of the treaty; 
That as soon as the Duke of Orleans is put in 


|K»i&»«B$toti either of the Low-Countries or of ^^^^ 
Milafi) Francis 6hk\l restore to the Duke of Si^ u^v^^ 
voy all that he now possesses of his territories^ ^^^' 
0S^€»ep« Pignerol andM<»itmitian$ ThatFr^cb 
sAiatl renounce an pretensions to the kingdoiH 
of Na^s^ or to the sovereignity of Flasiders and 
ArtoiS) and Charles shall gtv^e np bn daim to 
tite dutohy of Burgundy c^nd oountty of Cliarop 
l€ni ; That Francis l^all give no aid to the axil*- 
ed Ring of Nat^rre ; That both Monarcbs shall 
jom in making war upon the Turk^ towards 
Y?(hicb tile King shall furnish, when required by 
the Etnperor and Empire, si^ hundred men at 
is^tns, and ten thonsand foot^. 

BKsmestheirntnediaAettioti^estothispeaee, Motives of 
tH^ng from the distresfr of his army through ?^^**^*^ 
want of prottsions; from the difRculty of ns- 
tred.ting out of France, and the impossibility of 
l^ttrihg winter-quarters there 3 the Empenor 
was infinenced by other conrnderations, more 
^tant indeed, but not less weighty. The Pope 
wns offended to a great degree^ as welt at his 
iKinoessions to the Protestants in the late diet, 
as at his eonsenting to ciUl a c<>nncil) and to 
admit of pubfie disputation^ in Geimany with a 
♦tew of determining the doctrines in controvert 
ly. Pahl considering both these steps as sacri« 
legiotrs encroachments on the jurisdiction as well 
4S privileges of the Holy See, had addressed to 
the Emperor a remonstrance r&th^ than a Ipt- 

* Recoeii dea Trsitez^ torn, u ^07. ' Bellas dts Caasis Pacis 
» Crepiac. in Actis Eradit. Lips. 1763. 


^ VI? ^ *^^ ^^ *^^^ subject, written with such iacrimpny 
N^i-yW of language, and an a style of such high auliht>^ 
^^^ rity, as discovered more of an intention to dr^w 
on a quarrel than of a desire to reclaim bim. 
This ill humour was not a jittle inflan^etl by 
the Empei^or's league with. Henry of England, 
which being contracted with an heretic, excom- 
municated by the: apostolic se^,'; appeared ^tba^ 
the Pope a profane alliance, and 'was libtj^s 
dreaded by him than that of Francis with S>ly- 
man. Paul's son and grandson, highly itic^ns- 
ed at the Emperor for havihg refused to gi:a.ti'fy 
them with regard to the alienation of Parma 
and Placentia, contributed by their sqggestiqn^ 
to sour and disgust him still more. To all 
which was ^ded the powerful operation of the 
flattery and iprotnises which Franpis incessantly 
employed to gain hini. Though from his desire 
of maintaining a neutrality, the Pope had hither- 
to suppressed his own resentment, had eluded 
the artifices of his own family, and resisted the 
, solicitations of the French King, it was not sale 
to rely much on the steadiness of a man whom 
his passions, his friends, and his interest com^ 
bined to shake. The union : of the Pope with 
France^' Charles w^ell knew, would instantly ex- 
pose his dominions in Italy to be attacked. 
The Venetians, he foresaw, would probably 
follow the example of a Pontiff, who was con- 
sidered as a model of political wisdom among 
the Italians; and thus, at a juncture when he' 
felt himself hardly equal to the burden of the 
present war, he would be overwhelmed with the 


emSeror: chahles v. 2S^ 

y^ekght:of a tieW' confederacy against him*. At ^^? ® 
the-' same time, the Turks, almqst unresisted, 
made such progress in Hungary, reducing towa 
after town, : that : they approached near to the 
cohfines of the Austrian prpvincesf. Above 
alL these, the extraordinary progress of the Pro-; 
testant doctrines an Germany, and the danger** 
ous combination into which the Princes of thatf 
profession had entered, called for his immediate 
attention. Alniost one half of Gerntiany had 
revolted from the established church ; the.fideli^ 
ty of the rest was. much shaken; the nobility. 
of Austria had demanded of Ferdinand the free 
exercise of religion J; the Bohemians, , among 
whom some seeds of the doctrines of Huss stili 
remained, openly favoured the new opinions ^ 
the archbishop of Cologne, with a geal which. 
is seldom found among ecclesiastics^ had begun 
the refojrmatiojn of his diocese ; nor was it pos- 
sible,; unless some timely and effectual check 
were given to the spirit of innovation, to fore- 
see where it would end; He himself bad been 
a witness in the late diet, to the peremptory 
and < decisiv,e tone which the Protestants bad 
now. assumed. He had seen how, from confii- 
dence in their number and union, they had 
forgotten . the humble style of their first peti*- 
tions, and h^d grown to such boldness as opeik 
ly to 4espise the. Pope, and to shew no grec^t 
reverence for the .Imperial dignity itSjclf.. J^ 

* P. Paul, lOd. Pallavi'c. 163, 
f Istuanbaffii Hist Hung. 177. 
1 Sleid. ii^5, 


>^ * tbierefom, hs visfaed to uiaintaia eikber tbe 

cieot reUgion or his .own authority, ami would 
mofi choose to dwindle itttoa merenammid hsad 
of the Empimy sone vigorous aiid speedy eSkxtt 
WM requisite mi )m part, i^ieii couid wot he 
made during a war that f e^utred the graatast 
cxwtion of his strength against a foragu and 
fowerf ui enemy. 

Such being the Emperor's inducemenks to 
peace, he had the addnsw to frame the trisaty 
of Cre^y so a^ to promote all the ends which he 
had in riew. By comiog to an agmeneEttt wiUb 
Francis^ he tank fmm the Pope all prospeohi nf 
advantage in courting tlie friendship ef that Mo^ 
naneh in presence to his. By the proviso wjidi 
regard to a war with the Twks, he nbt only 
deprtved Solyman of a powerful ally, hut tunsedf 
the am«i ef that aily against hkn. By a private 
article, not ioseited in the treaty, that it na^t 
not raise any unseawnable alarm, he agrwd 
with Francis that both sfaoald exert aU thttr 
infttt^nce and power in order to procure a ge^ 
neral council, to assert its authority, and to mxn 
terminate the Protestant heresy out ^ their dn- 
miiliooi^. This cut off alt chance of assistance 
which the confederates of Smalkalde tmgkt eon* 
pect from the Fi^nch Krag*^ ; and lest their so<» 
{fcitations, or bt# jealousy of an ancient ritai> 
(^ould hereafter tempt ]Francis to forg^ this 
engagement, he left him embairr^ssed with a 

^ Seek. lib. ill. 4M. 


war a^imt Eogtaikd^ wliich would piii it ou£ ^^^ ^ 
oi his power to take any considerable part ia y^mm> , ^m i 
the affairs of , Germany. ^**** 

M£KEY» possessed at ali times witli an high ww cmv. 
idea of his own pMrer «im1 importance, felt; tw<^ 
In the most sttosible ii»uiuer> tte neglect vith e^^"!^ 
which the £m|i^ror had treated him ia con^ 
chiding a separate peace* But the situattoa of 
Us afiairs was vSimJi as soottcwhat alleviated 

the iMrtification which this occasion^. For 
though he was obliged to recal the Dake of 
Norfelh from the siege of Montreiiilt because sept 14. 
the Flemish troofis received orders to retire^ 
BoQh>gne had surrendered befeore the ne^go* 
tiattoas at Crespy were bfx>nglit to aa mw^ 
While elated with vimity on account of this 
oooqaest, aUd ic^Lamed whh indignation agauost 
the £papercn% thie ambassadocs whom Francis 
sent to make overtures of peace, found him tw 
acmg^ant to gram wiu^ was moderate or equi-* 
t«ble« His demands were indeed extratva^^t^ 
imd inade in the tone of a ooaqueror; that 
Francis should renounce his alliance with Scot<> 
hmd) and not ouiy pay op the arream of fomier 
debts, bat reimbarse tbe monejr which Hemy^ 
had eiqpcnded m the preseht war. FrandSi 
though ssincerdy desirous of peace, asd willing 
to yield a great deal is order to obtada it» bdag 
ja$m free; fii»m the presdore of the Imperial 
otiBity ir^j^eted dicse ignotoixnesis pc«ipK>sstioBK^ 
with disdain i m^ Henry departing for JElpg^ 

288 .THE reign: OP THE 

' Yu ^ land; hostilities contiaiued' between the two na* 

tioas *: 

The Dau- The treaty of peace, how acceptable soever 
SsW*^ to the pedple of France^ whom it delivered fr6m 
*f c?^^^ the dread of an enemy who, had. penetrated iaan 
to the heart of the kingdom^ ; was loudly com^ 
plained of by the Dauphin^ He 
as a numifest proof of >the King; his father's ex- 
traordinary partiality towards his younger brb-* * 
ther, now Duke of Orleans^ and complained that« 
from hiS eagerness to: gain an establishment for 
a favourite son^ he had sacrificed the honour of 
the kingdom, and renounced the mc^t iancient as 
well as valuable rights of the crown^ But as he' 
durst not vetiture to offend the Kin^f by. refusing 
to ratify it, though extremely desirous at the 
s;ame time of securing to himself the privilege 
^ of reclaiming what was now alienated so inucll 
to his detriment, he secretly protested^ in pre- 
sence of some of his adherents, against the 
whole transaction; and declared whatever he 
should be obliged. to do in order to €onfirm it 
null in itself, and void ,of all obligation. . The 
parliament of Thoulouse^ pfolmbly by.the inati* 
gation of his partisaris, did the samet./ But 
Francis, highly pleased as well vt^ith having de^ 
livered his. subjects from the miseries, of an ai* 
vasion^ as. with the. prospect of acquirtnglan in^* 
dependent settlemieflcit .for his son: at nO) greater 
price than thati of renouncing conquests to 

* Mem. dc Ribier, torn. K p. 6t2, Herliert, 244. 
t Rccueil des Traitezj torn. ii. 235. 23S. 



"which he had no juit claim; titles whith had '^J?^ 
brought so much expence and so manydiisas- 
ters upon the nation; and rights grown .obso^ 
lete and of no valiie; ratified the treaty with 
^gteaX joy« Charles; within the time prescribed 
by the treaty, declared his ' intention of giving 
Ferdinand's daughter in marriage to . the Duke 
of Orieans, together with the dutchy of Milan 
as her dowry ^. Every circumstance seemed 
^to promise the continuance of peace*. The 
£mper6r, cruelly afflicted with the gout,* ap- 
peared to be in no condition to undertake any 
enterprise where great activity was r^uisite» 
or Qiucb fatigue to b6 endured. He himself 
felt this, or wished at- least that it shotild be be- 
lieved; and being so* much disabled by this esc* 
cruciating distemper, when a French ambassa^ 
dor followed him to Brussels, in order, to be pre- 
sent at his ratification of the treaty of peace, 
that it was with the utmost difiiculty thfiX he 
signed his name, he observed, that there was 
no great danger of. his' violating these artielest 
as a hand that could hardly hold a pen, was 
little able to brandish a lance. 

The violence of his disease confined the Em- tim Em- 
peror several months in Brussels, and was the MbeoMs 
apparent cause of putting oflf the execution of ^ g^?^ 
the great scheme which he had formed in or- "^y- 
der to humble the Protestant party in Germa^ 
ny. But there were other reasons for this dcr * 


^ ReQieil des Traitez» torn. ii. 238. 

900 THE^ REION or THE 

' vn ' '*^' ^^' however prevdlmt the motives were 
«t<pvw which determined him' to midertake this enter- 
'^^ prise, the tiatuna of that great body which he 
was alM>ot ito attack^ as well m the sitVtttioQ c^ 
his own aifimirs, made it necessarj to deii]berat9 
long, to proceed with. caudon, and not too siid«- 
denlj to thtow aside the veil under uriiicfa he 
had hitherto concealed his real sentiments and 
schemes. He was sensit^le that the Protestants, 
conscious of their own strength, but under cotK 
tinuai apprehensions of his designs, had al) the 
boldness of a poweifnf confederacy, joined to 
the jealousy of a feeble faction ; and were no 
less quick^ighted to discerh the first appose 
«ice of danger, than ready to take amis in cx^ 
^er to repel it. At the same time, be stitt ooa^- 
tiniied involved in a Turkish war; and tliougfa^ 
in order to deliver himself from this 'incum- 
lirance, he had determined to send an envoy to 
the Porte with most advantageous and even 
^bmissive overtures of peilce, the reioluticms 
<of that haughty court wisre so uncertain, that 
before these were known, it would have been 
highly imprudent to have kindled the flames of 
civil war in bis own dominions. 

thfef^ tJPON Khis account, he appeared dissatisfied 
^S^ST* ^'th a buH issued by the Pape immediately ^ 
m^*rt** *^ ^^^ peace of Crespy, summoning the coun- 
tvent,^ cH to assemble at Trent early next spring, and 
exhorting all Christian Princes to embrace the 
opportunity that the present happy interval of 
tranquillity afforded theien, of suppressing those 




berosres wimfk threatened to rol^vert w)}$U;eire? ^y^^ 
wwi s9qreA qv veneral^le aiaong Chri^iann. But 
afte? s«€b a 9li«ht ea;^ ression of didUce^ aa wa9* 
B9ci9£i9ary inordertp cover Ua desigufi bedetei^ coDtoteoapce the comicili, wh^^ might 
become »gf iaconaidereA^le in^trumeAt toiwariJii 
accompU^iQg his projeqts, ai^d thereiore opt 
only appointed amheA^()orsi to appeei; there \x^ 
hw nmn^ bet ordered the eoqletiie^iGs ia his^^ 
4Q«iiH0M to attend alt iM time prefixed*^ 

Such were the Efaparor'a s\$w9, when the j^l; 
ImperiaJ dieta afteipseveial prorqgi^tioi^r ww 2"*°^ 4 
opened at Worms. The Prat^tent^ who e»» T 
joyed th0 free eicere^e of th^r ireli^iQa by 1^ 
very precaifiow temre^ having no other 9ecnri^ 
ty for it tha«k; the reqe^ of the lest diet* which; 
wae to eoMinue in (orce only until the meeting 
of a €on«ci]> wished earneatly to c^teMid;)^ that . 
importa^it privilege upon ^me Qrmef hes% 
and to hold 9t hy « perpetual not si temp«H 
rary title. Bnt in^ead of ofieritig them an^ 
additional security, Ferdinieid opened the diet 
with observing^ that there were tw<^ pointf^ 

which chiefly required coniiderf^ti<m» the P^iH 
secution of the war against the Turks, and the 

irtate of religion ) that the fOfm^ wea the most 
nrgent, as Solyman» after eo«iqueneg the grefttJ^ 
est part of Hungary^ wftf now refidy to fall ^f|^ 
on the Austrian provino^; that the ^mperor^ 
who, from the beginning of Int p^gn> hadse^ 

, * F, Pj«1, 104. ,. 


^ vn ^ -gl^cted no opportunity of annoying this formi- 
Wy^ dable enemy, and with the hazard of his own 
^^^* person had resisted his attacks, being animated 
still with the same zeal, had now consented to 
stop short in the career of his success against 
France, that, in conjunction with his ancient 
rival, he might turn his arms with greater vi- 
gour against the common adversary of the 
Christian faith ; that it became all the members 
of the Empire to second those pioUl^ endeavours 
of its head ; that, therefore, they ought, with- 
out delay, to vote him such eifi^ctual aid, as 
not 'only their duty* but their interest called 
* upon them to furnish; that the controversies 
about religidn were so intricate, and of sudi 
difficult discussion, as to give no ho^pe of its 
being possible to bring them at present to any 
Ferdinand final issuc; that by perseverance and repeated 
oiimMs to solicitations the Emperor had at length prevail- 
f^^fbe ed on the Pope to call a council, for which 
oounciL they had so often wished and petitioned; that 
the time appointed for its meeting was now 
come, and both parties otight to wait for its de- 
crees, aiid submit to^them as the decisions of 
the universal church. 

The popish meitibers of the ^iet received this 
declaration with great applause, and signified 
their entire acquiescence in every particular 
^hich it contained. The l^rotestants expressed 
great sur{)rise at propositions, which were so 
manifestly repugnant to the recess of the former 
- diet; they insisted that the questions with regard 



tD religion, asi first in dignity and importancej ^ ^^^ ^ 
ought to come fir^t under deliberation; that, a- 
larmiDg as the progress of the Turks was to alt 
Germany, the securing the free exercise of their 
religion touched them still more nearly, nor 
could tl^ey prosecute a foreign war with spirit, 
while solicitous and uncertain about their do- 
mestic tranquillity; that if the latter were once 
nandered firm and permanent, they would concur 
with their countrymen in pushing the former, 
and yield to none of them in activity or zeal. 
But if the danger from the Turkish arms was in- 
dieed so Imniinent, as not to admit of such a de- 
lay as would be occasioned by an immediate 
e.xamination of the controverted points in reli- 
gion, they required that a diet should be in- 
stantly appoinji;ed, to which the final settlenv^nt 
of their religious disputes should be referred ; 
and that in the niean time the decree of the for* 
mer diet concerning religion should be explain- 
ed in a point which they deemed essential. By 
the recess of Spires it was provided, that they 
should en^oy unmolested the public exercise of 
their religion, until the meeting of a legal 
council ; but as the Pope bad now called i}. 
pouQcil, to which Ferdinand had requiired them 
to submit, they began to suspect that their ad- 
versaries might take advantage of an ambiguity 
in the terms of the recess, and pretending that 
the event therein mentioned had now taken 
place, might pronounce them to be no longer 
entitled to the same indulgence. In order to 
guiMrd against this interpretation^ they renewed 

294 THE !RE!6N OF THE 

^oOK t}|^if Ibrmer remonstrances agaiiist a council 
v^rv^^w^ callied to meet without the homfids f&f the Em- 
'^*^- pire, summoned hy the Pope*s authority, and in 
irhich he ^^umed the right of presidiiBg 5 and 
declared that, notwithstanding the convocation 
of any such illeg^ assen^ly, they still keM the 
recess of the late diet to be m full 'force. 

s«pwr j^ other jiMwctwe^, when the Emperor 
Worms. thought it of advantage to sooth and gain the 
Protestants, he bad detised expedients lor giv- 
ing them satisfaction with regard to demands 
seemingly more extravagant ; but his views at 
jfMnesent being very different, Ferdinand, by hfe 
command, adberod inflegcifely to his first propo- 
sitions, and would make no ooncessions which 
had the most reinote ^tendency to Ifcrow discre- 
dit on the <)ounC9l, or to weaken its authority. 
The Protestants, on tAieir part, were no less in- 
flexible ; and after mnch time spent in fruitless 
endea'Tours to convince each other, they came 
to no agreement. Nor did the presence of the 
Emperor, who upon his recovery arrived at 
M»y t5. Worms, contribute in any degree to render the 
Pwtestants more compliant. Fully convinced 
that they were maintaining the cause of Ood 
and of truth, they shewed th^ns^lves superier 
to the allurements off interest, or the suggestiohs 
of feay ; and in proportion as the Emperor re- 
Tho protes- dottbled his solicitations, or discovered his de- 
cbimiiii signs, ' their boldness seems to have increased, 
^th ihr At last they openly declared, that they wouM 
^^ ^ not even deign to vindicate their tenets in pre- 


sence lof a eounciJ, «9$ei9bjied not to i&Kamifitf« ^Sl? ^ 
but to condemn them j and that they wovJA ^^.^mi^ 
pay no regard to an assembly held under tbier ^^^* 
influence of a Pope^ who had aiready preclude 
ed himself ifrom all tide to ?act as a judge^ by . 
his having stigmatised their opinions with the 
name of heresy, and denounced against them 
the heaviest censures, which, in the plenitude 
af his usurped power* he oould inflict*. 

While the Protestants* with such union as conduct of 
well as firmness, rejected all intercourse with saxooym 
the council, «id refused their assent to the Im- ^ ^^ 
perial demands in respect to the Turkish war^ 
Maurice of Saxony alone shewed an inclination 
to gratify the Emperor with regard to botb« 
Though be professed an inviolable regard for 
the Protestant religion, he assumed an appear* 
auce oi Moderation peculiar tp himself, by 
which he confirmed the favourable sentiments 
which the &nperor already entertained of him» 
and gradually paved the way for e:i:ecuting the 
SMoahitious designs which always occupied bis 
active and enterprising mindf. His example, 
boweTer> had little influence upon such as 
agreed, with him in their religious opinions; 
Im^ Chiyrles perceived that he could not hope 
either to |>rocune present aid from the Protes^ 
taots against the ^ Turkey or, to quiet their fears 
and jealousies cm account of their religion. 

* Sleid. S43, &c. Seek. iii. 543, &c. Thuan. Histor. IJb, 
ii. p. 56. 
t Stecfc iii. 571. 


But, as his schefi^eb were net yet rip« for eke* 

Gutioii, nor his preparations so far advanced 

^^^' that he oould force the compliance of the Pro- 

testants^ or punish their obstinacy, he artfully 

August 4» Gpncealed hts own intentions. That hte might 

augment their security, he jappointed a diet to 

be held at Ratisbon early next year, in order 

' to adjust what was now left undetermined ; and 

previous to it, he agreed that a certain number 

of divines of each party i^hould meet, in order to 

confer upon the points in dispute*. 

TheProt^ But, how far soever this appearance of a de* 
tosu^iect sire to maintain the present tranquillity might 
tte Empe- Yi^^Q imposed upon the Protestants, the Empe- 
ror was incapal^le of such uniform and thorough 
dissimulation, as to hide altogether frbm their 
view, th6 dangerous designs whi^h he was me- 
ditating against them. Herman Count de 
Wied, Archbishop and Elector of Colore, a 
prelate conspicuous fol? his virtue and primitive 
simplicity of manners, though not more distin* 
guished for learning than the other descendants 
of noble families, who in that age possessed 
most of the great benefices in Germany, having 
become a proselyte to the doctrines of the Re^ 
formers, had begun in the year one^ thousiand 
five hundred and fbrty-three, with the assistance 
of Melancthon and Bucer, to abolish the im^ 
cient superstition in his diocese, and to ihtroduce 
in its place the rites established among the Pro- 

* Slcid. 351. 


testants. But the canons of his cathedral, who * ^r? ^ 
were not -m^s^ssed with the same spirit .of inho- "^-^^^^ 
vation, and who foresaw how fatal the levelling 
genius of the new sect would prove to their dig- 
nity and wealth, opposed, from the beginning, 
this unprecedented enterprise of their Archbi* 
shop, with all the zeal flowing from reverence for 
old institutions, heightened by concern for their 
bwn interest. This opposition, which the Arch* 
bishop considered only as a new argument to de« 
monstrate the necessity of a reformation, tiei-^ 
ther shook his rescdution, nor slackened hii^ ar* 
dour in prosecuting his plan. The canons, per* 
ceiving. all their ^ideavours to check his career 
to be ineffectual, solemnly protested against 
his proceedings^^ and appealed for redress to the 
Pope and Emperor, the former as his ecclesias- 
tical, the latter as his civil superior. This ap- 
peal being laid before the Emperor, during his 
residence in Worms, he took the canons of Co- 
logne under his immediate protection ; enjoin* 
jed them to proofed with rigour against all who 
revolted from the established church ; prohibit- 
^ the Archbidiop to make iany innovation in 
his diocese.; and summoned him to appear at 
Brussels within thirty days, to ; answer the ac- 
cusatimis Which should be preferred against 
Jhim*. » 

To this clear evidence of his hostile inten- 
sions a^inst the Protestant party, Charles add- 

f S^id-SlO. 3*0. 331. Seek. iii. 443, 553. 


ed Other pr(x^ stUI more^eacpiidt ' In jhis he- 
reditary domintOM of the; Lmr^^i^oiintries^ bi^ 
'^^ perorated all who were wspeeCed of Luther* 
axiism with unreleiitiiig rigour. A^ sbo& as, ho 
arrived at Worms, he silcaiced : the Prote^tasMt 
preachen in that city. He allowed an Italiaa 
monk to inveigh against the Latheratts from 
the pnlpit of his chapel^ and to call upon him, 
as he regarded the fayoor of Gbd, . to extiermi^ 
nate that pestilent heresy. He disiMttdted the 
cfmbassy, which has been already. mention^ 
to Constantinople^ with overtures of peace^ that 
he might be free from any apprehensions of dan* 
ger or intermption from that quarter.. Nor clid 
any of these steps^ or their dangennis tendency, 
escape the jealous ohserration of the Pk^otes^ 
' tants, or fail to alarm their fears^ and to exmte 
their solicitude for the safety of their sect. 


neathof Meanwhile, Charleses good fortune^ which 
orkans. predominated on all occasions over that of his 
rival FVands, axtriciited bim out of a difficulty^ 
from whid), with all his sagjicity and address^ be 
woutd haye fouad it no easy iqialiter to have dfas^. 
Sept. s. entangled hiin«lf. Just abodt the time whim 
the Duke of Orleans should haye received Feiv 
dinaud^s daughter in marriage, and ti^ether 
with her the possession of the Milanese, be died 
of a malignant fever. By this event, the Empe- 
ror was fiieed from the necessity, of giving up a 
valuable province into the hands of an ensmy^ 
or from the indecency of violating a recent and 
solemn engagement, which mu^ have occasion* 




ed am imsfiedialTe rapture with Bratioei He a£* *^^ 
iectedy ho^n^ver, to ^^cpvess great i^rrow for (ftie 
iintitfiety 4ett)lli of a yooiig Pitnce^ who was to 
liAv>e been «o noatrly allied to him ; but he car4>- 
fiilt J aiNnded entering ititoa;&y Iresh discuBsions 
concerning the Miimcte^ and wofild not liGften 
to a i^posal which came from Francis, of tiew- 
itiiiiiettiiig the tretfty of Crespy, so as to make 
laiiwi some ropat^ion lor the advai^ages which 
fee had lost bjr the demise of his BOti. In the 
more active aM vigorous pKrt of Francis's rdgn^ 
a •declaration 'Of war would have been the cei^ 
tain «nd insHantaneous ^consequence of such a 
fiat refasal to comply with a demand seeming- 
iy so equitable ; but the declining state of his 
own health, the e£:bausted condition of his king- 
dom, together with Uie burden of the war against 
fifng'land, obliged him, at present, to dissemble 
hts resentfenent, Bxvd to put o^ thoughts of re- 
venue to some ether juncture. In eomequence 
of this event, the tinfortunate Duke of Savoy lost 
^11 hope of obtainiing the restitution of his ter- 
ritoties; and the rights or claims relinquished by 
the treaty of Grespy, returned in full force to 
Hie erown of Fratooe, to serve as pretexts for fii- 
%ure wars**^. 

Uw>N «hefin^ intenigehceof the Duke of Or- The Pope 
leans's deaith, the eonfederates of Smalkalde flat- SX^i^of 
•ened themselves that the essential alterations pfa^tfa""* 
whicii fippeared to be unavoidable consequences ^ ^'^ 


f Belcarii Comment. 7^. f%n^ta> Hist* Ttoet, if. p. 177. 



^vn ^ of it could hardly fail of producing a niptiite/ 
which would prove the means of their smSety^ 
But they were not imnre disappointed with re^ 
gard to this, than iu their expectations from an 
event which seemed to be the certain preiude of 
a quarrd between the Eknperor and the Pope. 
When Paul> whose passicm for aggrandizing his 
family . increased as he advanced in years, and 
as he saw the dignity and power which they 
derived immediately from him becoming more 
precarious, found that he could not bring Charles 
to approve of his ambitious schemes, he ventur- 
edto grant his son Peter Lewis the investiture 
of Parma and Placentia, thougii at the ri^k of 
incurring the displeasure of the Emperor. At 
a time when a great part- of Europe inveighed 
openly against the corrupt manners and exor- 
bitant power of Ek^^lesiastics, and when a coun- 
cil was summoneid to reform, the disorders in the 
church, this indecent grant of ^uch a principaii^** 
ty, to a son of whose illegitimate birth th^ Pope 
4>ught to have beeb ashamed, and whose licen- 
tious morals all ^ood men detested, gfive general 
offence. Some Cardinals in the Imperial inte- 
rest remonstrated against « such an unbecoQEHQ^ 
alienation of the patrimony of the church; the 
Spanish ambassador would not be present at the 
solemnity of his infepfmepts. Jitid .uponprelext 
that these cities were part of the Milanese s$ate^ 
the Emperor peremptorily refused to confirm 
the deed of investiture. But both^ the Emperor 
and Pope being intent upon one common ob- 
ject in Germany, they sacrificed their particular 


passions to that public cause, and suppressed ^^^^ 
the emotions of jealousy or rescntm^t which v-^-v^^ 
were rising on this occasion, that they might ^^^^ 
jointly pursue what each deemed to be of great- 
er importance*. 

About this time the peace of Germany was J*"^y^ 
disturbed by a violent but short eruption of kindles a 
Henry Duke of Brunswick. This Prince, though ^y" ^' 
still stript of his dominions, which the Emperor 
held in sequestration, until his differences with * 
the confederates ofSmalkalde should be adjust- 
ed, possessed however so much credit in Ger- 
manfy, that he undertook to raise for the French 
King a considerable body of troops to be em- 
ployed in the war against England. The money 
stipulated for this purpose was duly advanced 
by Francis ; tbe troops were levied ; but Henry, 
instead of leading them towards France, sudden- 
ly entered his own dominions at their head, in 
hopes of . recovering possession of them before 
any army could be assembled to oppose him. 
The confederates were not more surprised at 
this unexpected attack, than the King of France 
was astonished at^aniean thievish fraud, so un- 
becoming the character of a Prince. But the 
Landgrave of Hesse, with incredible expedition, 
collected as' many men as put a stop to the 
progress of Henry's undisciplined forces, and be*^ 
ing joined by his son-in-law, Maurice, and by 
some troops belonging to the Elector of Saxony, 

* Parata, Hist, VeaeU i?. 178. PallaTlc ISO. 


*m ^ be gamed slieh sudvuntagef ovw Hwrj» who- 
v^^ y -^'i*/ was rash aiod bold ia fot fOriiig hin^ sckeme^y but 
^^ feeble and. uodeterwtfted in asiff^uiting timcar ^ 
obliged iiim to d^band his aoriay^ and to a«i;r^. 
render himself, together with his eldest sqUs prii^ 
soners at discretion. He was kept in close con- 
finemenf , until a new revise o£ a^Ewi^ pioq wed 
him liberty*. ; 

♦ '-■* ».'. .'■■ 

The Refor- A^ tbis d^feiit of I}^ry*9 wUd enterprise a^ 

"*p^kti.vded new reputdti^n to the ami^ oC the Proftes^ 

tant^, the est^^blishmettfr of tbp Pr^te^tasit r< 
gioQ in the Palatinate brought ^ great a^ceis^^ 
sion of strength W their paifty ; Fr^derickj wba 
succeeded his brother Lewis in l^bat Ekctoratei 
had long been suspected of a se€i:^t pr opeusity 
to the doctrines of the Rd!(Miner3> whiol^ mK» 
his accession to the principality, he <^w^ 
manifested. But as he expec^$d that soiiier* 
thing effediufd towards a general and legal ea- 
tayishment of religion^ woald he the fruit of 
so many diets^ conferences, and negociations^ 
he did not, at first, attempt any piildio innPr 
jtei. 10. ration in his dominions. Finding all these M-* 
sue in nothing, he thought lumbelf called^ 9k% 
length, to countenance by his authority the 
system which he approved of, and tQ gratify 
the wishes of his subjects^ who, by th^ir int^f* 
course with the ProtestaJA states^ hsd almost 
tmiversally imbibed thcae opinions. As ttici 
warmth and impetuosity which aocimps^nied 

* Sleid. 352. Seek. iii. 567. 


tte spirit of Reformation in its first efforts, had ' ^^ ^ 
tRunewhat abated, this change was made witli v^n""^^ 
great order and regularity ; the ancient rites were ^^^ 
alM^hed, and new forms introduced, without 
any acts of vi6lence» or symptom of discon- 
tent. Though FredJBrick adopted the religious 
syitem of the Pnetestants, he imitated the exr 
ample of Maurice, and did not accede to the 
teagoe of Sinalkalde ^; 

A FEW weeks before this revolution in the Tbeeoandi 
Palatinate, the gieneral council was opened txSt^ 
vsiththe accastomied solemnities lut Trent The 
c^res of the Catholic states were turned with 
0iach estpeota^ion towards an, assembly, which 
ail had considered as capable of applying an 
^ectua) remedy for the disorders of the church 
when they first broke ont, tbougb n)any were 
afield that it was now too iate to hope for 
gfreat benefit from it, when the malady> bj 
being suibred ta increase during twenty-height 
years, had become hiTeterate, and grown to 
such extreme nol^oice. The pope, by. his last 
irall of conrccatian, had appointed the first 
meeting to be held in March. But his views 
and those of the Emperor, were so difierenty 
that ahnost the whole year was spent in pego^ 
eiationa Charles, who foresaw that the rigo- 
rous deprees of the council against the Protea- 
tants would soon drive them, in self-ddence as 

well as from resentment, to some despevate €Xr 

• ^ . ..■• .... 

* SM4 d5& Seek. I ill. ^\§. 



^ ^^ ^ treme, laboured to put off its meeting until bis; 
warlike preparations were so far advanced^ that 
he might be in a condition to siscand its t)eci«- 
sions by the force of his arms. The Pope, 
-who had early sent to Trent the legates who 
were to preside in bis name> knowing to what 
eontempt it would expose . his authority, and 
what suspicions it would beget of his inten- 
tions, if the fathers of the council should re- 
main in a state of inactivity, when the church 
was in such danger as to require their imtoie^ 
diate and vigorous interposition^ insisted either 
upon translating the council to some city in 
Italy, or upon suspending altogether its pr<>^ 
ceedings at that juncture, or upon authorizing 
it to begin its deliberations immediately. The 
Kmperor rejected the two former expedients as 
equally offensive to the Germans of every deno- 
mination ; but finding it impossible to elude the 
latter, he proposed that the council should be- 
gin with reforming the disorders in the church, 
before it proceeded to examine or define ar- 
ticles of faith. This was the very thing which 
the court of Rome dreaded most, and which 
4iad prompted it to employ so many artifices 
in order to prevent the meeting of such a dan- 
gerous judicatory. Paul, though more com- 
pliant than some of his predecessors with re- 
gard to calling a council, was no less jealous 
than they had been of its jurisdiction, and saw 
what matter of triumph such a method of pro- 
ceeding would afford the heretics. He appre- 
hended consequences not only humbling but 


fatal to the papal see, if the council came to ^ ^j*^ ^ 
cofisider an inquest into abuses as their Only s-i-viw 
business ; or if inferior prelates were allowed to ^^*** 
gratify their own envy and peevishness, by pre- 
scribing rules to those who were exalted above 
them in dignity and power. Without listen- 
ing, therefore, to this insidious proposal of the 
Emperor, he instructed his legates to open the 

The first session was dpent in n^atters of if^ ^s. 
form. In a subsequent one, it was agreed that ings. 
the framing a confession of faith, wherein 
should be contained dU the articles which the 
church required its members to believe, ought 
to be the first and principal business of the 
council ; but that, at the same time, due atten- 
tion should be given to what was necessary to- 
i\'ards the reformation of manners and disci- 
pline. From this first symptom of the spirit 
with which the council was animated, from the 
high tone of auttiority which the legates who 
presided in it assumed, and from the implicit 
deference with which most of the members fol- 
lowed their directions, the Protestants conjec- 
tured with ease what decision they might ex- 
pect. It astonished them, however, to see for- 
ty prelates (for no greater > number were yet as- 
sembled) assume authority as representatives of 
the universal church, and proceed to determine 
the most important points of doctrine in its 
name. Sensible of this indecency, as well as 
of the ridicule with which it might be attend- 

VOL. III. u 

d06 TDfi ttetoN anf tm 

^l^^"^ ^, 43ie c^^MK^ ^v^tnt^d !^<e>#fy ill its <M 
^^-^v^ tiOttsr^tid mil its prtsc^dto^ «reW fbt mtoser 
^^^- time Itofutdhitig Aivdl *BdWe*. Ai bo« » die 
trcttf<sder«t^ ^ 'Smii&Mdt retl^^ed klbittetrm 
iX the 0{>eiiifig oTtlvft «oaftCil> th€f ^xMMkBd ar 
lM$ tnimi!fest6, ceMfltitting n t^enewftl <of their 
j>tt)test Agaimt tts «i«^inf ^ I»g6th«p with tte 
iiftasiom \^hich indtic^ them to >4eiHine ite jam- 
" dictionsf . The Pope and Emperor, on their 
part, were so little solicitous to quicken or add 
tigoui* to lis opemti^md, m phiply disi^overed 
%liKt 'S(Mte object ^yf f retsMier impoitasice oceii- 
i)i^ nnd interested tfa^^tn. 

Appi^cii. YflE Frottfetdiits were no* iwMteisftYye ^ «ft- 
Pr^bestante! €t>iieerAed ispeetAtws of thettiOtiotis ^the^ove- 
leigfi P^yntiff MiA ^ €hai4ei^ «nd they ^i^fter- 
t^ifted every 4lay ttore tiolent ^usfMwoDfi ^f 
^thieiir fntenti<>tts, iti crnise^fueM^e of ifttelli^enoe 
received from '^^Ukreni i^ftsnters ^ the madii- 
Mitv(y<i^ c&irryfiig t>B a^im^ them. The King 
^ Etigftttid infomied thefii> th«t the Emperor, 
limiting k>ttg tesolved to <e5ttermi»ate their t^pi- 
nioAs, would ivoft ^il t<> ett^ploy thb interval t»f 
trsuiquif Ihy t^ieh he now enj^^yed^ ais ttie mon 
fovotttfaWe juncture ftn- ctfrrying his design in*c> 
exectttiwi. The tnerolianfts ^f Augjshu*rigy whkh 
was at th^t tifne a city of extensive trade, re- 
ceived advitre, by tneransof their cer respondents 
iti Italy > amowg vAtotn W€*»e 'soitie who fteere<Jy 
% favoured the l*rt>testant causej, that a daaget- 


* F. Paul, 1^0, &c- Pallavic. p. 180, &c. 

t Seek. 1. iii. 602, &c. } Seek. 1. iii. 579, 


oiisi confedemey: ugatnst it was fortning betlvieeii ^"^ ^ 
tbe Pape and Earner^. la coniirmattoa of v^ i^ ***^ 
4his they be»rd from the LDw<:oaatrk» thiUfc '""■ 
Chaifles fabd «($a«d orders, tbough with eirerfr 
prec»tttkii Whkh icouid keep tbe meaisare con- 
cealed, £or raising troops bodi li^re and in other 
parts t>f his dominions. Sirdi a ytaiiietj ^of at- 
&imationi otHTOboratiag tdl tbat their own jesh 
iousy 'or obsonratioia led thorn to ap|»rekend» 
left the Ptotes)ban4s Irttte (pesson tx> donfot of the 
Smperor's bosltte inbcotiosis. Ubder this iot^- Their deii- 
^estsim^ the det>utio» of (fihe icoit£ed€a«lels of '^^'^"^ 
-Soidkalde ossembled oJt Fnanelait, otid by cotfy- 
nuQtcaling daoir intelMgence and eentinientB to 
eaeh other^ tecipjroc^Jy heightened their Bea&jafe 
. 0[ the iinpending 'danger. Bkit their amon wt» 
not soch «8 their ^tnation re<|iiared^ or the {9oneK 
paratiote of their 4^emiet resKtered neoessairf. 
Their iewgim had now sbbtiitted^ ten jrearfiL 
Among so maiiiy meiqj[iecs, whtise territoriM 
otfere intermingled trith eatah othor^ i^nd wht^ 
ftocordkig to the tmiMm Of GheraMmy^ hlsid t^reat^ - 
cd an infinite v>arietj of HiatMil rights ond eiaiiUft 
by intermorriageS) allvacic^s, and contracts v/£ 
different kmds^ mibjecte of joaloarfy hskI di8coi4 
bad ntiaroidaUy arisi^. Some of the tR)Afedo«' 
ratec, being oMneoted with tbe duke of Brum^ 
wick» were highly disgusted with the Landgrav^e^ 
<m aiccount txf the rigmir with wMch he had 
treated that jrash and ooflfortana^e Prince. Otfaefi 
taked tbe Etoctor of Saxony and Ljatidgrave^ tiio 
beads of the league, with hanring invoi'^ed ^ 
aaeadmrs m nrniectasary wsA exorUtaat (eic{MS«i^ 



» ^ 

-^ vi? ^ c^s by their profusetiess or >want of <EC0n6itty* 
.The views, likewise, and temper of those tWo 
Princes,' who, by their superior power and aiu^ 
thority, influenced and directed the whole body, 
being extremely different, rendered all its mo- 
tions languid, ata time when the utmost vigour 
and dispatch were requisite. The Landgrave, 
of a violent and enterprising temper, but not 
-forgetful, amidst his zeal for religion, of the usu- 
al maxims of human policy, insisted that, as the 
danger which threatened them was manifest 
and. unavoidable, they should have recourse to 
the most effectual expedient for securing their 
own safety, by courting the protection of the 
Kings of France and England, or by joining in 
.alliance with the Protestant cantons of Switzer- 
land, from whom they might expect such power- 
ful and present assistance as their situation de- 
manded. . The. Elector, on the other band, with 
the most upright/ in t^tions of any Prince in 
.that age, ,and with talents which might have 
qualified him abundantly for the administration 
of . government in any tranquil period, was pos*. 
sessed with such superstitious veneration for all 
the parts of the Lutheran system, and such bi- 
goted attachment to all its tenets, as made him 
aver^ to an union with those who differed from 
jiim in any article of faith, and rendered him 
very incapable of undertaking its defence in 
times, of difficulty and danger. He seemed to 
tbin)(, that the concerns of religion were to bef 
regulated, by principles and maxims totally dif- 
ferent from those which apply to the common 


« « 


affairs of life ; and being swayed too much by ^y^!^- 
the opinions of Luther, who •■ was not only ai 
stranger to the rules of political conduct, but* 
despised them ; he often discovered an unconif 
plying spirit, that proved of the greatest detri^ 
ment to the cause which he wished to support. 
Influenced on this occasion, by the severe :ahd 
rigid notions of that Reformer, he refused to; 
-enter into any confederacy with : Francis, he^: 
cause he was a persecutor of the truth; or to 
)solicit the friendship of Henry, because he was 
BO less impious and profane than the Pope himr 
self; or even to join in alliance with the Swiss^ 
because they differed from the Gertoans in se- 
veral essential articles of faith. This dissen- 
sion, about a point of such consequence,, pro- 
duced its natural effects. Each secretly cen- 
sured and reproached the other. The Land- 
grave considered the Elector as fettered by nar- 
row prejudices^ unwortjjy of a Prince called to 
act a chief part in ^ scene of such importance. 
The Elector suspected the Landgrave of loose 
principles and ambitious views, which corres- 
pond ill with the sacred cause wherein they 
were engaged^ But though the Elector's scru- 
ples prevented tlieir timely application for fo^ 
reign aid; and the jealousy or discontent of the 
other Princes defeated a proposal for renewing 
their original confederacy, the term during 
which it was to continue in force being on the 
point of expiripg; yet the sense of their com- 
jmon danger induced them to agree with regard 
to other points^ particularly that they would 


51d the: reign Off THE 

*2!f? ^ inerer acknowledge' the asMmUy of Trent as & 
law^fnk council, nor smffer the archbisbop of Cqk 
logneir to be opfurcssed on account of the atefs. 
which he had takeft towards the reiBMnnatiea o£ 
his diocese*. 

Their nego- fiis LatidgfaT^^, abost this time^ desirous; of 
«ith the Banetrattng to the bottiUtni of the Emperor's, ijd- 
=-^- t€»tioas, wrote to Granvdte, whom he knew to 
be thonon^hty acquainted with, all his mastev's 
schemes, infopsning hktk of the se^e'eral partico-^ 
lars ^hicb raisedi the suspicions of the Protest 
taots, and begging an^ explicit deelavatton of 
what thef bad to fear or ta hope. Graarette, 
m return, assured! them, that the intelligence 
whieh' thejT bad recoir^d of the ^Gmp^ror's w&* 
tary pifeparations. was exag^^erated, and ail their 
sttspioions destitute (^ &andatioa i that thoitgh, 
iti ordfdT to guapd his frontiers against anj i«r* 
8i»lt of the French orB^glisb^ he hadi commands 
ed a sii»ai body of men tobe raised in^ the Law» 
Countries, h*^ was as solicitous as ewv to viain^ 
tain tranqmllky in ©ermanyf* 

But tbe' S^pepop"^ actions did not eorro»* 
pond with th^se professions of^ his minister^ 
For, ms6ead of appointing men of hnown ttia« 
^Isration and a pacffi'c temper to appear in de- 
fence of the Caibolic doctrines at the conference 
wbich had been agreed o«i^ he made choice of 
fierce bigots, attached to their own system with 

^ S0ck. k il 5m 510. aiS, S^liQi<k 355. f SfeiA $5& 




•a blind obstinacy^ that rendered all hope of a ^ vil^ 
reconcilement desperate. Malvenda, a Spanish 
divine, who took upon him the conduct of the 
debate on the part of the Catholics, managed 
it with all the subtle dexterity of a scholastic 
metaphysician, more studious to perplex his ad- 
versaries than to convince them, and more in- 
tent on palliating error than on discovering 
truth. The Protestants filled with indignation, 
as well at his sophistry as at some regulations 
which the Emperor endeavoured to impose on 
the disputants, broke off the conference ab- 
ruptly, being now fully convinced that, in aH 
his late measures, the Emperor could have no 
ether view than to amuse them, and to gain 
time for opening his own schemes*. 

* Sleid. 358. Seek. I iii. 620. 

i ' 

1 I . 


• I 

. .i 

I -^ 





•• • 







WHILE appearances of danger daily in- *vni.^ 
creased^ and the tempest which had been v^-v-^^ 
SO long a gathering, was ready to break forth Death of 
in all its violence against the Protestant church,. ^^*^- 
Luther was saved, by a seasonable death, from 
feeling or beholding its destructive rage. liav- 
ing gone, though in a declining state of health, 
and during a rigorous season, to his native city 
of Eysleben, in order to compose, by his autho- 
rity, a dissension among the Counts of Mans- 
field, he was'seized'with a violent inflammation peb. is. 
in his stomach, which in a few days put an end 
to his life, in the sixty-third year of his age. 
As he was raised up by Providence to be the 
author of one of the greatest and most interest- 
ing revolutions recorded in history, there is not 




'vm ^ ^^y person perhaps whose character has been 
drawn. with such opposite colours. In his own 
age, one party, struck with horror and inflamed 
with rage^ whm they saw wiH^ what t daring 
hand he overturned every thing which they held 
to be sacred, or valued x beneficial, imputed to 
him not only all the defects and vices of a man^ 
but the qualiti^ ^ ^ dfei9i^n. The other^ 
warmed with the admiration and gratitude^ 
which they thought bo merited as the restorer 
of light and liberty to the Christian church, as- 
cribed to him perfections above the eondition 
of humanity, and viewed all his actions with a 
veneration bordering cusk that which should be 
paid only to those who are guided by the im- 

Hiscfaa- mediate inspiratiQQ iji H^^qu^ It is his own 
conduct, not the undistinguishing censure or 
tbj9 «:!^aggQrait^di pcaisa of ik> QQAtem^rftfiqik 
th^ ought to r^giiUb^ the QpioAQl^ q£ the pre- 
senrt ag^ oano^raiof hin^. Z^ fqn wlw-t b^ r^ 
gardod as tmibi^ und^vnAQd ui^i^eikiditjf to mmny- 
tftiii^ his O'Wi^ s>y9(teiii^ ^Uti^a^ botit^ n9k\»v^ 9ii<t 
aQquire(j^ ti^ d^feoid ki$ parin<^|Aw, wA wkvf^^ 
^d iiwiuntry » i^Fopag %tiag th&^x ^r^ virtit^ 
which ^HAe $a i;f>nsi|]^iQw»u$ly m ^vev^jr pwt ^ 
his beh9ivip«r, th^t qy/^ii bi& ^DomAfs Idilill ^tlow 
him U> hav^ po^ses^o^ th^ia in ^m aminont ^ 
gree. To theswr may b^ <^*4 with ^qwl juch 
liee, sueb purity 9in4 Qven i^wt^ity of m^onrtnb 
^ beo9J$)e Qr>^ who a9$ucaa4 th^ char^ictse]^^ ^f 9 
Relbriwer ^ ^ueh si^nctity of life 9^ diiit^ tte 
doetrinQ whiidi be df^ltv^red ;. a«^ ^uch p<»rfM* 
disAater^ssk€daes$ 9i3 adS^rdt i^ 3Hght pc^^wmp' 



twa of bw sincerity. Superior to all selfi^ cotu- ®^^ ^ 
sriderations, a strai^ger to the ^l6gan€i€fii of life^ v^t^^/^^./ 
and despising ita pleasures, he leSt the honoars ^^^' 
and emoluments of the cbureb to bis discipfosy 
remaining satisfied hhnself in bis original state 
of professor in the nniversity, and pastor of the 
town of T^ittemberg, with the moderate appoint*^ 
Hienls annexed to these offices. Hii^ extraoiv 
dinary qualities- were altayed witb no incocK 
siderable mixture of human fraihj and human 
passions. These, however, were of such a na^^ 
tare, that they cannot be imputed to malevo- 
lence or eormption e£ heart, hut seem to have 
taken their rise from tbeaiame source with many 
of bis virtnes; His mind, foreibla and vdie* 
ment in alt its operations, roused by great ob^ 
ject.s or agitated by violent passions^ broke ouifc 
on many occasioniit, witb an impetuosity vrhich 
astonishes: men of jfeebter spirits, or such as are 
placed in a mo^re tranquil situation. By carry- 
ing some praise»worthy dispositions te excess, 
he bordered sometimes on what wto culpable, 
athd wais often betrayed into actions* which ex« 
posed him to censure. His conftdence that his 
own opinions were well founded, approacbed 
to arrogance ; bis courage in asserting them, to 
rashness ; bis firmness in adhering to them, to 
obstinacy; and his aeal in confuting bis adver« 
saries, to rage and scurrility. Accustomed him* 
self to consider every thing as subordinate to 
truth, he expected the same deference for it 
from other men ; and without making any al* 
lowanges for their tioiidity or prejudices, he 




^vm ^ poured forth' against such as disappointed him 
in this particular, a torrent of invective iping^ 
led with contempt. Regardless of any distinc* 
tion of rank or character when his doctrines 
were attacked, he chastised all his adversaries 
indiscriminately, with the same rough hand,; 
neither the royal dignity of Henry YIU. nor 
the eminent learning and abilities of Erasmus,, 
screened them from the same gross abuse with 
V^'hich he treated Tetzel or Eceius. . . 

But these indecencies; of whioh Luther .was 
guilty, must not be imputed wholly to the vio» 
leuce of his temper. >* They ought to be charge 
ed in part on the manners of the age. Among 
a rude people, unacquainted. ,with those max- 
ims, which, by putting continual restrain^ oa 
the passions of individuals, have polished socie- 
ty and rendered it agreeable, disputes of every 
kind were managed with heat, and strongr emo- 
tions were uttiered in their natural language^ 
without reserve or delicacy. At the same time^ 
the works of learned men were all composed in 
Latin, and they were not only authorised, by 
the example of eminent writers in th^t lan- 
guage, to use their antagonists with the most 
illiberal scurrility ;^but, in a dead tongue, inde- 
cencies of every kind appear less! shocking than 
in a living Iangua<re, whose idioms and phrases 
seem gross, because they are familiar.^ . 

In passing judgment upon the characters of 



Jliet), we ought to try them by the principles ^yj^^ 
and ma:$^iiit)S of their own age, not by those of 
another. For, although virtue and vice are at 
all times the same, manners and customs vary 
continually. Some parts of Luther's behaviour 
which to us appear nK>st culpable, gave no dis- 
gust to his contemporaries. It was even by 
some of those qualities, which we are now apt 
to blame, that he was fitted for accomplishing 
4;he great work which he undertook. To rouse 
mankind, when sunk in ignorance or supersti- 
tion, and to encounter the rage of bigotry arm- 
ed with power, required the utmost vehemence 
of zeal, as well as a temper daring to excess. 
A gentle call would neither have reached, nor 
have excited those to whom it was addressed. 
A spirit more amiable, but less vigorous than 
Xuther's, would have shrunk back from the dan- 
gers which he braved and surmounted. To- 
wards the close of Luther's life, though without 
any perceptible diminution of his zeal or abili^ 
ties, the infirmities of his temper increased up- 
on him, so that he grew daily more peevish, 
more irascible, and more impatient of contra- 
diction. Having lived to be a witness of his 
own amazing success; to see a great part of 
Europe embrace his doctrines; and to shake 
the foundation of the Papal throne, before which 
the mightiest Monarchs had trembled, he dis- 
covered on some occasions, symptoms of vanity 
and self-applause. He must have been, indeed, 
more than man, if upon contomplating all that 



818 THE REIGN t)F mt 

'vm '^ iie actaaily 4uccoB0pltsbed, he jaad tiev^r felt emj 
iseQtianent of this kind rmng in hii; breast*. 

SoM£ time before Ims death iie felt his strength 
declininig;, fab conetaiutitm being worn out by a 
prodigious maltiplicity of business, added to the 
labour of discharging fats ministorial fimctmm, 
with afflremitting dtiigenoe^ to the fetigne of 
i?on$tant studj, besides the consfnosition of iforks 
«s ToltHninotts as if he had enjoyed cmitttemifKt^ 
ed lersttre and retireoafent* His natural intr^i^ 
dfty did not forsake him at the approach of 
dteath; fais last conversa^tion with ins feiends was 
concerning the happiness referred ibr good mea 
in a futnre fife, of which he 5poke with the fefv 
tour and delight nalmral to one who expected 
and wished to enter soon tipon Ae enjoymeiMr 
of ilf . The accounl of his dieatfa filied the fio*- 

* A arenaarkaUe inirtaiice of thi^ ms well ^^ a oortaiD sia* 
gularity aod elevation of senUment, is found in his Last Will. 
Though the effects which he had to bequeatli were very in- 
tonsidersrlyl^, hethtwight it necessary to nmke a Testament, 
but scorned toiptmc h with l^e usaal legul formalitie6. Hd^ 
tus uwny stty^ he^ in cqbIo^ in terra» k iiiferol^ & wtctarktkon 
ad hoc sufficientem habeo^ ut mibi «oli credatar, cum Dejus 
onihi^ liomini licet damnabili, et miserabili peccatori^ ex pater- 
TWi mlsericordia Erangeliutn filii soi credidcrit, dederitque ut 
in «o TeruK k ftdelfs ffv^m, ita ut iftuHi in mimdo iHod per 
me accepetf ttt, k me pro Doctore T«rii8iaB agnovethit^ spMto 
baano Pap«e, OQ»sari% Begnm^ Priacipuiti ^ «ac&rdbtaii% ini^ 
omnium dsemonum odio. Quidni^ igitur, ad dispositioneui 
banc, in re exigua, suflkiat, si adsit manus meae testimonium, 
& drci possit, h»c scripsrt &. Marrtnus Luthisr, Kotaritrs l)ei. 
Ml testis £trangdii ^jas. Sec I m. p. 65i« 

t Sleid. 362. Seek. lib. iii. 632, &c. 



Oddtliolic fmrty with ^eKctsskrc af; wreU «s ^^^ 
mAeoma, joy, «ml <iamped tbe ispirits tyf aU his 
•MbiHinfrrss tieitliw pwrtf strfficiently totistdemis 
4^ftt 4iii» (teetdMS wen tiow w firmly Moted, as 
40 1^ In a conditjiditt tt> fleumli ^dependent «Qf 
the hMd •dkidi iMd finst ^mled tbein. Has 
tfttiyerftl t4^s tDetebrAtefl <>y wder df the Elidctor 
of ^9S6B7 fAth, eKtraordinary pomfi« He left 
lietefiii <6hi4drea by liis \ti)fe Catbenne m Borit^ . 
Who Mmr^ biKu T^^ards the ««vd of the last 
^i^Muiy) l*!€te xwne in Saxony some Df Ws ide»- - 
^mti^s^tA in 4eeent ^tui iiotioiinible sta^noos^. 

The Emperor, meanwhile, pursued the pfem The Enpe*. 
of dissimulation with which he had set out, em- vours to ' 
f toyifig >ewiy «rt to «iiftOTe the RpateBtamts, ind S^^^ 
t0 <qii«t t^^ii- fears and jteateurfis^. For this ^w^^^**- 
^piA-]^se tie ^#ntr4V£»d 1)0 ha^e an imtiemew with 
the Ijatindgrave of H^^se, tiie most, afctive of 'all 
the coiifed^ajies, ktjA th& 4fto»l s:(!^prvtiocis of his 
^^sigii^s. To him he ixiade such warm tppofe^ions utaKiusA. 
of hiB ^^^K^ersL for tihe happin^s ^f Germany, 
titid c^^s avfersidn to «U vi^eiit t»eas«ires; te 
4ieni«d in such iE<:^pmss l^rms, \m havitig enter- 
^ irit<) iany lesi^gufe, or hairing hegtin any mBi- 
tary pre^rati'OtYS which 'shouW gi\«e my just 
i}ause of alarm to the PmtestaM^ as *se^fn to 
lYavie dispelled alt the ^Landgrave^s ddtibtis; atid 
apprehensions, and •sent hitn away foHy satisfied 
Hi( his pacific intentions, Thiis artifite was of 
*^reat advantage, and effectually answered tte 




*viii ^ purpose for which it was employed. The Land' 
grave, upon his leaving Spires, where he had b^e^ 
admitted to this interview, went to Worms, 
where the Smalkaldic confederates were assem- 
bled, and gave them such a flattering represen- 
tation of the Emperor's favourable disposition to- 
wards them, that they, who were too apt, as well 
from the temper of the German nation, as from 
the genius of all great associations, or bodies of 
men, to be slow, and dilatory, and undecisive in 
their deliberations, thought there was no neces- 
sity of taking any immediate measures against 
danger, which appeared to be distant or imagi- 

proceedingf SUGH evcuts, howcvcr, soon occurrcd as stag- 
>iiVga1ust' gered the credit which the Protestants had given 
ttePiotes- ,^Q ^Yie Emperor's declarations. The council of 
Trent, though still composed of a small number 
of Italian and Spanish prelates, without a single 
deputy from many of the kingdoms which it as- 
sumed a right of binding by its decrees, being 
ashamed of its long inactivity, . proceeded now 
to settle. articles of the greatest importance. 
Havii;ig begun with examining the first and 
chief point in controversy between the church 
^(of Rome and the Reformers, concerning the rule 
which should be held .as supreme and decisive 
in matters of faith, the council, by its infallible 
authority, determined, **That the books to which 
the designatioa of Apocryphal hath been given» 

* Sleitl. Hi^t. 567.-373. 


^f6 6T equal authoritj with those which were ^y,{J/^ 
'received by the Jews and primitive Christians ^^v^^ 

. 1546. 

into the sacred canon; that the traditions hand* April 8. 
ed down from the apostolic age^ and preserved 
in the churchy are entitled to as much regard as 
the doctrines and precepts which the inspired 
authors have committed, to writing ; that the 
Liatin translation of the Scriptures, made or re- 
vised by St. Jerome, and known, by the name 
€>f the Fuigate trandation, should be read iu ' 
churches, and appealed to in. the schools as au» 
thentic and canonical." Against all who dis*- 
claimed the truth of these tenets, anathema^s 
ivere denounced in the name and by the autbori* 
ty of the Holy Ghost. The decision of these 
points^ which undermined the main foundation 
«f the Lutheran system, was a plain warning to 
the Protestants what judgment they might ex- 
pect when the council should have leisure to 
take into consideration the particular and sub- 
iKrdinate articles of their creed^. 

This discovery of the councirs readiness to 
ieondemn the opinions of the Protestants, was 
0oon followed by a striking instance of the 
Pope's resolution to punish such as embraced 
them. The appeal of the canons of Cologne 
against their Archbishop havilsg been carried 
to Jlome, Paul eagerly seized on that opportuni- 
ty, both of displaying the extent of his own au- 
thority, and of teaching the German ecclesias- 

* F. Paul, 141. Pallay, 206. 

voi. in. X 




*vm * *^^® the dinger of revoking fcom thfc estabtishecE 
church. /As iK)t person appealed in behalf of the 
Archbishop, he W4b held to be cbnvicteti of the 

April 16. 42rin^e of; f^^y^ and > a papal :buil Vi^as is^uedjr 
dej^ri viiig : him :of : hi^ ' edclssis^ical digiiity, in- 
fikting^onihidn the [sentence of :exconmmntcii^ 
4io^^ ahd :absbl^ra^this' sdbjeets from the oath of 
aU^giarice whi<^ they'hadit^en to him* as their 
^vii snpferipK'i Thd dountpnancidi. which he had 
4g4vlen to the ' Lutheran heresy was' the oiily 
^riniie imptited ioihim; asl.weU a^ the only re»- 
-s^oh adbighed to ji)s^y ^he extraordinary: sevei^ 
ty of this de(*t-e«. The 'Proteitatits could hard- 
ly believe that^ Paul,' how : Ziealons soeVer he 
might beto defend tlie establish^ system^ or 
*to 'humble thofite wlio invaded 'ity would 'have 
Ventured to' pi^o^tfed. to tsucb aextremitie^ against 
-a Pnnciei aiitf Etedtor. of thd Empire, wilhoiit 
Qiaving previoUfely iscfctired wch powerful; protec- 
tion M iv6yld Vender'^is cen^UYe something mbite 
than an impotent and des^ic^abte-satLy of resent- 
ment. They were of course deeply alarmed at 
^Ihis ^ntenice again^ the' Archfoisbopv consTder- 
I'ng it a& a siur^^ indication' of the mailevoleht in- 
tentions not only of the Pbpe, but oP the 'Em- 
-p^roi*,' agattist the whole party*. '• 

Charles U]?ON J thi^ freish? revival of their f(iai*s, with 

co^m^ such violeriee ks is natural to men rotisedfr^m a 

hostiiitie false secuvJtj^^^ And conscious of their having been 

Protestants, decciv^d, Charles saw that n€)^^ it became tiec^S- 

* Sleid. 354/ K-Paul^ 155. 'faliavic. 22i. 


sary to ;tlMr6w 'aside ttiQ tn^kj ami to Aeclare •^jj^* 
Qpeiily what part ^hei^^toPinined to <iict>' Hy d ^^- y W 
long isisHes of atttficeand fallacy, he; had vgtiined ^^*^' 
so mu^h>tiinA that his measunes, though not aU 
together r i pe i for ^exeqp tion ^i ^m^rp . i ti> great, fo^ 
Wardness. The Pope, by hisJprooeedin^s against 
the Elector of Cologne, as wi^-ais byxh^ decree 
of the counci), bad iprecipitatied. matters into 
such a situatio^jc as -rendered ai breach between 
the . Emperor anii the Ppotid6ta<itsialino6tnh^void-» 
able. ; Cfiarles "bad tb^ref^^eaioichoice left him^ ' 
b^t either to take pafrt with themin k)viptum- 
ifig \vhat the See of Rotffo had deiermiiiefly ot to 
^ttpf>oft' the a;uthK^|tity o£ tbe^ohuroh bpeidy by 
forc^ Of arms. Nor did 4he j^d^thinki t enough Negoeiates 
to have brought the- Efriperot^^^nder a tlecessity p|^ 
of acting; he pressed Jiim to begin his opera- 
tions immediately^ and to carfy them on with 
sttchf^vigiouras dc^uid notfail ofosfecuving ^succesk 
Transpbrtefl by his ze«U«agibst. heresy^ i^Kil for- 
got atl the! pnident and :cautioftS'tnakini6 of the 
I^apd Seej. with* regard ttf itWdangfer of ektend^ * 
ing/the IttTp^riat autHoi?ity :.b^^oad diie boandst 
tfrtdin, to'crush^ tbe-'Lutherai)^; he- was 
i¥i]U&g to ooiilri&Hite^tcWards^ raising up- a mas^ 
ter that might oiie day {trove' fermidabte to him^* 
self *As Well hfe^d tfie ttdit of Italy;- > * 

But, besides the certain expectation 6f assist*- conciudasa 
ktte^ fi^ttk ttie Ptipe^^Charleg Was now secoi^e fr<wn soiyman, 
atty 'daii^ehof inlemiptidb to his designs' by the 
Turkish arms. His negociations at the Porte, 
which he had carried on with great' assidiiity 




^viiL* sitice the peace of Crespy^ w6re on th6 point of 
being terminated in such a manner asr he desir^ 
ed. . Solyman^ partly in compUanee with the 
French King, .who^ in order to avoid the dis* 
agreeable obligation of joining the Emperor 
against his ancient ally, laboured with great 
zeal to bring about an accommodation between 
them ; and partly from its being necessary to 
turn his arms towards the east, where the Per- 
sians threatened to invade his dominions^ con-^ 
sen ted without difficujty to a truce for five years. 
The chief article of it *was^ That each should 
retain possession of Vrh^t he how held in Hun- 
gary ; and Ferditiand^ as a sacrifice to the pride 
of the Sultan, submitted to pay an annual tri* 
bute of fifty thousand crowns*^ 

Gains Mau* 
rice and 
lances in 

But it wcis ttpon the aid s|.nd cdncurretice of 
the Germans themiselves that the Emperor re^ 
lied with the greater confidence^ The Germa- 
niic body,, he knew, was of sueh vast i^trengthi 
a& to be invincible if it were united, and that it 
9vas only by employing its own force that he 
could, hope to subdue it Happily for him^ 
the union of th^ several members in this great 
system Wats so feeble>: the whole frame was so 
loosely compacted iwd it& different parts tend* 
ed so violently towards separation from each 
other^ that it was almost impo^ible for it, on 
iany important emergence, to join in a general 
or vigorous efibrt. In the present juncture. 

, ^ Istuanhaffii Hist. Hun. 180. MeiQ. de Ribier, torn. L 592^, 



the sources of discord were as many, and as va- ^^^^ ^ 
rious, as had been known on any occasion, s^-v^i^ 
The Roman Catholics, animated with zeal in ^^ 
defence of their religion proportional to the 
fierceness with which it had been attacked^ 
were eager to second any attempt to humble 
those innovators, who had overturned it in 
many provinces, and endangered it in more; 
John and Albert df Brandenburg, as well as se* 
veral other Princes, incensed at the haughti* 
ness and rigour with which the Duke of Bruns^ 
wick had been treated by the confederates of 
Smalkalde, were impatient to rescue him, and 
to be revenged on them. Charles observed, 
with satisfaction, the working of those passions 
in their minds, and counting on them as sure 
auxiliaries whenever he should think it proper 
to act, he found it, in the mean time, more ne* 
cessary to moderate than to inflame their rage. 

Such was the situatibn of affairs, such the HoUsadi^ 
discernment with which the Emperor foresaw **^**°^ 
and provided for every event, when the diet of 
the Empire met at Ratisbon. Many of the 
Roman Catholic members appeared there in 
person, but most of the confederates of Smal- 
kalde, under pretence of being unable to bear 
the expence occasioned by the late unneces-* 
sary frequency of such assemblies, sent only 
deputies. Their jealousy of the Emperor, to- 
gether with an apprehension that violence 
jQQ^ight, perhaps, be employed in order to force 
their approbation of what he should propose 



*^f»^ in thel dietj,;^ was die ^triie - caiise of tlieir ^h- 
sence;- The wSpecch.wHh whitjh'^th-e Emperor 
optoed flhe diet:rwiaa-. e;£trfenafeiy"> artful. ' ' After 
professilig^ in common fbrhi', hisriegard for'lhe 
prosperity 1 of the Geirtnatiib' body, and dedar- 
ingy thatv* inrorder to:;b*stow di is ^ whole atten- 
tion xipoathte re^esfeablishment "of its .order arid 
tranqu illi ty, he hadi is^t^ pi^sent ^ abandoned' all 
other ciares Tejected>fche;tti6st preS^ng solicita- 
tions of his othier:\swi)jecty to Vesid6 aiiiong 
theni^ and postponed>affiaiirfe*bf the greatest im- 
portancey he tooki notice^ ) with som'e'didappiro- 
bationy that his. disinterested exampld liad not 
been imitated ;.iman\rrtm.emberS» of chief const- 
deratioc^ havings neglected to attieind an as^eoir 
bly to which ho JiadiDepaiiied vvitbisuch* rftani- 
fest i^coiiVeniehfee'tfe hihrself* He then toeu- 
tioned their.; tinliappyidissettsibns abofut* reli- 
gion; laihented' thenH..sbc0ess'*of hi^ past en- 
deavours to compose them ; complained of the 
abrupt dissoliitionof.-theflate conference, and 
craved their pdyicewitbrfegard to the best antt 
most effectual raethodof resfeoriit^ onion: to' the 
churches of .Gerjaaany^ together with' thalT hap^ 
py agreementoin artieite of. faith, iwMch'thear 
ancestors had found to* te of no less aU vantage 
to their ^civil» interestj) than becoriiitig 'fheir 
Christian pf dfession* . ; . . > > 

• • • * ' 

By this gracious and pdpular.mJethod ofcom 
suiting the members of > *he diet; rather thah of 
obtruding upon thenifany opinion of hi{» own; 
besides the apjuearauce of gr-eat nioderation; and 

*fcift merit of paiyipgm«ebTe«p€fc5||to,^hei5 *^a^ 

cutioa what tb^y ;8bcmldii^piVJltmMl. . ;I4|0) 

to obtaiii^i by^ rofeririugifit, whoUy jtQi |;h#ttx^^y.^f 
The/ RoniaQl Galhdlkxi ]Q(ie«9l>9rsy:» profiaptedt bj^ o . ,, . , 
their >ovii <ze^y ;or r^r^pacdl by ibifi* iJHitrigUCSi 
joined immediately xna^ipie&mUtig, .tb§K- the au/- 
thorijty 6f.*tbei<(ouiic)li^of(0 inejt 4^ 7Ii:^^t tpiigl^r>8npreiD^i ini aIlorp«Li|ejj8, bC;i?rin,ti?a\wf»y::j 
tbat^ alL Qirifitiaiis' iiioald.siibmtt j JMDbiM ;de9JreG|^ 
as .tb^. ihfalltble rule.of tbeir ; ^^^ 
ibre they-besought^hrpifd .eixivt^ the pos^er^. with' 
which he was invtetediby the. Almighty^ ilOi^ prut: 
tecting that, assembly » i aod jo. ciomp^mg. th^ 
Pmtestants. to acquiesce Loi iti^ . ft^ermiia^tipn«i 
The Protestants, on the other hand, presented .^ 
memorial, in which^ after repeating their ob- 
Jection&'>to the counibil of Tmntiitbey.JjrQpQSed, 
as the otily effectual :«ietlK>d <6f deciding, the 
points in dispute,, tbati neither :a fn^i^; igeip^era} 
coimcil sb<^uld be dssembled iD. G^rm^y, or 41 
national cduncii o£l^he Empire 8fao]a}d^be^<:^a)ied> 
or aselectdiumber of.divines should h^ aj^point^ 
ed.out of each, party to examine and .deling larr 
|;icles qf faith« Theymentioned.thejr^oesses.of 
several diets^favouipable to this pcopositiOn, and 
whidi had ^a£forded them the prospect ^of ter- 
minating all their differences, in this amicable 
manner; they now conjured the Emperor not 
to depart from his former plan, and by offering 






violence to their consciences^ to bring calami^ 
ties upon Germany, the very thought of which 
must fill every lover of his country with horror. 
The Emperor receiving this p^per with a con- 
temptuous smile, paid no further regard to it. 
Having already taken bis final resolution, and 
perceiving that nothing but force conld compel 
Junes, them to acquiesce in i^ he dispatched the Car« 
dinal of Trent to Rome, in order to conclude 
an alliance with the Pope; the terms of which 
were already agreed on ; he commanded a body 
of troops, levied on purpose in the Low*Ck)un* 
tries, to advance towards Germany ; he gave 
^commissions to several officers for raising men 
in different parts of the Empire; he warned John 
and Albert of Brandenburg, that now was the 
proper time of exerting themselves, ia order to 
rescue their ally, Henry of Brunswick from cap«. 

The Pro- 

All these things could not be transacted 
without the observation and knowledge of the 
Protestants. The secret was now in many 
hands; under whatever veil the Emperor still 
affected to conceal his designs, his officers kept 
no such mysterious reserve; and his Mies and 
subjects six>ke out his intentions plainly. Alarm* 
ed with reports of this kind from every quarter, 
as well as with the preparations for war which 
they could not but observe, the deputies of the 
confederates demanded audience of the Emperori 

^ Sleid. 374. Seek. iii. 658. 



atid, in the name of their masters^ required to ^^^ ^ 
loiow whether these military preparations were. 
Cfirried on by his command, and for what end,, 
and against what enemy ? To a question put in 
such a tone, and at a time when facts werebe^' 
come too notorious to be denied, it was neces*; 
sary to give an explicit answer. Charles own- 
ed the orders which be had issued, and profes- 
sing his purpose not to . molest on account o£ 
religion those who should act as dutiful sul>- ~ 
jects; declared that he ^sid nothing in view. but 
io maintain the rights and prerogatives of the 
Imperial dignity ; and, by punishing some fac^ 
ttous members, .to preserve the ancient constitu- 
tion of the £mpire from being impaired or dis- 
solved by their irregularand licentious conduct. 
Though the Emperor did not name the persons 
whom he charged with such high crinies, and 
destined to be the objects of his vengeance, it 
was obvious that he had the Elector of Saxony 
amd Landgrave of Hesse in view. Their depu- 
ties considering what he had said, as a plain 
declaration of his hostile intentions^ immediate- 
ly retired frpm Ratisbon*. 

The Cardinal of Trent found it no difficult The smpe^ 
matter to treat with the Pope, who having at JS^fh thT'^ 
length brought the Emperor to adopt that plan ^^ 
which he had long recommended, assented with 
eagerness to every article that he proposed. 
Thp league was signed a few days after the J^Tyss^. 


f Sleid. 376. . 

530 THEr REf GN 0« iTHX 



^2i?i ^ Cardinal V/arrivftl . at i B^oms?* ;TJae- l^mic^^psl^ 
heremesi wfaidbc a^updediin .Gdiftn^Qy v the ob^ 
stikKdcy io£rtfoei PnQii^ta]:iteaaori^c|mg;ih6 J^jr^ 
oouncil iassasioiled at Ti?eDt>. aad: )bhe!:ii«i^s&tjr^ 
o£ tmiimaiiiiogiisoundi^OGtrina^.itPgfithem wi^ 
good order in ItuBstcUuri^hf ao&'Oieitibipmkediaa 
HiDltves ' b£ til is .imien : beii^fro ithet / QO0trde^ 
kig partii^; .In: Wder'.itGiicl^k/tlm>gnowtii bfi 
iiieseevils^ and* to> piaiif^k dooh iflfi}i[|ad<|inpft>i)^jr> 
eontrifbkt^d; tocspcead -theia, ctbe £aaipero«v h^^^ 
itigiliHig^^and wiitbdiU snoceaslnade'tfidl^ gent* 
lev Tomedies^ etigagedinst^tlj to rtakeitheritel^ 
with.a sf^icieiit :ari^yy«Uiatii ]^/iiiigl|jtiiQoiB^t 
atl who difiowaed ihe GQoaciJj, iSxvM^i^^positBtiz^ 
ed from the^rel%ipn of tkeir iQr0kyiihem» ito rire% 
tarn into 4^erbosoih-o£;ii}6'.ql»3ffchy: andiisabmcb 
withidue 6badiea€6 to the lUoljf.S^ein Heiiifieil^' 
wis& bound) hkmieU not:1io/ doiiiQludeca peato 
"O^ith tfaem dxtBingsb? mon^jUs withodt ithd fiope's 
consent, nor witiiouliassigiiing bim ifai8.sli»re.<iir 
any conquests ^ whiob jshould ^ 'be^ ;n>jp^de . npmst 
them^ and that evei^ aftepthis peitiod^hsKshoald 
not ' agree to , any accommodation ■> wbtoh. .might 
be detrimental to the churchy or to Iho/' interest 
of religion. On his part, the Pope stipulated 
to deposit ;a l<aFge ctlib^ bank ..^f Venice 
towards defi^aying, thaexpence of thciwan^i^tQ 
maintain, at' 'his: ownxharge^duniQgt^kieifipaca 
of six ' months^ : twelve r thousand ; foot, andfiire 
hundred horsey to grant th? EmperoF^ for on© 
year, half of the ecclesiastiiCal rerenue^ thcougb^ 
put Spain; to authorise him, by a bull, to alie- 
nate as much of the lands, belonging to religi- 

y-^ -.--- 


ous houses in that 'conntryi as ^W9«rl€' amounit' ^y.„*^ 
to' the suju of »fi\fe ' hundi^ed' thoDsaind crow^ns ; \^0^y.t^ 
and* to »em ploy? rtot onljr 9pirit«ia} censures,' but ^^^* 
military force, ogaimi any prince who- sfaoutd 
•atterhpt to initeirniptor d^at the execution of 
this treaty*. 


^ NOTWITHST'ANCINC? the/expifcit^ lirms lll Endeavwa. 

whfch the' extirpation of heresy w^sdeohHad to filihiJISr 
be the object of the ivar whrch - wks' to :ibWow tentions 

''^ from the 

tipon this treaty, Charles stflhjfehdtavorurred. to Protestants 
persuade the: Germans that^he . trad^- nO' design , 
to abridget their rdlgioas'1ibei?ty,* biit' that' he 
aimed only at vvindibattitg' 4iis ' oivn'^'at^thoritiy, 
and repressmg the insolewie of shcfaias^ad en- 
croachied upon it. -With ? this ^iewyi he wrote 
circular lettersr in. the same - stram^with his an- 
swer to the depiiti^.^ofRatisbonito'ni6sti ofthe 
* free cities, aiid to several -lof the iPrinces who 
h ad embraced i the Pl*M6stant id^trttles. ^ Jn 
tbese he cbtniplaiDed ■ Jondlyii : tbttt f » in "general 
t^rmsi of the cdnf empt ^intoJ iirhidh the Impe- 
Vial'digriity had fallen, and df the^es^uitiptuous 
as well as disordfeifly behaviour rof* some^ mem- 
beri? of the Empire. He declared that ' he now 
took arms; nbt in a^ religious, but in a civil 
quarrel ; not 'to oppress anyi who icontinued to 
behave as' quiet and dcHfiful subjects, >b^t to 
humble the af^rogance'of such as had thrown 
off all sense of that subordination in which-they 
were placed under him as head of the Germanic 

« ■ 

. ^ Sl^U 3«1. PaiUv. 255.. Da Mont Corps Diplom^ U- 




^wa'^ body. Gross as this deception was, and mnni- 
Vi-v^ni^ fest as it might have appeared to all who con^ 
^^^ sidered the Emperor's conduct with attentioi^ 
it became necessary for him to make trial of 
its effect ; and such was the confidence and dex^^ 
terity with which he employed it, that he da- 
rived the most solid advantages from this arti- 
Bee. If he had avowed at once an intention of 
overturning the Protestant church, and of re- 
ducing all« Germany under its former state of 
objection to the Papal See, none of the cities 
or Princes who had embraced the new opi- 
nions could have remained neutral after such a 
declaration, far less could they have ventured 
to assist the Emperor in such an enterprise. 
Whereas by concealing, and even disclaiming 
any intention of. that kind, be not only saved 
himself from the danger of being overwhelmed 
by a general confederacy of all the Protestant 
states, but be furnished the timid with an ex^ 
cuse for continuing inactive, and the designing 
or interested with a pretext for joining him, 
without exposing themselves lo the infamy of 
' abandoning their own principles, or taking part 

openly in suppressing them. At the same time 
the Emperor well knew, that if, by their assist- 
ance, he were enabled to break the power of 
the Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave, he 
might afterwards prescribe what terms he pleas- 
ed to the feeble remains of a -party without 
union, and destitute of leaders, who would then 
regret, too late, their mistaken confidence in 
him, and their inconsiderate desertion of their 


tIMPtiROit CHARLES ,1^' 393 

The Pope, by a. sudden and unforeseen dis* ^^^ 
phiv of his iealy bad Well nigh disconcerted this ^^^^-sf^^aJ 
plan, which the Emperor had formed with so The p!^ 
much care ani art. Proud of having been the ^"^^J^' 
author of such a formidable league against the 
Lutheran heresy, and happy in thinking that 
the glory of extirpating it was reserved for his 
Pontificate, he published the articles of his 
treaty with the Emperor, in order to demon- 
strate the pious intention of their confederacy, 
as well as to display his own seal^ which 
prompted him to make such extraordinary ef- 
forts for maintaining the faith in its purity. 
Not satisfied with this^ he soon after issued a 
bull) containing most liberal promises of indul- 
gence to ail who should engage in this holy en- 
terprise, together with warm exhortations to 
$uch as could not bear a part in it themselves, 
to increase the fervour of their prayers, and the 
severity of their mortificatioi^, that they might 
draw down the blessing of He^aven upon those 
who undertook it*. Nor was it seal alone 
which pushed the Pope to make declarations 
so inconsistent with the 'account which the 
Emperor himself gave of his motives for taking 
arms. He was much scandalized at Charles's 
dissimulation in such a cause ; at his seeming 
to be ashamed of owning his zeal for the church, 
and at his endeavours to make that pass for a 
• political contest, which he ought to have glori- 
ed in as a war that had no other object than 

Da Mont Corps Diplonii 


^vm^ thedefeftoe vOfTeKgion. With as xnuch solici- 

^^/ ^ -^ tude^ therefore, as; the Eai|>er6r . laboured to 

^^^^ . diisgciise the^ pnrpose of the^Jconfederaby^ di4 

, the Pop€l eiideaw>ur 4o 'publish their reaJ plan^ 

in'order that they^might come^'^t 'Onde to an 

open ruptore Avith the^ Protestant^' thkt aH hope 

of'ireconcilemeiit might be ^ut^off>^ and that 

Gfalarles might >be under.fewer itenotptations^ and 

have^it less in his powier thfin^at presenl75 to be-^ 

tray'4he interests.' o£ the ^ churoh hy > any ^ accom^^ 

modlatioo beneficial to hipiselP^. 

• * ^ - 

The Emperor, though not a little offended 
at the Fbpe-s indiscretion ot' ni^lic^ in making 
this-discoveryj continuedt boldly to pursue his 
own .p]an> andto.iassert his intentionsto be no 
Other than what he had originally avowed. Se« 
vera) of the • Protestant states, whom ' he had 
previously gained, thought! thems^es justified, 
in some measure,, by his declaraitions, for aban-* 
doning their associates^ and even for giving as^ 
sistance to- him. ' 

The prepa- BUT ^thesc artificcs did not impose on the 

ration of the - .1. /• t Vk 

Protestants gTeatoT aud souBcter part of the Protestant con- 
own d^ fed^rat^. They clearly perceived it to be 
fence. Against the reformed religion tha^j the Empe- 
ror had taken arras, and that not only the sup* 
pression-of iti but the extinction of the Gfer- 
iimD liberties, would be' the- certain conse- 
quence of his obtaining «uch an entire supe'ri- 

* F, •Paul, i 88. thuan. Hist. i. 61. 


ority'^as would - ^nabte -hiDa * 46 execute' ^s '^y,^*^ 
fietemes in their full- extent They deterniin- y^^^^m^ 
«d,f tfiarefeare, 'to. prepare )for tbclir own defence, *^^ 
4d)d ndither to nenomice: those religicais ^ tnitfa^, 
;40:tbfe knowled^'of whioh-^they had attained 
ls)y meaila to «wond€it£aU Bor; to. abandon those 
civil' rights 'whidfi hadfb^ientnaasnittied to them 
by tbeirriBoeestorsJ J In order to^gisre 'the neces* 
fiaryidineotions'for'thts 'purpbse, ntheir^' deputies 
mef at Uim,^ooaSafterfth€fir abrupt {.departure 
&ixB^ Batif^oo'. • Theh^fdeliberations 'were- now 
JBonducted^wtth^sudh {Vigour lind; unanimity, as 
they^miaieinb' danger ^wMx^b^^ threatened i them 
requireds Tbe-itontrlngentjof Stoops,, which 
each -of;th^ cotifed^^dtes.was to.ftiraishy shaving 
bbep'^fixed by the <6f igii»|U. treacty* of 1 union, or- 
-dem^ivareigiTenTfar bfsingJKB^ them^immediateljr 
-intOi the; fieid: v. : ^Bemg^ idehiib]e,:at..}ast^ that 
<thron|[h^4he nai^oair pr€^»dice^ of soitieof theit 
imiihbeiis, aiulithd)imprdden^8teurity of othe/sv 
theyfaadiiegkated'tooiongto^strengthen thenan 
-fielvbs^by^foreigniaUianeeBj theyra6'W applied with 
^ttsM eatti^stneto^o the>:\^lierialis.and.Swiss« 

- To tbeJ VenetiattsT th^y reorefeented the Era^ xhcy soscst 
perorls intention of dverturntti]^ the^ present sy&- the veoe- 
tern of Germany^ , and of raising fataiself to ato- ***^ 
solmt^ power in ' that eoufllry by >metnso{ fo- 
reign force, foiriiishi^d by the Pope ^ they warned 
them how fatal this event 'would prove to the 
liberties of Italy, and that by suffering Charles 
to acquire unlimited authority, iu; the one coun- 
try,, they would^^oon ;£eel Ins domindonto be no 



*vin ^ ^^^^ cle«potic in the other 5 they besought them^ 
therefore, not to grant a passage through their 
territories to those troops, which ought to be 
treated as common enemies^ because by sub- 
duing Germany they prepared chains for the 
rest of Europe^ These reflections had not esh 
caped the sagacity * of those wise repub^icanSb 
Thev had communicated their sentiments to 
the Pope^ and had endeavoured to divert fainft 
from ari aUiance, wbidi tended to render irrd*- 
sistible the power of a potentate^ jyhose ambi-* 
tion he already knew to be boundless. But 
they had found Paul so eager in the proseeo^* 
lion of. his own plan, that he disregarded aH 
their remonstrances^. This attempt to aktrm 
the Pope having pVoved unsuccessful, they de- 
clined doing any' thing more towards pr^vent^ 
ing the dangers which they foresaw ; and in re* 
turn to the application from the confederates 
of Smalkalde, they informed them, that they 
could not obstruct the march of the Pope's 
.troops through 2m open eountry, but by levy* 
ing an army strong enough to face them in the 
field; and that this would draw upon them« 
selves- the whole weight of bis as weU as of the 
Emperor's indignation. For the same reason 
they declined lending a sum of money, which 
the Elector of Saxony and Landgrave proposed 
to borrow of them, towards carrying on the 

* Adrian! Istoria di sooi Tempi^ liv. t. p. 332. 
t Sleid. 381. Parutalstor. Vcnet.tom. iv. 180. Larabertus 
Horte&sius de Bello Genoanico^ apud Scardium, vol. ii. p. 547* 




The dtshands of tt^ codfederates upoa the ^yjl^'^ 
Swiss were liot confined to the obstruoitipg of ^>^ y ^ 
the entraoce of foreigners lato Gerroanys they or thT 
required of th^tn, as the nearest neighbours ^^^- 
ai,nd cloisest allies of the Empire, to interpose 
with their wonted vigour for the preservation of 
its lihertiefe, and not t6 stand ais inactive, spec* 
tatond). while their brethren were oppressed and 
etislaved. But with whatever sedl. some of the 
CaiKtons might have been disposed to act whea 
the cause of the Reformation was in danger^ 
the Helveti<^ body was so divided with regard 
to religion, as to render, it unsafe for the fro* 
testant^ to take any stiep without consulting 
their Catholic associates; and among them the 
lemissaries of the Pope c^nd Emperor had suoh 
Influence, that a resolution of maintaining au 
exact neutrality between the contending par^ 
ties, was the utmost which could be procured^; 

Be irNG. disappointed in both these applica- f^^J^jJ^L 
tions, ■' the Protestants, not long after> had re- nr via 
course to the kings of France and England ; 
the approach of danger either overcoming the 
Elector of Sa&ony's scruples, or obliging him to 
yield to the importunities of his associates. 
The situation of the two monarchs flattered 
them with hopes of success* Though hostiU-* 
ties between them had continued for some 
time after the peace of Crespy, they became 
;weary at last of a war, attended with no glory 

* Slcidl 392. 

VOL ra. 

M all %heir diflfere»ce$ ib^ :a |)6ace cmicli^edl 
^^' at Catiip^ ii»r Avdrisi(« ;f imcis towing with 
gtieat di^ffi^ulty ]>rocuMd liis «lii^s> the Scots> 
M> %i6 iMladed in the ti^tftyy m n^utti tK tiuit 
eoMt^cm he ^mgag^ to pay a great mm^ 
ivhich Henry dtemanded aa due to him im se^ 
vefisil ac^mints^ and he ieib Baefojgoe ia tha 
tyati^ df tlie Eaglis4», a^ ^t* pledge ibr bis ftiitt]^ 
fbi ¥>efl^Miance of tliat artkle. BliltbMigll 
Hire fe-0^fabKshineni of peace seewed ta^ cleave 
the two Monarcbs at liberty ^ tara tibeir all>> 
Petition tcmiirds Gertaany) $t> unfortaaate were 
Tike Protesnantd^ that they derit^^d tioitnaiediat^ 
adivantage frMfi this circum^taaee. Heary mfh 
)^T0datiwi1iiag tfo •eMer into any id^lianoe witii 
¥hea>, ^at oti' ^iieh ^conditions as woald v&oA^ 
hitn imH ^nly the head, hut tb^ rapl^<!«ie4£reo- 
tor of their feagne; a pre-emmenoe *wlnah, ^ 
the bonds of union or interest between them 
wene h«it ttMe, and as he dJiSened from them 

so widely mhis feKgii^ufi mentiaEvants, ihey h^A 

w> inclinalioa to iidaat *. fVancis^ more {Myir** 
^eirfulJy inclined by polHioal oKMisvAe^aiiims to 
afford theai asmtaitee^ found his itagdete » 
much ^xhaosteA by a kmg war, amd was so^ 
Hiad) afraid of frntattag the ^pe, by entering 
into ^leseimion with esceomnmaicated hepettcs, 
that he dur^ not tmdertake the protection off 
the SmaN^ftMie kagne. B^ 1^3 ift-tianed cao- 
tk^v 9r by a sHper^itvoas deference to scruples^ 

* Rymer, xv, 9^. Hierbert^258» 




m whioh nt other timea be was not irtUth fed* •yj^* 
dieted) hi^ }mt the most promising opportunity v^^vw; 
4f mortify iiig and dtBtressing his rivtil^ which ***^ 
pr^^ent^d itself during his whole reign. 

> But, notwith&tundiii^ their III sufcctss in their Prote^«*» 
n^godiition^ with forreig;n coi;trtd, the confede* fiddwtthk 
rates found no difficahy at home, in bringing a •"^•^y* 
itifflci€hr>t force into the Beldk Germany abound^ 
«d at that tin>e in inhabitants { the feudal instU 
tutioni^/ which subsisted in fnll force, enabled 
the nobled fo call out thdir numeroui^ tassalisii 
and to put them in motion oh. the shortbt warn-^ 
h^ ; the martiki spirit of the Germans, not 
hrokeiv or enervated by the itrtroduction^ com* 
fterc^ and artd, had adqtrired additional vigouf 
during the continual irarfe in which they had 
been enApIoyed, for half a century, either in the 
pay of the Emperbrs, ot" thfe Kings of FfAnc^* 
Upon every opportunity 6f enterfng into iervicei 
they were accustomed to run eagerly to arms i 
and to etery standard that was erected, volun- 
teers flocked from all quarters*. Zeal second-^ 
*d, on this occasion, their native ardour. Men 
on whom the doctrines of the Reformation had 
made that deep impression which accompanies 
truth when fireit discovered^ prepared to maintain 
it with proportional tigOW; and among a war- 
like people, it appeared -infemous to remain in* 

active, when the defence of religion Was th« 
motive for taking arms. Accident combined 

« Seek. I. ill. 161. 



*viil'^ \^ith all these circumstances in facilitafing the 
levy of soldiers among the confederates. A 
considerable number of Germans, in the pay of 
France, being dismissed by the King on the pro- 
spect of peace with England, joined in a body 
the standard of the Protestants*. By suck a^ 
concurrence of pauses, they were enabled to as- 
semble in a few weeks an army composed of 
seventy thousand foot and fifteen ' thousand 
horse, provided with a train of an hundr^ and 
twenty cannon, eight hundred ammunition wag* 
gons, ^igbt thousand beasts of burden^ and sis 
thousand pioneersf . This army, one of th^ 
most numerous, and undoubtedly the b^st ap 
pointed, of any which had been levied in Europe 
during that century, did not reouire the united 
effort of the whole Protestant body to raise it. 
The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse^ 
the Duke of Wurtemberg, the Princes of An- 
hault, and the Imperial cities of Ausbourg, Ulm« 
and Strasburg, were the only .powers which con<- 
tributed towards this great armament : the Elec*. 
tors of Cologne, of Brandenburg, and the Count 
Palatine, overawed by the Emperor's threats, oc 
deceived by his professions, remained neater* 
John marquis of Brandenburg Bareith, and Air 
bert of Brandenburg Anspach, though both early 
converts to Li|thef9.nism, eiitered openly into tte 
Emperor's service, under pretei^t of having ob- 
tained bis promise for the security of the Prch 

* Thuan. 1. i. (JS. ' ■ . ■ 

t Ibidl L L 601. Ludbvici ab Avila & Zuniga CNnmen- 
tarioniin de Bel. Germ* lib. dao. Aptw. 1550. 12iiio, p. 13, at 


Cestant reKgion;: and Maurice oS Saxony soon ^yj^^ 
followed their example* >^'y^^>»/ 


The number of their troops^ as well as the Theme- ' 
.^mazing rapidity wherewith they had assemb- ^Empe. 
i6d them, astonished the Emperor, and filled him ^'ttoSr' 
with the most disquieting apprehensions. He 
■was,* indeed) in no condition to resist- such a 
mighty force. Shut iip in Ratisbon, .a town of 
no great strength, whose inhabitants, being 
mostly Lutherans, would have been more ready 
to betray than to assist him, with only three 
thousand Spanish foot, who had served in Hun^ 
gary, and about five thousand Germans who 
had joined him from different parts of the Em- 
pire, he must have been overwhelmed by the 
approiicb of such a formidable army^ which he 
could not fight, nor could he even hope to re- 
treat from it in safety. The Pope's troops, 
though in full march to his relief, had hardly 
reached the frontiers of Germany ; the forces 
which he expected from the Low-Countries had 
not yet begun to move, and were even far from 
being complete^. His situation, however, cal- 
led for more immediate succour, nor did it seem 
practicable for him to wait for such distant aux^ 
iliaries, with whom his junction was so preca- 

But it happened fortunately for Charles, that 
the confederates did not avail themselves of the 

* Sleid. 589. Avila, 8, ^ 

tiA TIfE R£tGN OF TR1$ 

^^^^^ ^vantage which lay fiD'fuU in ihm vieir. I9 
^—^v--^ civil wars, the first stepa are commtoly Iftk^i* 
Theyim. With iHuch timidity and h0sitatioD. Men are 
^X^ solicitous, at that fcimfi, to put pn tjie dmohlance^ 
iEistea^Qf of moderatiofi and equitjK) ttiey ftfcriv^.ta g^iia^ 
^\ partisaius' by seeming 'Do adbei^e §Vnet\y to 
known forms ^ |ior can they beJsrcm^ti* at 
once^ to violate those ests^isihed i|iatitution9> 
ivhich in tmed of irsiaqiiilliity they havt hecni 
accu6tQined to reyerence ; hence their proceed 
ings are often feeble or dilatory^ wlien tb^ 
ought to be mo^ vigorous and decisire. lor 
floenced by those considerations, w^ oh bsfipi- 
ly for the peace of soetiety, operate power^Uy 
<^n the human i|iind, the coMedersy^es eoitkl act 
thin|t of throwing off thatallegianoe whidti thej 
owed to the head of the Empire, qr of tnrtting 
their arms against him, without one soiwciil a|^ 
, peal more to his candour, and to the imparttai 

judgment of their fettqw-s objects^ For thi^ pufw 
pose, they ^.ddressed a letter to. the Esoperar^^ 
and a manifesto to $11 the inhabitants of Gw- 
many. The tenor of both was the same. 
•iThey represented their o^n conduct with re- 
gard to civil affkirs as dutiful and sulainissives 
they mentioned the inviofeble union in vhiek 
they had lived with t1|e Emperor, as well as the 
many and recent marks of his good*wiU and 
gratitude wherewithal they had been honour- 
ed ; they a^sserted religion to be the snle cause 
of the violence which the Emperor nsiw medi: 
tated against them ; and in proof of this pro- 
duced many arguments to convince those who 

mtgne so we^k as ta be ckceived by the «rti6jQ«3. ^viS^ 
"With which b« ODdeavoured tQ cove^ IxU real io^ 
tmitioM:; thej dedared tbeir awn resioltttiaa ta 
risk ev^r J thii^g m mmuHJwa^Q af thc^r r^Iir 
giQu^ lights and iW^etold the dissolulioii of the 
4^erBMQ lum&titiAtioaf if thc^ £mp^PQr ^chauJ4 
iinaU^ Iff^yiml ag»w»t them** 

CHAr|tLe9> tl^4Agh ia woh a 9.9riiaas sltus^^ TheEmpe- 
tion as might ha?^ ioi^pir^d him with moderate th^r^er 
^ientiai«iM;si« aj^peaied hs iofl^xibl© aftd bawghty SeX^/ 
as if his aSains bad hoen io the noiDat pMrpspi^* ^^ ^- 
oos state. Hii( wly rejily to the siddre^s and 
manifiasto of tlpys ProtestaAts» was to fmbiish the 
l>an qf th^e l^mptr^^ against the Elector of Sax;- 
oiiy a«d iMidgrai^ of H^sse, their lead^^ aiul 
agMnstf a}} who should dare to assist U^^ni. 
ISfy this s^nt^acOf tha ui^imato aad moat rigor- 
om om which tb^ Q^rmaa j<:^-i^prudeiice has 
yrovidad hr Uif paRishn^ot of traitors^ or i^ne* 
wios to'thfir eouatiryi th^ywcmdegUred r^h^ls 
aad outlawst ftiui d^pri^ed of ovory privil^g^ 
whii^blboy «[^.ayfid as wwi|»|>ea:i of th^ Gowiaa* 
ftiQ body ; tbaii? goad« w^9 confiscated; their 
fa1^fot» ^sol^ed: ft*oca tb^ir oath, of aU?giaii<:e; 
and it jb««a«aa i;^tpB}y, lawful bul; irpecHfiMriou^ 
tO' ii^ade thfir tfsritorkf, Tl^e ^^bl^^s^ aad 
free cities^ who fram.^ or p^rfep^ed the capstit 
tution of the German government, had not been 
so iwgljgjpat of their ow«f safety ^nd privileges 
asto trast th#. Ewp«a?or ; with this formidable 

* Sleid. 384. 


'viu.'^ jurisdiiction; The authority 6f a diet of tlie 
\^r>r^ Empire ought to have been interposed before ' 
***^' any of its members could be put under the ban. 
But Charles overlooked that formality^ well 
knovring that, if his arms were crowned with 
success, there would remain none ivho would 
have either power or courage to call in qiiestion^ 
what he had done*. The Emperor, however, 
did not found his sentence against the Elector 
and Landgrave on their revolt from the esta*- 
blished churchy or their conduct, with regard to 
religion; he affected to assign for it reasons . 
purely civil, and those too. expressed in such' 
general and ambiguous terms, -without specify^ 
ing the nature or circumstances of their guilty 
as rendered it mt>re like an act of despotic pow^ 
er than of a legal and limited jurisdiction. Nor 
was it altogether from choice, or to conceal his^ 
intentions, that Charles had recourse to theam*- 
biguity of general exprjessions; but he durst not 
mention too particularly the causes of his sen* 
tence, as every • action which he could have 
charged upon the Elector and Landgrave as a 
crime, might have been employed with equal 
justice to condemn many of the Protestants 
whom he still pretended to consider as faithful 
subjects, and whom it would have been eSAveme^ 
}y imprudent to alarm or disgusti 

Clare war The couftdcrates, uow percciviug all hopes 
^^Xb, ^^ accommodation to be at an end, had only to 

* Sleid. 386. Du Moat Corps Diplom. i^. p. 11. 314* 
Pfefiel Hist. Abrege du Droit Publ. 168. 736. 158. 


<fhoose whether they would submit without re- ^y,fj ® 
serve to the Emperor^s will, or proceed to open v-i^vW 
hostilities, f^ey were not Restitute either of *^*^' 
public spirit, of of resolution to make the pro^ 
per choice. ' A few days aft^r the ban of the 
£xxipire was published, they, according to the 
custom of that age, sent an herald to thelmpe^ 
rial camp, with a solemn declaration of war 
against Charles, to whom they no longer gave 
any other titie than that of pretended Emperor; 
and renounced all allegiance, homage, or duty 

- which he might claim, or which they had hi4 
therto yielded to him. But previous to this 

_ formality, part of their troops had begun to act 
The comixiand of a considerable body of men, Thar fu* 
raised b)- the city of Augsburg, having been ^'p*****"*^ 
given to Sebastian Schertel, a soldier of fortune, . 
who by the booty that he got when the Impe* 
rialists plundered Rome, together with the me* 
rit of long service, had a.cquired wealth and au'^ 
thority which placed him on a level with the 
chief of the German nobles : that gallant veter<* 
An resolved, before he joined the main body of 
the confederates, to attempt something suitable 
to his former fame, and to the expectation of 
his countrymen. As the Pope's forces were 
hastening towards Tyrol, in order to penetrate 
into Germany by the narrow passes through 
the mountains which run across that country, 
lie .^.dvanced thither with the utmost rapidity^ 
and seized Ehrenberg and Cuffstein, two strong 
castles which commanded the principal defiles; 
WUhout stopping a moment, he continued hii 


Hfi THE *fi<^N OF T^Ej 

'vm^ maroh towards Iii$pruQk» hy g? ttiqg po$ses$ioa 
of which he woul4 haye oblige4 the Xtaliaus to 
ftop >horti aiid with a^simUl bodji of men eoul^ 
bave re^sted all the e0art3 <^ thip greater ar- 
mies. Ca8tlealt<v the gov^oor of Trent|. kaowT 
iQg what a fatal blow thi» would be to the Eat*- 
perpTi ^1 whose de^ign& must have fur^ved aboc* 
tive^ if bis Italiqja auxiliiu*ies bad beea inter* 
cepted^ raised . a few troqps with the utmost 
dii^patcby aiid threw bin^self into the tov^a» 
ScbeFte), however, did not abandon the enter- 
prisQ^ and w^s {preparing to att^k the plape^ 
when the intelUgenc? of tjie apprqaiqh oif the 
Italians^ aud a^i order from the Rector dxA 
l^andgravi*, obliged him to desist By his re^ 
treat tlw pfi^»ses were left opea,^«ud the Jtaliaus 
entered Germany without any appositions but 
froto,the garrison^ which. Schertel had {^aced 
in j^hrenberg ^nd Cuffstein, au4 these^ having 
no hopes of being relieved, surrendered afti^r a 
fibort rwstauce^t' 


f Seckendorf^ the industrious author of the Comipentarius 
Apologeticus de Lutheianismo^ whom I bavB so long and safe- 
ly followed as my guide- in German afFairB> was a descendant 
fromScheHje). With tile care ajid.s«fiQit«de.QfafGejrfntiijtWb^ 
vra$ htl1l^9lf cif iiol^le bi^bi $eQb99do^;ha» pubU8b«4 a 1911^ 
digression coocerpii^his ancestor, calculated chiefly to show 
how Schertel was ennobled, and his posterity allied to many 
/ bf the'^most ancient families in the £mpire. Among othct 

curious partieuiars, he giv«s uti sch aceoani of hit wealthy tba 
chief source of wihich i^s .th« plunder he gqt at Rome. Hia 
laodQd estate alon^ was ^Id by his grandsons for six I;iuu4re4 


No« WW the recalling of Sch^rtel the only '^jJJ* 
/Qrror of which the coofoderftlos were guilty, V4r^/W 
Ab the 0ttprQine command of thpir army was andfuboit. 
fiommitteci, ia terms of the league of Si»alkaUle> ^""^ 
to the Blector of Saxony and Landgrave of 
Hesfle with equal power, all the inconvenietnce^ 
aurising freoot a divided and conirdinate autho* 
riiy» which is always of fatal consequence in 
the operations af war» were immediately felt« 
The £Ieotori though intrepid in his own person 
to excess, and most ardently zealous in the 
ffiau9e» was slow in deliberating, nncertaiQ as 
weil as irresolute in his determinationfii and cou*-. 
9tantly preferred meamres which were cautious 
and safe, to snob u were bold or decisive^* 
The Landgrai^e, of a more active and enterpri- 
sing nature*, fi^rmed all his resolutions with 
pmm^itude, wi^ed to execute them with sp'^ 
ritt aod uniformly preferrf d such measures as 
tended to bring th^ c<mtest to a H^eedy issue. 
Thus tJfteir maxim9» with regard to the conduct 
of the war, differed as widely as. tliose by which 
tiiey were influenoed in prepariing for it« Such 
perpetual oontrarietty in tb^r sentiments gave 
rise, imperceptiibly, to jealousy, and the spirit 
vi coatentiton. These multiplied the dissen- 
fieos flowing frMn the incompatibility of their 
natural 4iempier9, and rendered th^m more vio- 
lent. The other aaembera of the league co^r 

thousand florins By this we may form some idea of ths 
riches amassed by the Condottieri, or commanders of merce- 
liftry bands in tlmt age. At tho taking of Komo, Schertel was 
only a captain. Seckend. lib. ii, 73. 



^vin.^ sidering themselves as independent^ knA siib- 
*^N«P-v««^ ject to the Elector and Landgrave, only in cotf^ 
sequence of the articles of a voluntary conf^ 
deracy, did not long retain a proper veneration 
for commanders who proceeded with so little con^ 
cord; and the numerous army of the Protest 
tants, like a vast machine whose parts are ill* 
compacted, and which is destitute of any powr 
er sufficient to move and regulate the whole> 
acted with no consistency, vigour, or effect 

i%ePtop^8 YuE Emperor, who was afraid that,^by re^ 
tte Empe- maiuing at Rafisbon^ he might render it impose 
sible for the Pope's forces to join him, having 
boldly advanced to Landshut on the Iser, the 
confederates lost some days in delil^erating 
whether it was proper to follow him into the 
territories of the Duke of Bavaria, a neutrdi 
Prince. When at last t^ey surmounted that 
scruple, and began to move towards his camp; 
they suddenly abaladoned'the design, and ha»> 
tened to attack Ratisbon, in which town Charles 
could leave only a small garrison. By this 
time the Papal troops, amounting fully to that 
number which Paul had stipulated to furnish, 
had reached Landshut, and were soon followed 
by six thousand Spaniards of the veteran bands 
stationed in Naples. The confederates, after 
Schertel's spirited but fruitless expedition, seem 
to have permitted these forces to advance un- 
molested to the place of rendezvous, without 
any attempt to attack either them or the Eoo^ 



paf&r sis^p^ately, or to prevent their junctioti*. *vin,^ 
.The Iinperia.1 army amounted now to thirty-six 
thousand men, and was still more formidable 
}>y the discipline and valoiir of the troops, than 
))fy their namher. Avila, commendador of Al* 
cantara, who had been present in all the wars 
carried on by Charles, and had served in the 
armies which gained the inemorable victory nA 
Pavia, which conquered Tunis, and invaded 
France, gives this the preference to any milita- 
ry force he had ever seen assembled f.. Octa> 
yiq ^ Famese, the Pope!s grandson, assisted by 
the ablest officers formed in the long wars be^ 
tween Charles, and Francis, commanded the 
Italian auxiliaries. His brother, the Cardinal 
Famese, accompanied him as Papal legate ; and 
in order to give the war the appearance of a 
religious enterprise, he proposed to march at the 
head of the armyt with a cross carried beforie 
jbioii, and to publish indulgences wherever he 
came to alt who should give them any assisT 
tance, as had anciently been the practice in 
the Crusades against the infidels. 'But this the 
Emperor strictly prohibited, as inconsistent 
with all the declarations which he had made to 
the Germans of his own party ; and the legate 
perceiving, to his astonishment, that the exer- 
cise of the Protestant religion, the extirpation 
of which he considered as. the sole object of 
tixe war, was pu)>licly permitted in the Impe- 
rial camp, soon returned in disgust to Itsdy Xr 

* Adrian! Istoria de suoi Tempi^ lib. v. 340. 
t Ayila, 18- ' % V. Paal, 191. 



*vni ^ ^^^ arrival of these troops enabled the Em-* 
peror to send such li reinforcement to the gat** 
risoii at Ratisboiii that the confederate^^ r^lhi^ 
qutshing all hopes of reducing that tomk^ 
itiarched towards Ingoldstadt on the Danube^ 
near to which Charies wait now encamped. 
They exclaimed loudly against th^ Vanpetofn 
notorious violation of the lawi^ and constitution 
of the Empire^ in having called in foreigners 
to lay waste Germany, and to o|) press its liber- 
ties. As in thai age, the domiifkion of the R<y- 
Htan See was so odious to the Protestants, that 
the name of' the Pope alone was sufficient t6 
inspire them with horror at any enterprise 
which he countenanced, and t6 rais« in theiir 
minds the blaokest suspicibnsi it came to be 
universally believed among them, that Paul, 
not satisfied with attacking them openly by 
tbtce of arms, had dispersed his emissaries all 
over Germany, to set on fire their towns and 
maga^nes, and to poison the welfs and founts- 
tains of water. Nor did this rumour, which 
was e:!ttravagant ^nd frightful enough to make 
a deep impression on the credulity of the vul- 
gar, spread among them only ; even the leaders 
of the party, blihded by their i^rejudices, pub- 
lished a declaration, in which they accused 
the Pope of having employed such Antichris*- 
tian and diabolical arts against them*. The^e 
sentiments of the Confederates were confirmed, 
in some measure, by the behaviour of the Pa* 

* Sleid. 390- 


pal troopd, vHaeb^ thinking nothbi^ tde ngOTOiU *^' 
tdwards iierelict atMtbematised by the cburcli, 
imre giUhy ef great excesses in the territories 
of the IjsfcfapraR StstisBi awl aggravated the oa^ 
ianemties of wir; bj mimgliiig with it ati tbe 
Dnadty of iaigoted zeaL 


I ■ 

' The iiiBt <iperations in the fieid» however, did The oMfe^ 
noi torn^spcKiid witti . the rioletvce o{ those pas^ vance to- ' 
feibii^ whidi aaimated iadividuals. The £mpes- 7^^ 
lor had pmdentif taken the reiioitftibn of avoift- ^^f- 
ing am ac^oa with an enemy 9» far saperior la 
aumher^y especiaHy as he foresaw that notbiilg 
CmM kotf! a body camposed ctf so man j^ iand 
aaefa 'dissiaoilar members from iallmg to pieces 
kwt the presaoig to attack it with an inconsi- 
derate precipitancy. The comfedenates^ though 
St was no leas, evident that to tfacaxi every, oo^ 
meat's delay was piernicions, w6re still preveotl^ 
ed by the wtekaeas or division af their leaders 
ftom^ «Xferticig that vigour, with which dieir sf- 
Hhation, as weli as iifae andour of tiieir soldiers^ 
mx^t to have inspired them/ On then* arriTai Aag.29. 
at liigokbitadt, they .found did Emphrdr inacamp 
not remaiis:ahk far strength, and surrounded obh 
iy by a slight eittrencfament. Before the t^aoip 
lay a plain of such exteat, as afforded dafficieat 
ifvace for drawing oat . their . whole army^ and 
hmvgmg it to act at once. Erery oonsideratioii 
vboaki haine determined them to hate seized 
Hm opportonity of attacking the £inpearor ^ and 

* Av\l2i» 78, a# 


*vin.* their great supertority in nmahets, the eAgiH^ 
"y^v^^ ntejs of their troops, together with the stability 
^^^^ of the German itifantry in pitched biittles^ ai^ 
forded them the most prdbahle expectation of 
victory. The Landgrave urged this with great 
warmth, declaring, that if the: sdl6 coQUxmiid 
were vested in him, he would terminate the war 
on that occasion, and decide by qfie general ac- 
^ tion the fate of the two parties. But the £l)ee« 

tor, reflecting on the valour and discipline of 
the enemy's forces, animated by the presence of 
the Eknperor, and conducted by the best <^cers 
t»f the age, would not venture upon ah action^ 
which he thought to be so doubtful, as the at» 
tacking such a body of veterans on ground 
which they themselves had chosen, and wialt 
covered with fortifications whi ch, though imper^ 
feet, would aflbrd them no small advantage in 
the combat. Notwithstanding his. hesitation 
and remonstrances, it was agreed to advance 
towards the enemy's camp, in battle array, in 
order to make a trial whether by that insult, 
and by a furious cannonade which they begans 
they could draw the Imperialists out of the^ 
works. But the Emperor had too much sag»- 
Tiiei&iq[ie- City to fall into this snare. He adhered ta his 
Jbrttife!*^ own system with inflexible constancy ; and draw* 
ing up his soldiers behhiK} their trenches, that 
they might be ready to receive the confederates 
if they should venture upon an assault, calmly 
waited their approach, and carefully redtrained 
his own men from any excursions or skirmishes 
which might bring on a general engagement. 


He rode along the lines, and addressing the •yjJJ* 
troops of the different nations in their own Ian- v-*-v^^ 
guage, encouraged them not only by his words^ * 

but by the cheerfulness of his voice and coun- 
Itenance; ,he exposed himself in places of great* 
est danger^ and amidst the warmest fire of the 
cftiemy's artillery, the most numerous that had 
hitherto been brought into the field by any 
army. Roused by his example, not a man quit- 
ted his ranks ; it was thought infamous to discos 
yer awy symptom ef fear when the Emperor ap* 
peared so intrepid; and the meanest soldiet 
plainly perceived, that their declining the com- 
bat at present was not the effect of timidity iii 
their general, but the result of a well-grounded ' 
Caution. The confederates, after firing several 
hours on the Imperialists, with more noise and 
terror than execution, seeing no prospect of al- 
luring them to fight on equal terms, retired to 
their own camp. The Emperor employed the 
night with su<^h diligende in strengthening his 
works, that the confederates, returning to the 
cannonade next day, found that, though they 
had now been willing to venture upon such a 
bold experiment, the opportunity of making an 
attack with advantage was lost^. 

After such a discovery of the feebleness or "^^ pic- 

*' ' mish troop# 

irresolution of their leaders, and the prudence join the 
as well as firmness of the Emperor's conduct, ^^^ 

^ Sleid. 395. 397. Avila. 27, a. Lamb. Horteos. ap. 
Scard. ii. 



$Sk: TH£ R£ION OF TliS 

^vnu^ t^ coofederates turned their whole uikt^tHm 
SiP^v^iii^ tonard^i preventing the wriv^ of n powerful 
^ ^^^ rein^oanieal; of ten thooaaod foot and four 
tboo^ml horge» which the Cooot de Biirea wa3 
brifiging t;o the Emperor from the Xiow-Coua^ 
tries^ Bat though that general had to tr<aferse 
Mk4^ an ^eicteotof country^ thongh bis route lay 
through d»e territories of se^ersd states warmix 
disposed to favour the coo^&derates; thougli 
tbey were apprised of his approach, aad b/ 
li»eir kuperiiprity i^ uunahers might easily hav# 
40tached a iorce ssufioient to overpower himp 
be edvauGed with such rapidity^ and by sucb 
iweU-concerted iMiv^etBeots,. while they oppose! 
hiju with such reaii«8uessy a»d so little militaiy 
s«pt 10. (skill, that ba conducted this body to^ the impo* 
Itial caacip withouit any Icmss^. 

V^ov iUe arrival of the Fteming^, ia whoi* 
he placed great oonfidcmce, the Eooperor alt^p^ 
«d, 4a some d^ree^ iiis plan of oper^ous^ and 
began to act oaore t^on the oStmivej though 
be still avoided a battle witb the utisost induft- 
try. He wade mios^lf mast^ of Noubiirgiy 
DiUingen, and Dk^uaw^rt on the Oaaube^ qf 
Kordlingeny and several oth^. towM, situaiefl 
on the most considerable streams which fall in-* 
to that iiHghty river. By tiiis he got tbe conn 
ia;ia0d of a great extent of country, though AOt 
without beii)g oUig^ to ^ugage in ^veral 
sharp encounters, of which the success was va- 

* Sleid. 40S. 

ItHfzmH Ca A&LES V. 966 

l^iotts, nor without being exposed^ oftener than ^^j„^ 
once, to the danger of being drawn into a bat* v«.»pv^ 
tie. In this manner the whole autumn was sta^tf 
spent; neithei* party gained any remarkable ^ 
superiority over the other, and nothing was yet; 
done towards bringing the war to a period. The. 
Cmperor had often foretold, with confidence, 
that discord and the want of money would com- 
pel the confederates^ to disperse that unwieldy 
body, which they had neither abilities to guide 
nor funds to support^. Though he waited with 
impatience for the accomplishment of his pre* 
diction, there w^s no prospect of that event be* • 
ing at band. But he himself began to suffer 
from the want of forage and provisions! evea 
the Catholic provinces beiug so much incensed 
at the introduction of foreigners into the Em*' 
ptre, that they furnished them with reluctance* 
while the <^mp of the confederates abounded 
with a profusion of all necessaries, which the 
seal^qf their friends in the adjacent countries 
poured in with the utmost liberality and good 
will. Great numbers of the Italians and Spa- 
niards, unaccustomed to the climate or food of 
Germany, were become unfit for service through 
sicknessf . Considerable arrears were now 4ue 
to the troops, who had scarcely received any 
money from the beginning of the campaign; 
the Emperor, experiencing on this, as well aft 

* Belli Smallcaldici Commentarius Graeco sermone scriptus 
a Juach. Camerario, ap. Freberun)> Tol. ilii p. 47 $• 

t Gamcrar. ap, Frehef. 483. , 


^viu^ on former occasions, that his jurisdidtion W&sj 
more extensive than his revenues, and that the^^ 
former enabled him to* assemble a greater num- 
ber of soldiers, than the latter were sufficient ta 
support. Upon all these accounts^ he found it' 
difficult to keep his army in the ifield ; some of 
his ablest generals, and even the I)uke of Alva 
himself, persevering and obstinate as he usually 
was in the prosecution of every measure, advis- 
ing him to disperse his troops into winter-quar- 
ters. But as the arguments urged against any 
plan which' he had adopted, rarely made much 
impression Upon the Emperor, he paid no re- 
gard to their opinion, and determined to con- 
tinue his efforts- in order to weary out the con- 
federates; being well assured that if he could 
once oblige them to sepdf ate, there was little 
probability of their uniting again in a body*. 
Still, however, it remained a doubtful point, 
, ' whether his steadiness was most likely to, fail, 
or their ^eal to be exhausted. It was still un- 
certain which party, by first dividing its forces,, 
would give the superiority to the other 5 when 
an unexpected event decided the contest, and 
occasioned a fatal reverse in the affairs of the 

Sctiefmes ©I' MaitsiCe of Saxony hftvl tig insinuated him- 

sa^ny^ self into the Emperor's confidence, by the arts 

which have already been described, no sooner 

saw hostilities ready to break out between the 

* Thuai. 83. 






Confederates of Smalkalde and that Moirarch^ 
than vast prospects of ambition began to open 
upon bixQ. That portion of Saxony, which 
descended to him from his ancestors, was far 
from satisfying his aspiring mind; and he per<- 
ceived with pleasure the approach of civil war, 
ras, amidst the revolutions and convulsions ooca^ 
^ioned by it, opportunities of acquiring addi- 
libnal power or dignity, which at other times 
are sought in vain, present themselves to an en- 
terprising spirit. As he . was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the state of the two contending 
parties, and the qualities of their leaders, he did 
not hesitate long in determining on which sidfe 
the greatest advantages w^re to be expected; 
Having revolved all these things in his own 
breast, and having taken his final resolution -of 
joining the Emperor, he prudently determined 
to declare early in his favour ; that, by the me- 
rit of this, he might acquire a title to a propoiv 
tional recompence. With this view, he had re- 
\paired to Ratisbon in the month of May, under 
pretext of attending the diet ; and after many His lea^iw 
conferences with Charles or his ministers, he, "^^^ 
with the most mysterious secrecy, concluded a 
treaty, in which he engaged to concur in assist?- 
ing the Emperor as a faithful subject; and 
Charles, in return, stipulated to bestow on him 
all the spoils of the Elector of Saxony, his dig- 
nities as well as territories*. History hardly 

* Harsei AnnaL Brabant, vol. i. 638. Strupi Corp. 1048. 
Thuan. 84. 


* viu * J^words any treaty that can be considered as i 
K,^^^ more maaifeat vioiation of the most powerful 
i^^&i principles which ought to influence human ac- 
tions. Maurice a professed Protastant^ at a 
time when the belief of religion, as well as zeal 
for its interests, took strong possession of every 
mind, binds himself to contribute his assistanoe 
towards carrying on a war which had manifest^ 
ly no other object than the extirpation of the 
Protestant doctrines. He engages to take arms 
against his father-in^laW, abd to his nean- 
tst relation of his honours, and dominions. He 
joins a dubious friend against a known bene- 
factor> to whom his obligations were both great 
and r^Qf^nt, Nor was the Prince who ventured 
upon all this, one of those audacious poiiticians» 
iwho> provided they can accomplish their ends, 
and secure their interest, Avowedly disregard 
the most sacred obligations^ and glory in con- 
4;emning whatever is honourable or decent* 
Maurica^s conduct, if the whole must be as- 
cribed to policy, was more artful and masterly; 
he executed his plan in all its pa^rts, and yet 
endeavoured to preserve^ in every step which 
be took, the appearance of what was fair, and 
Tirtuous, and laudable. It is probable, from 
his subsequent behaviour, that, with regard to 
the Protestant religion at least, his intentions 
were upright, that he fondly trusted to the Em- 
peror's promises for its security, but that, ac- 
cording to the fate of all who refine too much 
in policy, and who tread in dark and crooked 


, V 

\ • 

pflfcjtlis, ID ftttemf^ting to deceive othets^ he Itim* ^^ ^ 
self was, in aoi»e dlegree> deceived^ ^wpyW 


! . 

His first care, however, was to keep the en- Hisartifices 

^gements into> which he tiad entered wtth the eonceai bis 

Emperor icHo^ly co»oeated: and scv perfect anoash *"*^"'*^^ 

ter was he i a the art (&§ dissimulaticMi, t\nKt tbe 

confederate?, fitotwith^tandii^g his decttnii>g all 

conneictions with tbem, and his remarkable assir 

duity in paying court to the Emperor, seemed to 

have entort^ined n^ saspicion of bis deeiigfks. 

£ven the Elector 6f Sa^iony, when hie marched ^t 

the beginning of the campaign V% join bis: aeso- 

eiates, committed his dominioni^ to Maxiriee's 

protection, which he, with an insidrous appear^ 

anoe of fHe^dship, r<^adily undertoqik*. Bat 

scarcely bad the Elector taken the field, when 

Mailrice Wgan to commit prfvately< with the 

King of. the Romans how to invade tl!K)se very 

territoriids, with tbe defetiee of which he : was 

entrasted/ Soon after, the Emperor sent Him a 

copy of the Imperial ban denounced against 

tbe Elector and Landgrave. As be was next 

heir to the former, and particularly interested 

ID preventing strangers from getting his domi« 

nions into their possession, Charles required 

him, not only for his own sake, but upon the 

allegiance and duty which he owed to the bead 

of th^ Empire, instantly to seize and detain in 

his hands the forfeited estates of the Elector ; 

Naming him, at the same time, that if he ne* "^ 

* SlniTii Corp. 1046. 


* vm ^ g^€C*^d *^ obey these commands, he should" be 
Vnp-vW held as accessary to the crimes of his . kiosman» 
^^*^- and be liable to the same punishment*. 


This artifice, which it is probable Maurice 
himself suggested, was employed by him in or* 
der that his conduct towards the ^EJector might 
seem a matter of necessity but not of chcHce, ' 
an act of obedience to his superior, rather than 
a voluntary invasion • of the rights of bis kitis- 
man and ally. But in order to give ^Q^ie more 
specious appearance to this thin yeil with 
which he endeavoured to cover his ambition, he, 
soon after his return from Ratisbon, had cal- 
led together the states of his country j and re* 
presenting to them that a civil war between 
the Emperor, and confederates, of Smalkalde 
wBs now become unavoidable^ desired their ad- 
vice with regard to the part which hC should 
act in that eyent. They having been prepared, 
no doubt, and tutored before-hand, and being 
desirous pf gratifying their Prince, MrhQm they 
esteemed as well as loved, gave such counsel as 
they knew would be most agreeable; advising 
Jiim to offer his mediation towards reconciling 
the contending parties; but if that were reject- 
ed, and he could obtain proper security for the 
Protestant religion, they delivered it as their 
opinion, that, in all other points, he. ought to 
yield obedience to the Emperor. Upon re- 
ceiving the Imperial rescript, together with 


* Sleid. S9U Thuan. 8^. 


the ban agaiust the Elector and LandgrsLve^. ^vm^ 
Maurice summoned the states of his country a w^-v-v 
second time; he laid before them the orders 
which he had received, and mentioned the pu- 
Biishment with which he was threatened in case 
of disobedience ; he acquainted them that tlie 
confederates had refused to adiKiit of his me- 
diation, and that the Emperor had given him 
the most satisfactory declarations with regard 
to religion ; he pointed Out his own interest in 
securing possession of the electoral dominions, 
as well as the danger of allowing strangers to 
obtain an establishment in Saxony; and upon, 
the whole, as the point under deliberation res* 
pected his subjects no less than himself, he 
desired to know their sentiments, how he should 
steer in that difficult and arduous conjuncture. 
The states, no less obsequious and complaisant 
than . formerly, professing their own reliance 
on the Emperor's promises as a perfect securi- 
ty for their religion, proposed that, before he 
^ad recoui^ to more violent methods, they 
would write to the Elector, exhorting him, as 
the best means, not only of appeasing the Em- 
peror, but of preventing his dominions from 
being seized by foreign or hostile powers, to 
give his consent that Maurice should take pos- 
session of them quietly and without opposition. 
Maurice himself seconded their arguments in 
a letter to the Landgrave his father-in-law. 
Such an extravagant proposition was rejected 
with the scorn and indignation which it deser^ 
ved. The Landgrave, ip return to Maurice, 

aftSt TH« BKfGK (TF THE 

•^jj[J* tdSPed hiitt^rith his treachery and iiigratitii^ 
Vip^^w' towards a kinsman to yi^hofn he was so deeply 
^^*^ indebted ;. he treated with contempt his a£fec< 
tatibn of executing the Impertal ban, wbic^ he 
could not but kndw to be^ altogether toimI Kjf 
/the unconstitutional and arbitrary manner in 
which it had been issued; he besoaght bim» 
ilot to suffer himself to^ be so fhr blinded by 
ambition, as to^forget the obligations of honour 
and friendship, or to betray the Protestant re- 
ligion, the extirpation of which out of Grerma* 
ny, eve-to by the acknowledginaent of the Pope 
him^lf, was the great objeet of the present 
in'ar'*. > • - • •' . • 

He ifnrades BuT Mauricc had procSeded too ftir to be 
lii^of'the diverted from pursuiilg his -plan by reproaches 
^^ ^ or arguments; Nothing now remained but to 
e:^ecute with vigour, what he had hitherto fear- 
^November, ried on by artifice and dissimulation. Nor 
was his boldness^ in action inferior to his sub*, 
tlety in contritance. Having ftssenabled about 
twelve thousand men, he suddenly invaded 
one part of the electoral provinces, while Fer^ 
dinand, with an army composed of Bohemians 
and Hungarians, over-ran the olbei*. MauricCj 
in two sharp encounters, defeated the troops 
whiqh the Elector had left to guard his coun- 
try; and improving these advantages to the 
utmost, made himself master of all the E!ec^ 
torate, except Wittemberg, Gotha, and Et» 

^ Sleid. 405, &c. . Thuan. Sj. .Ciuaerar..4d4s 


senach, which being places of considerabU •ook 
strength, and defended by fiuificient garrisons^ v^^vw 
refused to open their gates. The news of these *'^*** 
rapid conquests soon reached the Imperial and 
confederate camps. In the former, satisfao 
tion with an event, which it was^ foreseen 
would be productive of the most important 
(Consequences, was expressed by erery possible 

demonstration of joy. The lattei* was filled 
i^^ith astonishnien^t and terror. The name of 
Maurice was mentioned with execration^ as an 
apostate from rdigion, a betrayer of the Ger- 
man liberty, and a contemner of the most isa- 
cred and natural ties. Every thing that the 
rage or invention of the party could suggest, 
in order to blacken and render him odious ; in- 
vectives, satires, and lampoons, the fiuious de- 
i^lamations of their preachers, together with 
the rude wit of their authors, were all employ- 
ed against him. While he, confiding in the 
itrts which he had so long practised, as if his 
actions could have admitted of any serious jus* 
tification, published a manifesto, containing 
the same frivolous reasons for his condnpt. 
Which he had formerly alledged in the meeting 
of his states, and in his letter to the Land- 

The Elector, upon the first intelligence of Theconfe- 
Maurice*s motions, proposed to return home nlake^over- 
Ifitb his troops for the defence of Saxony. But ^mm"Sdv" 

tion to the 
• Sl*id. 409, 410. Vmpexor; 



*viii^ th6 deputies of the league, assembled at Ulm, 
prevailed oa him, at that time, to remam with 
the army, and to prefer the success of the com- 
mon cause, before the security of his own do- 
minions. At length. the sufferings and coov- 
plaints of his subjects increased so much, that 
he discovered the utiiiost impatience to set oat, 
iii order to rescue .them from the. oppression of 
Maurice> and from the cruelty of the Hunga- 
rians, who, leaving bqen accustomed to that li- 
i^entious and merciless species of war which 
was thought lawful against the Turks, commit- 
ted, wherever they came, tlie wildest ^acts of ra-' 
pine and violence. This desire.of the Elector 
was so natural and so w^armly urged, that the 
deputies at Ulm, though fully sensible of the 
unhappy consequences of dividing their army, 
durst not refuse their consent, how unwilling 
soever to grant it. In this perplexity, they rer 
paired to the camp of the confederates at Gien- 
gen, on the Brenz, in order to consult their con- 
stituents. Nor were they less at a loss what to 
determine in this pressing emergence. But, 
after having considered seriously the open de- 
sertion of some of their allies ; the scandalous 
lukewarmness of others,' ^ho had hitherto con- 
tributed nothing towards the war ; the intoler- 
able load which had fallen of consequence upon 
such members as were most zealous for the 
cause, or most faithful to their engagements; 
the ill success of all their endeavours to obtain 
foreign aid ; the unusual length of the campaign; 
the rigour of tj:ie season ; together with the great 




liixinber*of soldiers, and even officers, wlio had ^y^^ 
quitted the service on that account; they cpn- 
eluded that nothing could save them, but either 
the bringing the contest to the immediate deci- 
sion of a battle, by attacking the Imperial army, 
or an accommodation of all their differences 
with Charles by a treaty* Such was the de-* 
spondency and dejection which now oppressed , 
thie party, that of these two they chose what 
was most feeble and unmanly, empowering a 
minister of the Elector of Brandenburg to pro- 
pound overtures of peace in their name to the 

No sooner did Charles perceive this haughty' which h« 
confederacy, which had so lately threatened to- ^^ 
drive him out of Germany, condescending to 
make the first advances towards an agreement, 
than concluding their spirit to be gone, or their 
union to be broken, he immediately assumed the 
tone of a conqueror; and, as if they had been 
already at his mercy; would not hear of a nego-^ 
ciation, but upoii condition that the Elector of 
Saxony should previously give up himself and 
his dominions absolutely to his disposal^. As 
nothing more intolerable or ignominious couid 
have been prescribed, even in the worst situation 
of their affairs, it is no wonder that this pro* 
position should be rejected by a party, which 
was rather humbled and disconcerted than subr 
dued. But though they refused to submit tan^e- 

* Hortensioa, ap. Scard. ii. 48^. 



tHE ftBIGN or TtStE 


'vm.*^ ^y *^ tfce Emperor's will, they wahted spirit t* 
pursue the only plan which could have presery* 
ed their indepeuAence; aud forgetting that it was 
the union of their troops in one body which had 
hitherto rendered the confederacy formidable, 
and had more than once obliged the Imperialists 
to think of quitting the field, they inconsider* 
ately abandoned this advantage, which, in spite 
of the diversion in Saxony, would still have kept 
The troops the Emperof in awe; and yielding tO the Elec* 
«wil^°" tor's entreaties, consented to his proposal of 
dividing the army.. Nine thousand men were 
left in the dutchy of Wurtemberg, in order tQ 
protect that province, as well as the free cities 
of Upper Germany; a considerable body march- 
ed with the Elector towards Saxony ; but the 
greater part returned with their respective lead« 
ers into their own countries^ and were dispers*^ 
ed there*. 


A&nost all 
the mem- 
bersof it 
submit to 
the Emper 

The moment that the troops separated^ the 
confederacy ceased to be the object of terror j 
and the members of it, who, while they compos- 
ed part of a great body, had felt but little an^ie« 
ty about their own security, began to tremble 
when they reflected that they now stood expose 
ed singly to the whole wei^t of the Emperor's, 
vengeance^ Charles did not allow them leisure 
to recover from their consternation, or to form 
any new schemes of union. As ioon as the 
confederates began to retire; lie put his army ill 

« Sleid. 411. 

£MPER0{1 CUkKLEi ¥. 



9M>ti^M>;ftnd though it waii now the depth of ^y^f^^ 
wiQter, he resolved to keep the fie^d, in order to 
oaalj;^ the ift^ of that £»vouraible Juncture fof 
which he had waited so long« Some small towii^ 
iu f^hich the FrotestaaU had left garfi^n^, ioir 
mediately o{»eaed their gates. Nbriiogen, Ro- 
teiiherg, aad Hall, Imperial cities, submitted 
soon after. Though Charles could not prevent 
ihe Elector fr^om levving* as be retreated, large 
ccmtrihutions upon the Anchbishop of Mentz, 
Ibe abbot of Fuldai and other ^cclesiastici^^^ thi# 
ivas more tha& balanced by the sahinissioa of 
Ulmj one cf the chief cities <>f SuaUa, highly 
ditstinguished by its ;eeal lor the SmaLkaldic 
i^igae. As sopa as an example was set of de- 
gertipg the commoii cause« the rest of the meoii^ 
bers becaaae instantly impatient to follow, i^ 
and seemed afoiid lest ethersr 6y getting the 
0tart of them in returning to their duty* should^ 
on that account^ obtain inone fj^vourabl^ terms. 
Hhe £lector Palattoe^ a weak Priocey who, not- 
withsiLiwding his professions of neutrality, had> 
very preposterously, sent to the coofedenates 
four hnndred horse, a body so inconsiderable as 
to be scarcely any addition to thrir strength, 
bnt great enongli to render him guilty in the 
eyes of 4he tEmperorn made his acknowledg- 
»ents in the most abject manner. ,The inhar 
i>itants of Augsburg, shaken by so many inr 
stanc^sof ^postac^, ext)elled the brave Scbertei 
4Wt ^ their city, und ac^pted such eonditians 
as the Emperor was pleased to grant them. 

♦ Thuani. 88, 


^vin*^ The Duke of Wurtettiburg, though Rm&tig 
x-p-v^ii^ the first who had offered to submit, was obliged 
^^*^ to sue for pardon on his knees ; and even aftei^ 
this mortifying humiliation, obtained it with 
1547. difficulty*. Memmingen, and other free cities 
in the circle of Suabia, being now abandoned 
by all their former associates, found it neces-^ 
sary to provide for their own safety by throw- 
ing thetoselves on the Emperor's mercy. Stras* 
burg and Frankfort on the Maine^ en ties faf 
remote from the seat of danger, discovered no 
greater^ steadiness than those which lay mor^ 
exposed. ' Thus a confederacy, lately so power- 
ful as to shake the Imperial throne, fell tO' 
piecesj and was dissolved in the space of a few 
weeks ; hardly any member of that formidable 
combination now remaining in arms, but the 
Elector and Landgrave, to whom the Empe^ 
ror, having from the beginning marked them 
oat as victims of his vengeance, was at no pains 
The rigor- to offer terms of reconciliation. Nor did be 
tbDrim-' grant those who sulnnitted to him a generous 
S^ror!^ and unconditional pardon. Conscious = of his 
own superiority, he treated them both with 
haughtiness and rigour. All the princes in 
person, and the cities by their deputies, were 
compelled to implore mercy in the humble 
posture of applicants. As the Emperor la- 
boured under great diffiojulties from the want 
of money, he imposed heavy fines npon them, 
which he levied with the most rapacious *€3C- 
' • ■ . 

* Mem dc Ribier> tQpi* i. 5Q9. 



actMss. The Duke of Wiirtemberg paid three ^ ^jJJ ^ 
hundred thousand crowns ; the city of Augs- 
burg an hundred and fifty thousand ; Ulm an 
hundred thousand ; Fraiikfort eighty thousand; 
Memmingen fifty thousand; and the rest in 
proportion to their abilities, or- their different 
degrees of guilt. They werfe obUged, besides^ 
to renounce the league of Smalkalde; to fur* 
nish assistance, if required, towards -executing 
the Imperial ban against the Elector and Land*- 
grave ; to give up their artillery and warlike 
stores to the Emperor'; to admit garrisons into 
their principal cities and places of strength; 
ah^, in this disarmed and dependent situation, 
to expect the final award- which the Empferor 
should think proper to pronounce when the 
war came to an issue ^. But, amidst the great 
Tariety of articles dictated by Charles on this 
occasion, he, in conformity to his original plany 
took care that nothing relating to religion 
iihould be inserted; and to such a degree were 
the confederates humbled or overawed, that, 
forgetting the ;zeal which had so long animated 
them,« they were solicitous only, about their 
ovjrn safety, without venturing to insist > on a 
pointy the indention of which they saw the Em- 
'perpr avoiding with so mu6h industry. The in- 
habitants of Memmingen alone' made some 
feeble efforts to procure a promise of protec-' 
tion in the tCxercise of their religion, but w^re 

* Sleid. 411» &a Thuan. lib. iv. p. 125. Mem. deRibieo 
torn. i. 606. f. I,. ,. V :',i 

VOL. OT, -.Aa 

l^tJiiii^i'tQ a^^«ri tg wpa^ft in p^^pssipo of the 

ifphiflpipcftpftl ^ft, feeing jBftw requii^d fey the 
$mp^if9f t© jwbmU tt9i the c^5§ttw« el tiie 

90mvag his ^^ ^^4 ^km'9'^fet, kmchm^ tP eo^ 
Jf^ A|ralll> ^?tb€r virHJ^ tbQ ^erci^e of )»s re^ 
HgiPD^ 4n tl^ retiiTfiQQnt pf ;i priifatiK^ hfy, Mallear 
^a^ |;q 4i^|^li ¥>qif»y by aog^ging in fi d^ubt? 
&} aii4 viotf^t sfmggte m po^r t% rirtsMB liib 

TbeEkcter DuR«^6. tfeese lramsftetio|ifi* »ba Bdctoff rf 

Saxony, and 1^3$ wy r«^b«d the fijotttiats of fab .csQontrj^ 

"^^oii vovftofefite^^ As Blaunee couU ws^bb im 

o^i«^ fom^ ei^t^al ti> jbbe army aiFhicfa ac^otepfM^lsd 

bim, he> ii> a s)^rt tmud, not .only refioyered 

pQs^3si^u of Ifuaowv tervitorcds^ Wt ov^rrnait 

jkiisnia, aod stiipped hia mal x>f aH that W^ 

longod to him, i^Hce(>| Dn^adiil and lusipsk;^ 

whicb^ bBinjg tawps..(tf sondf etrMgldsu coiuUi 

ttot be Md^eftly . DediwM. Ma»nuid, iAi\geA lor 

quit the field, and to shut himself up in his ca** 



f ' 

i^(i ^ujtjve office, w^ l^gxpgpte^}^ swtpTi?^ 

l^y tt^ ©fi^tof ? .?f.¥ J^i«?fl 'n?oy pi" h^ Vi9<m 

dMR^rs?^ fbl F^ft'Bd?^? }»n4 JPRI^ hi^ j)}-i^oj^^ 
gr f . J^SHfice f pntiiju^fl as fl^uqji ^?HRse,d ^^ 
#)fipgrjy ; apjl i^ \^\s ^jienyf ha4 ^jjjyp bjjgr to 
ifliBrpjfp tljg fipp,ortujjty ^hiph pr^sgnJi^ i|s^)f, 
fcjs njip v?^n hm hf§^ }PI»e^afg a^jj pjjg- 
^PJd^^lf. put ^;i)e ?:i^ft9r, no lesf slc^ an^ 

^iJ^.9ry who? joye?|;f4 yy'^ % 59/^ fp????9Pi» 

>h?<? »>g 1^4 k^S" ^Pfffl^rf jr yftgp j.Qw,^§ in au- 
*l»onty WJh .» B?rf9?r. ii?yer ga^r^ any proof ^ 
l^^jlit^ry fCtJFity ^;it in tjjis eptgrpris^ f gaJSg' 
,/y^rt. Ipst^^a g jpaj-p|iipg 4if;e^t;7 tpwajc^"' 
MaW<?e, *m % defeat of hi^ ally had 
«re^Jy alWPP^d, i»^ iftC9psid^af^|y Jisfene/j tp 
' i>veTtjy-es ftf fccpflapipfiatioi^i jjrhigh % p|^ 

i^ian to apjijs^ hi0i, ajad to flac^^ t% yigc^yr 
. S.U.CJI, ^e^^, Y^s ^% ^^tJ^? ^pf t|ie l^jpg. 

572 THE REIok OF 'THbI 

*^jj ^ ror's affiir^, that he could not march iiistaintly 
>iSi5s/-i*^ to the relief of his ally, Sooti after' thef separa* 
Thclsmpc. t^^^ ^^ *he Confederate airmy/he, in order td 
eSTSSlSl ^^^ hiinself of the burden of maintaining a ^u- 
tacking the perftuous nutnber of troops, had dismissed the 

ITlAPlwri^ sih4 •■■•'■It'. 

lAAdgrmve^ Countof Buren with his Flemings^, imagimng 
that the Spaniards and Germans, together wrth 
the papal fdrCes, would be fully sufficient to 
Ctush any degree of vigtmr, that yet remained 
among the menlbers of the league. But Pau^ 
growing wise too late, began now to discern 
the imprudence of that measure, from which 
the more sagacious Venetians had endeavoured i 
;n vain to dissuade hiiti. The rapid progress 
of the Imperial sirms, and the ease with which 
they had broken a dombination that appeared 
no less firm than powerful, opened his eyes at 
len^^th, and. made him not only forget all the: 
advantages which he had expected from such ^ 
complete triumph over heresy, but placed in the ' 
strongest light his own impolitic conductjin- 
having contributed towards acquiringfoi^Charles ^ 
such an iitimense increase of power,- as would - 
enable him, after oppressing the liberties of Ger-- 
tnany, to give law with absolute authority to all 
the states of Italy. The moment that he per- 
ceived his error, he endeavoured to correct it. • 
T^p^ Without giving the Emperor any- warning of 
troops. his intention,. he ordered Farnese, his grandson, 
to return instantly to Italy with all the troops 
uniler his conimand, and at th& sam^, time re- 


* Avila^ 83. a. Mem. de Ribier, torn, u 592^ 



«aiHed the licebce wh^b he had gr^teid Qiarl^ ? ^j{[^ 
of appropriating to his own use a la^ge share of 
tbe^(^rfrch latids in Spain. He was not destir 
tttte.of justify this abrupt. desertioi^ 
of his ally* T^e terJOiiof six months, during 
wbiclii the. sti pullet iotes in tjbeir treaty, were to 
coi|i»9iae in force^.wiisnow .expired ;t^e league, 
m oppQsitio]ii:to.wjh|0.b:t]ifteir^I]ianqe.l^ad beeqi 
f(!<tmed;seeia€^ to bi» entirely 4issipate4>ChaH 
iti.all bi^Qegociationsr. with the Princes- an4 
c^ities .which had submitted to his^wiii/hai} neir 
ther COiQiSult^d thi^ Pope; ojor haxl allotted , hin^ 
any pai^.^C the cojfiqqests jvj^ioh Jlpie; had roade> 
nor had allowed him any share in the vast con- 
tifibutions which : he had . raised.; . j^e^badmot 
evenm^^ W9 proy\i^iot)/for the|$)ippres$ion of 
haresy> pF,tihe;r^-9ptal^li&h(i>^nt 9j^t^ Catholic 
religiop,, )¥hich were jP?|uJ> chief ifiducements 
toi bestOl¥ jthe tre^i^res pf the church so liberally 
in carrying on the war. These colours^ however 
jspeciojasti. did nojt. conceal from the EipperoF 
that secret jealousy which wa^ tjie true motive 
of the Pope's conduct. But> as Paul's orders 
with regard tq the march of his troops were no 
|ess peremptory .than unexpected, it was imposr 
sible to prevent their retreat Charles exclaim- 
ed loiidly against his treachery, in abandoning 
bin) so unseasonably, while he was pro$^ciiting 
a war undertaken in obedience to the papal ia- 
junctions, and from which, if successful, so much 
honour and advantage would redound . to the 
church. To complaints he added threats and 
expostulationsiw But Paul remained inflexible; 

t^^<4i^ ecclesi§is1h''cll ^a^^, KM Wi 'a«i ddtttfrMI^ iAemt(» 
^^^' rik1, IniMddd tid kii a(SUttt^ Ibr 1f1& (c6ttdi«kt/«* 
fi'iscoveiy 'nh^ ittA ttic^ AtKAfen TsytHptttia^ 
ef sill^atlbh W6ih Ih'^ E«at»brOti»i togtfifa^r tiriiOi 
Ik. aeep-fbbtm awfclftff liife t^ii-* -Chki^i 
wekk&kea by tlfe Wflfidi^EWtng '«f ft> ^t* -ft 
6d^ Milns'iinfty, Whi^=t¥&s -alki^idym^th 

h'aa bii^ittiia!t^> kfahA it irftfddbs^ >tO Y«erti^ 
etlre'fo liiVc^ ^ '^ef^ ttflvt^i<ds ^3^01^. 

* ' ■" * ' »* 

^ ' • ■ / ■. . I 

A<m>i>irf i:^fe fkfi^e aU is^eiiddur^f ftb'tocaCHs bdiiM 
ta^thlgo. bbt liiave failed of a«trd(itifilgnM]!clf'milA}«l«les{tf 

ie1fiT£(irffe*fl6w Sttejefct 'eb'hfemthW^ 
Have '^^6n ^'t h{l&1fi'aqci:»iditldh' Of tJftit^- tlK 
Itei'd tlfkMt 'ffib ^l^litori; ^ttt^lie ^ddSb Hifd 
Vior^Ht irtitiiioto ^'<^ *a ^e6fl§t>>t%«y ' W OWWft, «* 
fireH k's fHe gfi^at'^fev^iHrfterift wtir<5h «»»* -^^vto** 
fextrein^iy 'Thy«feri6^«!5 ia ^Usfiftf^ppi^rtiAfc^ 
teemed te>)ftend, dbflfed 'hlift- t6«W>1d eii^ 
tahgllng WiAiself in'H^«r-bi)e«Ud<ft fii 'Gemraaijr, 
iititil lie- Had'faJ}^ diijc^ete'dlte Sdtl?^'bifta "tfeii- 
Bisricy.- the 'forth 6f '-^v^^hftlSHt Whidh 4M 
Been e^tSbRsli^ tn <5*W6a, '^t 'thfe^t|«fe> ^rtten 
, ll^ XiK^rew 'Doi^a' V^tofed liberty tb Wa 'dftflfif fy, 
ttioffgh'ckcuTatSd to dblitei'ate 'We 'ftieftibfy ^8f 
Ybraier ^dls^Siois, '^ttd 'yi^feiV^ aft 'fir* 'Wfth 

ced the ^disinterested virtu^' df Ddiiit, «^$ sc^' 
mired his t^eots, not a few were jealous of that 
«sd<^Efaihf t^fiiyi W Bka't^it^diii'tlle ^n^ 
^Hs- of' tte ^(^nMldh#tfiiliJ!R! ' Hf ^ ag4J, tM^^el^' 

m\6h xk haiihim^efamiif ^nd* ]M^d'« &( Hi:^ 
1^ tb amt 'SUt efite'' itith(iii()f irid< ffjAi&fiigtf 
«rtli«h W ftirf fumk iNrfil !iiiWfc<*Ht, iUy eklijt 

£!^z(>H df gt'ait^ kftHKthM, or tm ^itvlt A 
mizm of im d^Hj^^Mi^ ehttr^cfe^i' EMbI a^fUdfj 
»y ^Ihiii^ i^ik* pnitiJU^oit^, sHid i^itfr ^^4f 
prrt>^t)«if< df siide^sS. €^HitttJ<rtiA'^ ObHd^ftbtrt , 

ini sxt^amt lift' pt^wei*. Hi^ t^pi^ i^tig^yi 

iMoil^nV ^tMf at^rl^^^g td dtidh a d^gf^^ as' 
W6tfM Mi«I;f fislv^* Bettl' f<ilet^t«d it* pM b6rtit 
^(j r^gfti #tt^ aHMtgeeti^f itf^poi^^ble" in fh^ 
^W^etf of a fi^ sf jrtg, the mor6 sa^adof^ 
jhttOrtg the <xetide»?6f 5tfr<jad|jr feare* aWd hkt-' 
<*d ftit« *j the etietojr df those fifemie^ fbf 



i » * J. . ■' * ' ■■ - 

I . . • • • * ■ • 

^^iL^ which they, were i^&d^lHj^tp l^s ^ocle.;. White 
Andrew himself^; bUn(i^d: hy^ 4hat .yiojentv mA 
undiscernipg affectiiK9^j \nlmk pef^m ui.«dyc|QH' 
ced age Q%n contract /pr.thts ywi^gpr mem- 

bers of the^r familj|^^.fet,pi) ho^ods^ to itbAt^fliU^: 
gence with which he^4i;eated him; sfjemiog le$a? 
soiic^tpus; to secure aud^ perpetuate the .freedom 
of t][ie, coino^oowea^ th« , tbap^ .tp. aggrandize that 

undeserving ki^sii^au. ri ; 

« • • J / > 

But whatever su;spjcion..of Doria's designsi^ 
or whatever .dissatisfaction with (hf^.system of 
administration in the c^nniipQonwealtlv these cir- 
cumsj^ances might b^ve pccasipned, they: would 
have epded> it is proj^iable^ ^ in noihipg more 
s than murmurings . and, > ^ colpplaU^Sy . if Johtt 
Lewi^ Fiesco^ Caunt:.of t^y^gna^ observing 
this grooving disgust,, had, not been encouraged 
by it .to attempt one of the boldest actions re- 
Piesco corded in history. That youniz noblemao* the 
uvagoa richest and mqst illvistrioiis sulyect. in the re- 
^ o^pi^' pubiic> possessed in an eminent degree, all the 
'^■^- qualities which win upon the human heart, 
which command respect, or secure attachment. 
He was graceful and majestic in his; person; 
magnificent even to profusion; of a generosity 
' that anticipated the. wishes of Itfs frieinds^ and 
exceeded the expectations of strangers; of an 
insinuating address, gentle manners, and a flow- 
ing affability. But under the appearance of 
these virtues, which seemed to form him for 
enjoying and adorning social life, he concealed 
9^}1 the dispositions which mark men out for 

* • • • 

' V 



A s. Mi 



taking 4;he lead in the most daogefrpus and dark ^9.?^^ 
/conspiracies; ap insatiafasle ^lul restless ambi- 
liqn, a courii^e. unacquainted with fear, and a 
mind ti^at ^i$dained si|bordiiiation. , Sach .a 
temper .could ill brook. thatiS^,tipn of inferiori*. 
ffy^ wherein . he, ,] was pLa^ced in th^ republic;, 
9^4. as |he enyi^ the power which the* elder 
P<^fia hadt^gqir^fl,. he wfts filled withiindig- 
iiaVion at t,be^thQught^,,of its descending, like 
^n hereditary piOfSs^sion^ to Giannetino* The&e 
i^aripu^ pap;^ipns, preying with violence on his 
'furbuleotpAdii^ipiring .mind, determined him to 
atten^t /Overturning ihat domination , to which 
^^ could not .sfibgiit ^ 

It 1 1 

: ^S| thp moat ;efi(fG^ual ipesthod of accomplish* intrigm 
ing thisy he thoiugh); at first of forming a con- SS^JSil 
ne^ion with Erfkkcis^ and even proposed it tO; fJ^P"** 
the French ^n^l^assador at -Rome ; and after ex-^ 
pelling Dorifi,; together with the Imperial fac^ 
tion, by ^isaasisitance, he. offered to put the ren 
public once nipre under the protection 9f that 
l^onarcb, hoping in return for that service to 
be intrusted with the principal shsu'e in the ad* 
ministration of government. But having com- 
municated his scheme to a few chosen confi- 
dents> fronpi whom, he kept nothing secret,. Ver- 
rina, the chief of them, a man of desperate for^ 
tune, capable alike of advising and executing 
the most audacious deeds, remonstrated with 
earnestness against the folly of exposing himself 
to the most imminent danger, while .he allowr 
ed another to reap all the fruits of his success; 

v.^J^ 'pr^6miA«tte« iH his ^ttfti^y, m i^bh H8 #^ 

<^^'^- 4eiitliie4 by M^ ilttt^tHMti bififa, «»^ 6it]fed%y 

ffae V^6e of Ms feH^-eiUz^n^^ ahtf #oM^be Kli»i 

ea by ihe> i^^kl 6f His tH^tM^; l^hiir Siamfi^i 

sfnitkblg ^ hi$ ^nitt», that Wb^dt)h}n|-^ dWtf 

pl*t»^ Itt fettge?Fy addp^ai thb bf iVttrtiWi TH4 

6fhbr p^firOTis pi^s€i)t,^hdii||h Mitisibl^ otf tA« htt* 

i^At'dcfus hkttil^ df ^he Utu!«it^i6j^, <«$ MC 

^hb6^ to c6t)fl^h^Tlai tHeir 'pif»^ ttM M 

i^&rthly apprtyv^. It Wfe^ filitafrtiy ¥fe^6Hi4a; Hi 

<his •d&i* ciibali 16 igiafeJimtt the^ hWr'fWHH^i i» 

well as the principal persons df* "tfcilf pftirty; iH 

overturn the established system of government^ 

■ M&^plke& Ifle^ed ahttW tttt6«l '•&bttbm^bt ^o- 

-. ' tm. 'Tiftie, ftb>*^v^ifj *ftd "p<TW*r*tloife •%«« 

. i^AS^lS to iHi)€ft isach a d<»fer^ ftr- «te<«eidilj 

theiei Ttssc^ ttt^dd it Mi m^ cikf^ tb ^i4 
agaitlst ^ffefy ihin^ thftt l^i^t Mttil^ Ms ^ 

ercft, 0^ tiH^^^'M^p{<i^bfl. Th6 tf i»g\ii>ie; be« ^ 

i^umed wiis 6f ^^M6tlli^^s the mdit httpett«tH(1^ 
He s^«iiied to bte ibatliloiK^ entirely V6 )ile^ 
sUi-6 ahd dissipation. A perp^tttdl j^i(ffiy> dl^ \ 
V6«iaea by th6 pursiilt 6f jlll th« kdliiSfeiilif^htt 
in Whiiih p%^dm tdf his idgft' dhd- anhk ttrer iipt 
to delight^ ehgtbisied', Va i&pp^aWnde, thii ivttiMiEi 
of his iiifn^ and fbtiMlghts. But ilttiHkt «M« 
hnrfy 6t dissipation, M pttH^iCHi^ fctt pRitt 
^ith the TttOst tbiA attwitidn, ttijIWtef tet&fSittg 
the desigh by a tiihid heisitfttion, iitor ptedipit*' 
^ipg tbe execbtiori by aQ excess of iihp9t}6n(!{f; 

He woirtinwed hh ierrespondieiice v^itk the ^^^^^ 
Wremlh ^mbassioior at fi^nke^ thdugk Without w^^t!«^ 
emnmnnkiVtivSg te him tm ceai iadexvlMiiSi :thalr ^^^^' 
ify im means ¥e imgirt dddttrK 4^e f^m^dtioai of 
tte FinhMsh «dhiH ^f hereiftefr he bho^M find tl 
ii^bes^ry to <6aH them m to 'his hM. He ^nter^ 
cid ilitd B fdl^se dm^^kwy mth Satn^se Dukiel 
MParintt^ iwho-^behi]^ 6i9^tetal with ^ttib £mprGf* 
mr ^of TdTtisinf^ t4^ ;^aht h^ tim iiivestitixre ^ 
lihat thatehyiy >#aB4eligir to fyi^onfyote tinj titea^ 
6€ii« iUksX tMniedi ifeo dimtnibh hts iirfhteaofce . m 
Itfidy^ or latTirifa d^t)^iHy iBa iisifylietliy detMed 
#b hfiniftsttiht^ ^Btiria; fiein^ ^easille tftat^ 
in :k lAfaritiliie stnt^^ Idle utcRquiSsition nkf fifeival 
p6wer ^M what he 'ougbft . ^hidfly tb.aihi at^ 
he •ipitiidbMtd.'fmar ^^sHlies irdm . the Poepe^ Who 
jMPdbfllbiy tiagls -tfiDt nmaoqiiailiiteA with the d^ 
signivfUli^h ile4iiadf0rtanfedv and'dwd net diBsi^K 
pmvernof it ilXsAer lodouk* 'ef 'Mtjaig am oiri9 
d£ theft'^ gaHs^s te rteiltih^a '^raii^e'al^hinst the 
IriMis, hie In0t on)^ Imsembled h igMdHftfinhef 
iti 4113 'cy^B vitoaifi^ Hbtit engat^^d ink his efemc^ 
imA^ hoM aadfenttiraiiy Whc^ 'the tnoce b^ 
twiQ^1iie>Bm^^h)rinid Sobjr^^ hod depriTed <€ 
thfeir ^Mal xiqclipatioil tand isiibkisteiice. 

1V)hi£C 9?i€l^co wti8 ^tafciiig th^spe im|)ortiiii 
£tid{Mviie^rto€rHd^so ta^tniUy'Hiil usual ap'* 
{yeafanee of Usiqgde^^ted ^nUc^ to ()Ieasare 
hnd anriosemeitt^ 4nd paid <ioirrt witlh lueh ari^ 
IM %ddn96s t6 the 1;#o Dorihs^ as lofio^piOBed fi^ 
pnly on the generous and nhsas^diauB mmd of 
Andrew, but deceived Giannetino, who, con^ 




*viil'^ scious of his owki criminal intentions^ wa^moi^e 
apt to distrust the designs of others. So manye 
instruments being >noW' prepared^ i noithing re** 
mained hut to strike the blow.. Various iCOBsul-i 
tations.were held by Fiesco .wifch his confidents^* 
in order to settle the inanner o£ doing it with 
the greatest certainty and effect; At first>^ithe^ 
proposed .to. murder the Dorias !and//thei]; chi^ 
adherents, durinig the celebralfOj[i. of high mass 
in th€^ principal:cfauncfa;:but as; Andrew was 0& 
tein absent from religious SDleniii£bies, ;0n ac* 
tount of his great age,, that desiga wasi .laid 
aside. ' It was theii conceitted tbati£&esGOishouldl 
invite the. unclie .and; juBphi^w$: with .a^l i their 
friends whom he: had: marked outi as victims,, to 
his housfe ;.where:it\wouId:be:easy>to cut thaooi 
off at once, without danger or resistance ; hutasi 
Giannetino'was obliged to leavfe the! to!wn. on 
the day which ; t hey iiad ohosea, iit became/ ne- 
cessary likewise I to alter. . this i plan/ Thejp iat 
lai^ determiped tb attempt force,- what 
they found diiiibult to effect by stratagem, and 
fixed on the night bet ween the second and tlurd 
of January vfoii the execution of their enterprise; 
The time was chbsea with great propriety ; for 
as the Doge of the former year was to quit his 
office, according to custom,, on the 'fit'st of the 
month, and his successor ^cotild not be elected 
sooner than the fourth, the repuUic remained 
during that interval in a sort of anarchy^ and 
Fiesco might with less violence take possession 
of the vacant dignity. 


XkE morning of that day^ Fiesco eittployed ^^^^ 
in visiting his friends, passing some hours among %«^v^ 
them, with a spirit as gay and unembarrassed Tte^J^ipi- 
as at other times. Towards evening, he paid ^y *J: 
court to the Ddrias with his usual marks of re- execute 
spect, and surveying their countenance and be* '"^p"^ 
liaviour with the attention natural in his situa- 
tion, was happy to observe the perfect security 
in which they remained, without the least fore- 
sight or dread of that storm which bad been so 
long a gathering, and was now ready to burst 
over their heads. From their palace he hasten- 
ed to his own, which stood by itself in the mid- 
die of a large court, surrounded by a high walK 
The gates had been set open in the morning, 
aiid all persons, without distinction, were allow- 
ed to enter, biit strong guards posted within , 
the court sufSsi'ed no one to return. Verrina^ 
meanwhile, and a few persons trusted with the 
secret of the conspiracy, after conducting Fies^ 
<x>'s vassals, as well as the crews of his gallies, 
into the palace in small bodies, with as little 
noise as possible, dispersed themselves through 
the city, and, in the name of their patron, in^ 
vited to an entertainment the principal citizens 
whom they knew to be disgusted with the ad- 
ministration of the Dorias, and to have inclina- 
tion as well as courage to attempt a change in 
the gtfvertimeht. Of the vast number of per- 
sons who now filled the palade, a few only knew 
fot* what purpose they were assembled i the rest, 
astohished at finding, instead of the preparations 
for a feastj ja court crowded with armed men, . 

# f . .• 


9U •?«? WI6J? m '«iit 

\i^ vi W pwr, gft?«d <?« eapb ei^l^er with ft ngi^torie f«f cu^ 

IpoJc full of a|a¥j;»tjf s|r4 fK)aftjl§BFe, ^p !i^(§r 

i^Uipg thpTO. tb»f ^f^ Wf?'^ »4 9»!^ pa^^4 |f> 
purta^e pf the l4/e%suFfi f^ *r| gnlW|aipiftfB|li, 
Iwt |o jpii? ip ^ jiefid f^C Sfftlpuf, Which ytml^ 

hid them ifj Hb«tiy w4 imBports»i r€^^\v». J^ 
. , mWorn theiF pyes tb^ .egQfbitaijt ^s nr^)) ^ 

infeQlQT^We! aiit^prUy of the eWejr IJiqrJa, whjpb 
^e 9a)biti.QP of Crianaetipp, ^ tjjp p8Jli^t|r 

of rtws E«»pjer<?r ^ a family v^^w #^!fqtg4 te 

bjm tjian to tfiqjr gauntry, w^as a^out to ei^rg^ 
d^piniW)'- epPJJJUHed |je, " ygu have \\ pftjjr fft 

y.Qiijr pewsr tp suVyp^J;. ,^ it© esf^difji tii§ frf^ 

Their iwolftPt <iQnJ;eaw^ .pf tfcei? jifpiUBtxypi^ 

ce*P, ^sjypll q# ,sai0cip9g jt$ 5USir/sl agS^fli^t %; 
,ye9g*ftp?9 W;W<^ J*fy dee««F/e. f ^^ m'M npjy 

we nMf ikiivQT ppr couokry bjr om gei^^ftHS *y«1.* 

eaitain ji»f fiMceess.'' Th^^e hiObcI^ ukterfd with ^^* 
that irvofiistifalfi feriiolir wkiob anim^t^ tb$ 
ipidd wben raas^4 by grtat .obj^c^tcki is^d^ tbn 
^esivedl iinpros£li(Hi oii the Audianci/e. Vi98CQ^.$ 
ycuisals, ceady tQ ejuacuto ifhateyfir their master 
ahfliijd qomsiaiul, rfioftiired his jiisoafHrmi with a 
muxmuv of apptause. To m^y whose fprtuAes 
wene ddspapafce^ the beende aqd confusion of m 
ipsuFreolion .scolded an a^^^ifiabk prospect. 
ThMe of higher rank and ^faa viitaous seott? 
nuentSi diirst npt diacover the surprise or horror 
with which tiiay wene struck at (he pixipqsal .of 
1^ eatequTiae tte less unespeotad than akro^iotta( 
as each of theqi iinf!.gined |he othev to |pi^ in 
the secret of the conspiracy, and saw himself 
m^vgm4»A irn peswi? «if h» *f ajtp4 finjy 9^ ^gpal 

from their M^ ^Q parpAtf^le <h^ v^m^i 
«fkp#. Wiih (¥m m^ tfa^n gU fippJiiii^^. Of 

' • • • ' 

\ FlESCQ hMri«g ^hlH flK^ md ^«4imrAg04 bd His inter 

aasQ^iales^ hfi^re ]m g$a¥^ them hi^.lNt f^rder9« hirw^e?^ 
'k^ ba^t^ni^ far ^ moiP^ lip ^s iap»r|99^t of 
Ims w^iii^, a k47 ^ :th» p«]^« b«ui£ of ipibo^ 
|y jiiolu bfi lo)^ with tender aff9Ptian« and uvkPA^ 
hf^uty aqd JKir(l}ii# r^odefed faor ivortby ^ Ui 
Ipve* The poise .of tku^ awwd loen twb^ /^pq wdr 
^ the i{oiij?t and p^laef^ baying Umghtfeise tim 
reached hfir eu^ ^ . coneiwAod aoni^ ihajeardr 
ons eaterpriae to he in JhaiKl^ add she tisemhled 
for htr hiisbafid« ^ He fomid i^ar ifn ail the ai)r 

384 THE RErON OF a?HE 

' vin * guish of uncertsiinty and fear j and as it was now 
\^J> " w imipossible to keep his design concealed, he in- 
^^'^' formed her of what he had undertsdcen. The 
prdspect of a scene so full of horror as well a$ 
danger, ccmipleted her agony ^ and foreboding 
immediately in her mind the fatal issue of it, 
she endeavoured, by her tears, her entreaties, 
and her despair, to divert him from his purpose. 
Fiesco, after trying in vain to soothe and to in- 
spire her with hope, broke from a situation in*- 
to which an excess of tenderness had unwarily 
seduced him, though it coiild not shake his ra^ 
solution. *' Farewel," he cried, as he quitted 
the apartment," ^^ you shall either never see me 
more, or you shall behold to-morrow every 
thing in Genoa subject to your power.'' 

- 9 

• ' i« ' ■ ♦ 

ti^tSt ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ rejoined his compainons, he 
>»ty. allotted each his proper station; some were ap- 

pointed to SK^auit and seize the different gates 
of the city; some to make themselves masters 
of the principal streets or places of strength : 
Fiesco reserved for • himself the attack of the 
harbour where Doria's gallies were laid up, as 
the post of chief ' importance; and ^ of greatest 
dfinger. It wds now midnight, and tlie citizens 
slept in the security of peace, when this band 
of conspirators, numerous, despemtej and well* 
{IrmedytUshed'OUti to execute l;heir plan. They 
sur|)pised some of ' the gat^s, ; without meeting 
with >any resistdn^e. They got possession- of 
others aftera isharp ^conflict With die spldiers on 
guatd. Verrina, * V\ritii itlie Igalley which liad 

BMi^ERbit CilARLtS V. SB5 



hetin fitted out agaioBt the Tufks^ blocked xkp ^^^n^ 
» 43ie mouth of the DarBeua or little harbour 
where Doifia's fleet lay. Ail possibility of en^ 
cape being cat off by this precaution^ wheft 
Fiesco ali:einpted to enter the gaUies from th6 
-shore, to which Aey were made fast^ they were 
in IK) dondition to make resistance^ as they wer^fe 
not only unrigged and disarmed^ but had no 
crew on boanl^ except the slates chained to the 
v>ar* Ev^ry quarter of the oity was now filled 
with noise and tumult^ all the streets resounding 
with the cry of Fie$cp and Liberty. At that 
name, so popalat and bdiofed, many of th^ 
lower rank took arms, and joined the 6onspirar 
tors. The ngbles aiM] partisans of the aristocra- 
cy^ astoiiidhed or Affrighted, shut the gates ai 
their houses, and thought of nothing but of se- 
curing them from pillage. At last the noise 
excited by this scene of violence and Confusion^ 
reached the palace of Doria ; Oiannetino start- 
^ ed immediately fi^om bis bed» and imagining 
that it was occasioned by some mutiny among 
the sailors, rushed out with a few attendants^ 
and hurried towards the iM^rbour. The gate of 
St. Thomas, thrcmgfa which he teul to pass, was 
Blready in possession of the conspirators, whoj 
the mom^t he appeared, fell upon him with 
the utmost fttry^ and mnr4ered him on i^e spot. 
The same roust liare been the iate of the eider 
I>oria^ if Jerome de Fiesco had eateouted bis 
brother's plan, and had proceeded immediately 
to attack him in his palace ; but he, from the 
sordid consideration of preventing its being 




*viii ^ plundered amidst the confusion, having forbiA 
K^^^^»^ his followers to advance, Andrew got intelli- 
i5Vf; gence of his nephew's death, as well as of his 
own danger ; and mounting on horseback, saved 
himself by flight. Amidst this general conster- 
nation, a few senators had the coUrage to as* 
semble in the palace of the republic*. At first, 
some of the most daring among them attempted 
to rally the scattered soldiers, and to attack a 
body of the conspirators ; but being repulsed 
with loss, all agreed that nothing now remain- 
ed, but to treat with the party which seemed to 
be irresistible. Deputies were accordingly sent 
to learn of Fiesco what were the concessions 
with which he would be, satisfied, or rather to 
submit to whatever terms he should please to 

Cause ci ^ijrp by this time Fiesco, with whom they 

their mis- ■■ • ' 

cwriage. wcfc empowered to negociate, was no more. 
Just as he was about to leave the harbour,, 
where every thing had succeeded to his wish, 
that he might join his victorious companions, 
he heard some extraordinary uproar on board 
the Admiral galley. Alarmed at the noise^ 
and fearing that the slaves might break their 
chains, and overpower his associates^ be ran 
thither; but the plank which reached frt>m the 
shore to the vessel happening to overturn^ he 
fell into the sea, .whilst he hurried forward too 
. precipitately; Being loaded with heavy armour^ 

* II palazssa della Signoria* 



he sunk to the bottom^ and perished in the very ^yjJJ^^ 
moment when he must have taken full posses*- 
sion of every thing that his ambitious ' heart 
could desire. Verrina was the first who dis-^ 
covered this fatal accident^ and foreseeing, at 
once, all its consequences, concealed it with 
the utmost industry from every one but a few 
leaders of the conspiracy. Nor was it difficult, 
amidst the darkness and confusion of the night, 
to have kept it secret, until a treaty with the 
senators should have put the city in the power 
of the conspirators. All their hopes of this were 
disconcerted by the imprudence of Jerome 
Fiesco, who, when the deputies of the senate 
• inquired for his brother, the Count of Lavagna^ 
that they might make their proposal to him» : 
replied with a childish vanity, " I am now the 
only person to whom that title belongs, and 
with me you must treat." These words disco^ 
vered as well to his friends as to his enemies 
what had happened, and no^ade the impression 
which might have been expected upon botb« 
The deputies, encouraged by this event, the 
only one which could occasion such a sudden 
revolution as might turn to their advantage, as- 
sumed instantly, tyith admirable presence of 
mind, a new tone, suitable to the change in 
their circumstances, and made high demands. 
While they endeavoured to gain time by pro- 
tracting the negociation, the rest of the sena- 
tors were busy , in assembling their partisans, 
and in forming a body capable of defending the 
palace of the republic. On the other band. 


^vin^ the €Oii^pirat<M?fl^ Mtoaished at thd ddatb of a 
Ws^ ' maQwhom tbey ad€>red aod trmted^.^nd plac*- 
^*''' ing lab confidence in Jerome, a giddy youth, 
felt their Courage die away, and their arms fall 
jfrom their hands. That profoatid and amazing 
secrecy with which the conspiracy had been 
concerted,. and which had contributed hitherto 
s6 much to its success^ proved now tlie chief 
^ cause of its misoariiage. The leader was gone^ 
the ^eater part of thorn who acted nnder bim, 
knew not ^his confidents, and were strangers ta 
tl)e obJE^ct at wl^ch he slimed. There was no 
person \ain»ng them . whose aaithority or abilities 
entitled bim to asennne Fiesco's place,, or to 
finish his {^n; after having lost the spirit wbich 
animated It, life and activity deserted the whole 
body. Mai^y of the conspirators withdrew to 
their houdei^y hoping t}iat athid^ the darkness 
of the night they had passed unobserved, and 
m^ght remain unknown. Others sought for safe- 
ly by a timely retreat ^ and before break of day, 
midst of them fled with precipitation from a 
oily,' which, but a few hours before was ready 
to acknowledge them as ihasters. 

Tranquiiii- Next morn^ing every thing was quiet in 
biishedin Genoa }^ not an enemy was to be seen; few 
^"^ marks of tbe violence of the former night ap- 
peared y the conspirators having conducted their 
enterprise i^ith more noise tlmn bloodshed, and | 

gained a]! their advantages by surprise, rather 
than by force ^ arm^. Towards evening, An* 
4i?ew.Dona returned to tlie city, being met by 



all the infaabitaDts, who received him with ac- ^^m^ 
clamatioRs of joy. Though the disgrace as well 
as danger of the preceding night were fresh in 
his mind, and the mangled body of bis kinsman 
still before his eyes, such was his moderation 
as well as magnanimity, that the decree issued 
by the senate against the conspirators, did not 
exceed that JBst measure of severity which was 
requisite for the support of governtnent, and 
was dictated neither by the violence of resents 
ment, nor the rancour of revenge * f . 

After takine the necessary precautions for t^® p«p*- 

*^ •^ X fQf aiarm- 

preventing the flame, which was now so happi- ed at this 
ly extinguished, from breatking out anew, the ^^^^^^^^ 
first care of the senate was to send an ambassador 
to the Emperor to give him a particular detail 
of what had happened, and to beg his assistance 
towards the reduction of Montobbio, a strong 
fort on the hereditary estate of the Fiesci, in 
which Jerome had shut himself up. Charles 
was no less alarmed than astonished at an event 
so strange and unexpected. He could not bQ- 

* Tbii9B. 9% Sigonii Vita Anirpm Tkitisj^, 1196. La Coi^ 
juratioD du Goinpte de Fie^que, par Cardln. de ReU;. Adriaiii 
Istoria, lit), vi. 369. Folietat; Conjuratio Jo. Lud. Fiesci^ ap. 
Grae?. Thes. ItaL i. 883, 

f It is remarkable, that Cardinal de Retz> at the age of 
eighteen, composed a history of this conspiracy, containing 
such a discovery of his admiration of Fiesco and his enter- 
prize as render it not surprising that a- minister, so jealous 
9nd discerning as Richlieu, should )be led, by the perusal of it, 
tu predict the turbulent and dangerous spirit of that young 
lEcclesi^stic. Mem. de Retz, torn. i. p. 13. 

390 THE REIGN, &C. 

*via^ Heve that Fiesco, how bold or adventurous so- 
\^*v*^ ^ver, durst have attempted such an enterprise, 
^^''' but on foreign suggestion, and from the hope 
of foreign aid. Being informed that the Duke 
of Parma was well acquainted with the plan of 
the conspirators, he immediately supposed that 
the Pope could not be ignorant of a measure, 
which his son h^d countenanced. Proceeding 
from this to a farther conjecture, which PauVs 
cautious maxims of policy in other instances 
rendered extremely probable,' he concluded, that 
the French King must have known and approv- 
ed of the design ;. and he began to apprehend 
that this spark might again kindle the flame of 
Suspends war which had raged so long in Italy. As he 
tioDsn^' had drained his Italian territories of troops on 
^^^*'°**^' account of the German war, l\e was altogether 
unprovided for resisting any hostile attack in 
that country ; and on the first appearance of 
danger, he must have detached thither the 
greatest part of his forces^ for its defence. In 
this situation of affairi^ it would have been alto* 
gether imprudent in the Emperor to have ad- 
vanced in person against the Elector, until he 
should learn with some degree of certainty whe- 
ther such a scene were not about to open in 
Italy, as might put it out of his power to keep , 
the field with an army sufiicient to oppose him. 









HE Emperor's dread of the hostile inten- book 
tions of the Pope and French King did not v^ ^^^ ^ ^ 
proceed from any imaginary or ill-grounded sus- ^^^'-^^^^ 
picion. Paul had already given the strongest ions of the 
proofs both-ofhisjealQusy and enmity. Charles powl^^^id 
could not hope that Francis, after a rivalship ■"****• 
of so long continuance, would behold the great 
advantages which he had gained over the con- ^ 
federate Protestants, without feeling his ancient 
emulation revive. He was not deceived in this 
conjecture. Francis had observed the rapid 
progress of his arms with deep concern, and 
though hitherto prevented, by circumstances 
which have been mentioned, from interposing 
in order to check them, he was now convinced 
that^ if he did not make some extraordinary and 


^^^ timely efFort, Charles must acquire such a de^ 

V-i^/W gree of power as would enable him to give law 

^^'^' to the rest of Europe. This apprehension, 

which did not take its rise from' the jealousy of 

rivalship alone, but was entertained by the 

wisest politicians of the age, suggested various 

expedients which might serve to retard the 

course of the Eniperor's victories, and to form 

by degrees such a combins^tion against him as 

« might put a stop tp his dangerous career. 

Negocifttes With this vi^w, Francis in^tr^cted \ih emis- 
Frotestaitsi sarics in Germany to employ all their address 
in order to revive the courage of the confede- 
rates, and to prevent them from submitting to 
£he Emperor. He made liberal offers of his as- 
sistance to the Elector and Landgrave, whopi^ 
he knew to be the most zealous w well as t&e 
ino«t powerfiil of the whole body ; he used 
every argofni&nt, wA proposed every advMn 
tage, which could either confirm their dread 
oi the Emperor's designs, or d^ennine tbeaoi 
not to imitate the inconsiderate credulity of 
their associates, in giving up their religion 
and liberties to his disposal While be took 
this step towards continuing the civil war 
which raged in Germany, he er^leavoored like* 
wise to stir up foreign enemies against the Bm- 
Fith soiy- pcror. Hc solicited Sol yman^ to seiae this fa- 
vourable opportunity of invading Hungary, 
which had been drained of all the troops neces* 
sary for its defence, in order to forin the army 
»gaint>t the confederates pt* Smaikakle. He ex- 


£M1£R0R C H ARLfiS V. SdS 

facHl^d the Pope to repair, by a vigorous and- ®^^ 
seasonable efibrt^ the error of which he had N^«ii>v^ 
been guilty in contributing to raise the Empe-^ ^^*'' 
ror to such a formidable height of poiper. Find* with the 
ing Paul) both from the consciousness of his y^^. 
own mistake, and his dread of its consequences, 
abundantly disposed to listen to what he suggest- 
ed, he availed himself of this favourable disposi*- 
tion which the Pontiff began to discover, as an 
argument to gain the Venetians. He endea** 
voured to convince them that nothing could 
save Italy, and even Europe, from oppression 
and servitude, but their joining with the Pope 
and him, in giving the first beginning to a ge- 
neral confederacy, in order to humble that am* 
bitious potentate, whom they had all equal rea- 
aon to dread. 

Having set on ibot these negociations in the with the 
southern courts, he tunfied his attention next to- iw^k 
wards those in the north of Europe. As the J^f^^ 
King of Denmark had parlioular reasons to be 
Affended with the Emperor, Francis imagined 
that the ob^ct of the league which he had pro- 
jected would be highly acceptable to him ; and 
lest considerations of caution or prudence should 
restrain him from joining in it, he attempted 
/to overcome these, by otfering him the young 
Queen of Scots in marriage to his son^. As 
the ministers who governed England in the 
name of Edward VI. l>ad openly declared them- 
jrelves converts to the opinions of the Reformers, 

^ Mem. de Ribier, i. 600. 606. 


^?jL ^ as SQon as it became safe upon Henry's death 
v^v^i^ to lay aside that disguise which his intolerant 
*^^* bigotry had forced them to assume, Francis flat- 
tered himself that their zeal would not allow 
them to remain inactive spectators of the over- 
throw and destruction of those who professed 
the same laith with themselves. He hopedy 
that notwithstanding the struggles of faction 
incident to a minority, and the prospect of an 
approaching rupture with the Scots, he might 
prevail on them likewise to take part in the 
oommon cause*. 

While Francis employed such a variety of 
expedients, andrexerted himself with such ex*- 
traordinary activity, to rouse the differient states 
of Europe against his rival, he did not neglect 
what depended on himself alone. He levied 
troops in all parts of his dominions ; he collect- 
ed military stores ; he contracted with the Swiss 
cantons for a considerable body of men ; he put 
his finances in admirable order; he remitted con* 
siderable sums to the Elector and Landgrav^ ; 
and took all the other steps necessary towards 
commencing hostilities, on the shortest warn- 
ing, and with the greatest vigourf . 

The cn^e. OPERATIONS SO Complicated, and which re-, 

jOanned. quircd the putting so many instruments in mo^ 

tion, did not escape the Emperor's observation, 

He was early informed of FrancisTs intrigues in 


* MexQ. de Ribier, 635. f Ibid. 595. 



the several courts of Europe, as well as of his 
domestic preparations ; and sensible how fatal 
an interruption a foreign war would prove to his 
designs in Germany, he trembled at the pros- 
pect of that event. The danger, however, ap- 
peared to him as unavoidable as it was great. 
He knew the insatiable and well-directed ambi- 
tion of Solyman, and that he always chose the 
season for beginning his military enterprises 
with prudence equal to the valour with which 
he conducted them. The pope, as he had good 
reason to believe, wanted not pretexts to justify 
ft rupture, nor inclination to begin hostilities. 
He had already made some discovery of his sen- 
timents, by expressing a* joy altogether unbe- 
coming the head of the church, upon receiving 
an account of the advantage which the Elec- 
tor of Saxony had gained over Albert of Bran- 
denburg ; and as he was now secure of finding, 
in the French King^ an ally of sufficient power 
to support him, he was at no pains to conceal 
the violence and extent of his enmity*. The 
Venetians, Charles was well assured, had long 
observed the growth of his power with jealousy, 
which, added to the solicitations and promises 
of France, might at last quicken their slow 
councils, and overcome their natural caution. 
The Danes and English, it was evident, had 
both peculiar reason to be disgusted, as well 
as strong motives to act against him. But 
abov6 all, he dreaded the active, emulation of 

f Mfm. de Ribicr, /om. i. 637. 


Francis himself, whom he considered as the sonl 
and mover of any confederacy that could be 
''^''* formed against him ; and, as that Monarch had 
afforded protection to Verina, who saited di- 
rectly to Marseilles upon the miscarriage of 
Fiesco's conspiracy, Charles expected every 
moment to see the comnkencement of those hos- 
tile operations in Italy, of which he conceived 
* the insurrection in Genoa to have been only 

the prelude. 

Kitertiins gjj/p whilo he rematdcd in this state of sus- 

hope fronv 

thedecitn- pense and solicitude, there was one circum- 
^ncis'^s^ stance which afforded him some prospect <>f es- 
**^^ caping the danger. The French King's health 
began tp decline. A disease^ which w»3 the 
effect of his inconsiderate pursuit of pleasure, 
preyed gradually on his constitution. The 
preparations for war, as well ad the negociar 
tions in the different courts, began to languish* 
together with the monarch who gave spirit to 
Maich. both. The Genoese during that interval, re- 
duced Montobbio, took Jerome Fiesco prison- 
er, and putting him to death, together with his 
chief adherents, extinguished all remains of the 
conspiracy. Several of the Imperial cities in 
Germany, despairing of timely assistance from 
France, submitted to the Emperor. Even the 
Landgrave seemed disposed to abandon the 
Elector, and to bring matters to a speedy ac- 
commodation, on such terms as he could ob- 
tain. In the mean time, Charles waited with 
impatience the issue of a distemper, which wUs 


to decide Whether he must reUnquUh all other 
schemes, in order to prepare for resisting acont'* ^ . 
bination of the greater part of Europe against ^^^* 
h]in> or whether he might proceed to invade 
Sasiohy, without interruption or fear of danger* 


Th^: good fortune^ 99 reoiarkably propittottn i>eathof 
to his family, that some historians have ci^Ued re'fl^tim 
it the Star of tie House of Austria, ^\d not de^ ^^', ^^- 
sert him on this occasion. Fraticis died at "y^Jship 

» with 

Rambottiilet, on the last day of March, in the charfos. 
fifty third year of his age, and the thirty-third 
of his reign. During tweftty-eigbt years of 
tliat time, an avoiyed rtvalsbip subsisted be* 
tween iiim and the Emperor, which involved 
O0t only thdr own dominions^ bj^t the greater 
part of Europe, in wars, which were prosecuted 
with more Tioleot animosity, and drawn out 
to a greater length, than had been known in 
any foarmet period. Many cirdunstaiices coop 
tributed to this. Their animosity was founded 
in opposition of interest, heightened by perso- 
nal emulatloDi and exasperated not only by 
mutual injuries, but by reciprocal insults. At 
the same time, whatever advantage one seaaoied 
to possetsrs towards gaining the ascendant, was 
wonderfully balanced by some favourable cir- 
cumstance peculiar to the other* The £m« 
peror's dominions were of greater extent, the 
French King's lay more compact; Francis go^ 
vemed his kingdom with absolute power ; that 
of Charles was limited, but he supplied tbo 
wan;t of authority by address: the troops of th^ 


* D?^ former, were more impetuous and enterprising^ 
v*p-v^ those of the latter better disciplined^ and more 
^^'^' patient of fatigue. The talents and abilities of 
the two Monarchs were as different as the ad* 
vantages which they possessed, and contributed 
no less to prolong the contest between them. 
Francis took his resolutions suddenly, prose- 
cuted them at first with warmth, and pushed 
them into executioa with a most adventurous 
courage; but being destitute of the perseve- 
rance necessary to surmount difficulties, he of- 
ten abandoned his designs, or relaxed the vi- 
gour of pursuit, from impatience, and some- 
times from levity. Charles deliberated long 
and determined with. coolness ; but having once 
fixed his plan, he adhered to it with inflexible 
obstinacy, and neither danger nor discourage- 
ment could turn him aside from the execution 
of it The success of their enterprises was 
suitable to the diversity of their characters^ 
and was uniformly influenced by it. Francis^ 
by his impetuous activity, often disconcerted 
the Emperor's best laid schemes ; Charles by a 
more calm . but steady prosecution of his de- 
signs, checked the rapidity of his rival's career, 
and baffled or repulsed his most vigorous ef* 
forts. The former, at the opening of a war or 
of a campaign, broke in .upon his enemy with 
the violence of a torrent, and carried all before 
him ; the latter, waiting until be saw the force 
of his rival begin to abate, recovered in the end 
no! only all that be had lost, but made new ac* 
quisitions. Few of the French Monarch's at- 



tempts towards conquest, whatever promising 
aspect they might wear at first, were conduct- 
ed to an happy issue ; many of the Emperor's 
enterprises, even after they appeiu'ed desperate 
and impracticable, terminated in the most pros- 
perous manner. Francis was dazzled with the 
splendour of an undertaking ; Charles was al • 
lured by the prospect of its turning to his ad- 


The degree, however, of their comparative 
merit and reputation has not been fixed either 
by a strict scrutiny into their abilities for go- 
vernment, or by an impartial consideration of 
the greatness and success of their undertakings; 
and Francis is one of those Monarchs who oc- 
cupies a higher rank in the temple of Fame^ 
than either his talents or performances entitle 
him to hold. This pre-eminence he owed to 
many different circumstances. The superiority 
which Charles acquired by the victory of Pavia^ 
and which from that period he preserved 
through the remainder of his reign, was so 
manifest^ that Francis's struggle against his ex- 
orbitant and growing dominion was viewed by 
most of the other powers, not only with the 
partiality which naturally arises for those who 
gallantly maintain an unequal contest, but with 
the favour due to one who was resisting a com^ 
mon enemy, and endeavouring to set bounds to 
a Monarch equally formidable to them all. 
The characters of Princes, too, especially 
among their contemporaries, depend not only 


400 . TltE REIGN or THS 

*^x^^ upon their talents for goverament^ but upon 

their qaalities as meii« Francis^ notwithstaiKl- 
ing thie many errors con^picnbm in his foreign 
pottcy and domestic admintfitration^ was nerer* 
tbeless hnmane, beneficent^ generous* He pos- 
sessed dignity without pride ; affability free faiooa 
meanness ; and courtesy exempt from deceit. 
Ail who had access to him^ and no man of 
merit was ever denied that privilege, respected 
and loved him. Captivated with his personal 
qualities, his subjects forgot his defects as a 
Monarch, and admiring him as the mostap- 
complished and amiable gentleman in hit AiSh 
minions, they hardly mnnnored at acts of mal- 
administration, which in a Prince of less engag- 
ing dispositions, would have been deemed ui^ 
pardonable. This admiration, bowever^ must 
havebeen temporary only, aild' would faavedidd 
away with the courtiers who bestowed it ; the 
illusion arising from hi» private rirtues must 
have ceased, and posterity would. bavo judged 
of his public conduct with its usual impartiali- 
ty ; but another circumstance prevented this, 
and his name hath been transmitted to posteri- 
ty with increasing reputation. Science and the 
arts had, at that time^ made little progress in 
France. They were just beginning to advance 
beyond the limits of Italy, where they had re^ 
vived, and which had hitherto been their only 
seat. Francis took them immediately under 1^ 
protection, and vied with Leo himself, in the 
zeal and munificence with which he encourage 
ed them. He invited learned men to bis court. 



he conversed with them familiariy, he employ* 
ed them in business, he raised them to oflKces 
of dignity, and honoured throat with his confi- 
dence. That order of men, not more prone to 
complain when denied the respect to which 
they conceive themselves entitled, than apt to 
be pleased when treated with the distincticm 
which they consider as their due, thought they 
could not exceed in gratitude to such a bene- 
factor, and strained their invention, and em* 
ployed all their ingenuity in panegyric. Sue* 
ceeding authors, warmed with their descrip- 
tions of Francis's bounty, adopted their enco- 
miums, and even added to them. The appella- 
tion of Fath&r of Letters bestowed upon Francis» 
hath rendered his memory sacred among histo- 
rians ; and they seem to have regarded it as a 
sort of impiety to uncover his infirmities, or to 
point out his defects. Thus Francis, notwitlK 
standing his inferior abilities, and want of suc- 
cess, hath more than equalled the fame of 
Charles. The good qualities which he posses- 
sed as a man, have entitled him to greater ad- 
miration and praise than have been bestowed 
upon the extensive genius and fortunate arts of 
a more capable, but less amiable rival. 

By his death a considerable change was made |^^ ^ 
in the state of Europe. Charles, grown old in death. 
the arts of government and command, had now 
to contend only with younger Monarchs, who 
could not be regarded as worthy to enter the 
lists with him^ who had stood so many encoun* 

VOL. III. C c 


Tilt BAws or tm 


'7<>H terft wirkh Heoir^ VIIL aaAK^Miw L ifid CMMi 

off with kooottr i» aU tlMtse Affev«tt $trogg)e0^ 
Bf thi» evmt he wsis eased ai att disfiMriiide^ 
aod wa» happy io fiaii fhat he laigftt begM 
mtHh safely those epetatiM» against Ihe EJectoe 
of Saaragr^ which he had bilhevto he^a (Miged 
to< suspend. He knew theabilitife^ af He»iy IL 
^bc( tiAd jnsC memited Hhe throne ef Fraace^ to 
he greatty iafetioif te those of hie iather^ aadt 
foresaAHf Iha* he would be s(r iMich otcupied for 
some time in displwing the hite Kmg's ttemi^ 
ters^. whom he hated, and in gratifjrtng the an^ 
bitioBS dedsaads ofi his ewift kv^ffites^ ^iafe h^ 
bad nofehhrg: to dreads eitbA fre» bia penanid 
elTarSs, 6v fvomt anj eeafedafaey whiieh thia 
ejqMrrieamd Plittee cenkb fcfia 


But » it was aaoertarn ham loirg 


against the t-ervsd of sesiirity oDright confchtHe, Chasles de« 
&^^y.^ termined imftamtly te iaKj^ore il ; and a» mott 
Apni 13. ^ h^ heard of FFaacWs dniisei he tegHn ht^r 
xasp^ frMli Egra oactftie borders ^ Bohetma. 
Bbl the de|rartuire o£ the papal UoofMi^ togtdiM 
\rith the retredfr of the nemings^ badso^aiedb 
dinRTiisbBed has* anarfr^ that sisleeiv thtasand 
men were sU be cMld aBscmUe. WMr tfaie in< 
considerable body be set oat on an expedition, 
the' er eiit of which ^H/ms te decide what degree 
of authoFity he sfaouid possesa fifoa» Ihal^ petiod 
i» GeraDangr ;> hut as tio^ little apmy GOiisiited> 
efaiefly of the vetennr Spnaish amd Italians 
batids^ he dint not^ in irustihg to them, commit 
mnofe to tte deciiiooi ef ohaniie} aadi av<* wt^ 

«o ittall a force he had rt^sdn to 6ttt*rtain the' * ^ * 
most sanguine hopes tff sticcess. The Etectof ^^-/^ 
had levied an afftiy gteatly superior iti ntim* ^^^^* 

h^ti but neither the entperienee and discipKne 

of his troops, nor the abilities of his oAicent, 
were to be compared With those of the Empe^ 
for. The Electbr, besides, had already beeti 
gttilty of aft eitor, which deprived hint of all 
the advantage which he Might have derived 
from his superiority in number, and was albne 
Sufficient to have occasioned his riiin. Instead 
of keeping his fotdes united, he di^tached ottitf 
Ifreat body towards the frontiers of Boheittia, 
in order to fkcilitate his Junction with the mal- 
contents of that kingdom, and cantoned a con- 
siderable part at what i^emained in diilerent , 
places of Saxony, where he eatpeeted the Em^ 
peror would make the first impression, vainly 
imagining that open towns, with small garri^ 
/ons, might be rendered tenable against att 

The Emperor entered the liouthem frontier progit»<tf 
ef Saxony, and attacked Altorf upon the Elster. ^•™' 
The impropriety of the measure which the 
Elector had taken was immediately seen, the 
troops posted in that town surrendering with- 
. out reslstanee; and those in all the other placed 
between that and the Elbe, either imitated theif 
eirample, or fled as the Imperialists approached. 
Charles, that they might not recover from th<i 
panic with which they seemed <o be jtruck^ 
advanced without losing a moment. The Eleor 

id4 THE &EIGK «F T&£ 

^ ^x^ ^ *^^* ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ head-quarters at Mel^ 
v<^%^w seil^ continued in his wonted state of fluctui^ 

^^''' tion and uncertainty. He even became more 
undetermined, in proportion as the danger 
drew near, , and called for prompt and decisive 
resolutions. Sometimes he acted, as if he had 
resolved to defend the banks of the Elbe, and 
to hazard a battle with .the enemy, as soon as 
the detachments which he had called in were 
able to join him. At other times^ he abandon- 
ed this as rash and perilous, seeming to adopt 
the more prudent counsels of those who advised 
him to endeavour at protracting the war, and 
for that end to retire under the fortifications of 
Wittemberg, where the Imperialists could not 
attack him without maiiifest disadvantage, . and 
where he might wait, in safety, for the suc- 
cours which he expected from Mecklenburgh, 
Pomerania, and the Protestant cities on the 
Baltic. Without fixing upon either of these 
plans, he broke down the bridge at Meissen, 
and marched along the east bank of the Elbe 
to Muhlberg. There he deliberated anew, and, 
after much hesitation, adopted one of those 
middle schemes, which are always acceptable 
to feeble minds incapable of deciding. He left 
a detachment at Muhlberg to oppose the Impe- 
rialists, if they should attempt to pass at that 
place, and advancing a few miles i^ith his main 
body, encamped there in expectation of the 
event, according to which he proposed to re- 
gulate his stibsequent motions. 


Charles, meanwhile^ pushing forward inces- ^^ ^ 
santly^ arrived the evening of the twenty^third 


of April on the banks of the Elbe, opposite to pj^ 
Muhlberg. The river, at that place, was three ?*«• 
hundred paces in breadth, about four feet in 
depth, its current rapidi and the bank possessed 
by the Saxons was higher than that which he 
occupied* Undismayed, however, by all these 
obstacles, he called together his general officers, 
and, without asking their opinions, communi- 
cated to them his intention of attempting next 
morning to force his passage over the river, and 
to attack the enemy wherever he could come 
up with them. They all expressed their as- 
tonishment at such a bold resolution ; and even 
the Duke of Alva, though naturally daring and 
impetuous, and Maurice of Saxony,' notwith- 
standing his impatience to crush his rival the 
Elector, remonstrated earnestly against it. But 
the Emperor, confiding in his own judgment or 
good fortune, paid no regard to their arguments> 
and gave the orders necessary for executing his 

Early in the morning a body of Spanish 
and Italian foot marched towards the river, and 
began an incessant fire upon (he enemy. The 
long heavy muskets used in that age, did exe- 
cution on the opposite bank, and many of the 
soldiers, hurried on by a martial ardour in or- . 
der to get nearer the enemy, rushed into the 
stream, and, advancing breast-high, fired with 
a more certain aim^ and with greater effect. 


40( THE REWIf or THB 

' n? * Upclfr cowr of their fire, a bridge of IWnU was 

li0gun to b^ laid for the inft^ntiy ; and n peiM^iil 
***'• having uodartakefi to cmdiiot the Wi^Alry 
through the river bjr ^ ford with wh\«li he wm 
well acquMQted, th^j also were put in imttion. 
The SaxpQfi posted in Muhlbei^ endeavoured to 
obstruct tbe»9 operationti^ by a brifk fire frcrni a 
battery which they had erected i but as a thick 
fog coiF^d all the low gn^oundt upon the river^ 
they oould not take aim with any eertainey, 
and the Imperialifits anffrred very little; at the 
same time, the SaxoM being much galled by 
the Spaniards and Italians, they set on. fire 
some boats which had been collected near the 
Tillage, and prepared to retire. The Impe* 
rialists perceiving this, ten Spanish soldiers im 
stantly stript themselves, and holding their 
swords with thdr teeth, swam across the riirw^ 
put to flight such o£ the Saxons as ventured ta 
oppose them, saved from the flanges ay many 
boats as were sufficient to complete their own 
bridge, and by this spirited and successfiil aor 
lion, encouraged their companions no less than^i 
they intimidated the enemy. 

By this time, the cavalry, each trooper hav^ 
ing a foot soldier behind him, began to enter tha 
river, the light horse marching in the fimt, foU 
lowed by the men at arms, whom the Emperor 
Jed in person, mounted on a Spanish horse, 
dressed in a sumptuous habit, and carrying a 
javelin in his hand. Such a numerous body, 
struggling through a great river, in whiefa, ac« 

Mrwounted ^?«rjr ^stockj no mim k^Umying 
(my ^ym9*mni4 fe^ft wben the £fn{ifiior 4ipr^ 
w the 4ftiig«r iiQ )€^ ib»p ik^ im w^flst ^QWilec. 
The Moment th«t tJliejr «m^^ tjb^ ^po$it^ 
fi4^, Cimrl^ w\ii¥wt wmtmg the Arrivj^l ^ 
4ftMe rert ^ t^ wfa^r^i MkMpe4 l#wiiri» th? 

mth hmh wk09 Auibed wii^b their f opd IprtiM^t 
Mid ii«ipwog«fi ispfwy wh# h«d peg^JiOf^ tp 

mpmm n^nmlm^i^ fl#d nMkrei^ed i«i »s t^ » G«r-- 

wUy ctwimt^ omcb )biiM« the Eieoior mmnitwd tor?^ ''"^^ 
JM^iwe m kifii CMip ; and from im ivff^uf^ion 
wiiicli (i(>^tn; to be so um9zmg$ tk^t the 1m^ 
js^rmad hjf tortus itnpttAe it to tte treecihtr- 
09$ firts ^ iM8 gtfftemb who deceived faiw i>}r 
ftlm iirtdJli^enee, lienrovid iiot ^liieK^^ tbat the 
jStrnperar Jisid i^dftsed the 1119^, or i^ould ^ 0O 
emr «t luittdt. iBeiiig ^mim:^^^, itt J^j of tas 
(titti i«iistftke» bjr ti»e ^o^^rring te^timimjr of 

* Avila, 115, a. 

t Camcrar. ap. Freher. iw. *93. Stray. Corp. Hist. Germ. 
|«4T. 1049. 

408 THE heign of the 

* • • • 

eye-witnesses, he gave orders for retreating to- 
wards Wittemberg. But a Gertiban army, en- 
^^'^' cumbered, as usual, with baggage and artillery, 
could not be put suddenly in motion. They 
had just begun to march when the light troops 
of the enemy came in view, and the Elector 

Baiaeof saw an engagmeht to be unavoidable. As he 
was no less bold in action than irresolute ia 
council^ he made the disposition for battle with 
the greatest presence of mind, and in the most 
proper manner; taking advantage of ia great 
forest to cover his wings, so as to prevent his 
being surrounded by the enemy's cavalry, which 
were far more numerous than his own. The 
Emperor, likewise, ranged his men in order as 
they came up, and riding along the ranks, ex* 
hprted them with few but dIScacious words to 
do their duty. It was with a very different 
spirit that the two armies advanced to ^ the 
charge. As the day, which had hitherto been 

s^ dark and cloudy, happened to clear up at that 

moment, this accidental circumstance made an 
impression on the different parties correspond- 
ing to the tone of their minds; the Saxons, sur- 
prised and disheartened^ felt pain at being ex- 
posed fully to the view of the enemy ; the Im- 
perialists, being now secure that the Protestant 
forces conid not escape from them, rejoiced ^at 
the return of sun-shine, as a certain presagt 
of victory. The shock of battle would not have 
been long doubtful, if the personal courage 
which the Elector displayed, together with the 
activity which he exerted from the moment 


that the approach of the enemy rendered an *^^ 
engagement certain, and cut off all possibility \^-y^m/ 
of hesitation, had not revived in some degree ^^^' 
the Tspirit of his troops. ^ They repulsed the 
Hungarian light-horse who began the attack^ 

" and received with firmness the men at arms 
vho next advanced to the charge; but as these 
-were the flower of the Imperial army, were 
commanded by experienced officers, and fought 
vnder the Emperor's eye, the Saxons soon be* 
gan to give way, and the light troops rallying 
at the same time and falling on their* flanks, the 
flight became general. A small body of chos^ Tbesieciot 
iM^ldiers, among whom the JElector had fought ^^f^toi 
in person, still continued to defend themselves, prianer^ 
and endeavoured to save their master by retir- 
ing into the forest ; but being surrounded on 

- every side, the Elector wounded in the fac^ 
exhausted with fatigue, and perceiving all re- 
sistance to be vain, surrendered himself a pri- 
soner. He was conducted immediately towards 
the Emperor, whom he found just returned 
from the pursuit, st^ding in the field of battle 
in the full exultation of success, and receiving 
the congratulations of his officers, upon this 
4^mplete victory obtained by his valour and 
conduct Even in such an. unfortunate and 
humbling situation, the Elector's behaviour wiis 
equally magnanimous and decent. Sensible of 
his condition, he approached his conqueror with- 
out any of the .suUenness or pride which would 
have been improper in a captive ; and conscious 
of his own dignity, he descended to no mean 



>^^ fliibmmiiw*ui)bec^inifig (|)e higli ftotiw 1^^ 

Ibrtiuie of war^ (mi4 te>) b«( made m^ your pii- 
0Ofier, most grMious di»pemr» mid I i|op# to k^ 


Hir Imsli 

him^ ^ AmI am I thw. ^t lMt» 4e)(«Qwk4g«d 

b7 tte Em- to be tiie Cip{Mafx>f ^ Cbar lep of (rbAOt ww Itba 
mly title you ki^t^y »llowe4 m?. Ypu id^ he 
ifeated as yon dee^?<i^" At thwe W9f^ ba torn* 
ed from him ^rapdy with;ao hwgkty »r. T# 
ibis cruel repuket tbe King 4^ the&omws «ddoil 
reproaches io bis own namej mmg ^mff€W$\<im 
0^1 more ofigeiieroiis and mmlUngf Tbe £100- 
tor made no reply $ but^ with en uAaiteredi 
cottnteneoce. wbiohdifteovered neither entooisb- 
me3)t. nor dejection^ accompanied Abe Spaii^ 
doldiers appointed to gnard bim^^ 


after his 

This decisive victory eoet the Imperieiaate 
only fifty men. Twelve hundred of the SftKoos 
were killed, chiefly in the pnrenit, and a greater 
number taken prisoners. About four hnndied 
kept in e. body, and escaped to Wjttemberg* 
tegetfaiar with the £iecioral Primal if ho bal 
jikewise. boen wounded in the aetion* Akat 
resting two days in the field of bflTttle^ partly .to 
refresh his army, and partly to r^eceive the de^ 
pnties of the ndjaoeot towns, which were aaipar 
lient to secure his protectioa by snbmitting to 
bis will, the Emperor began to mQvt tnwBida 

, ^ Sleld. Hist. 426. Thuan. 136. Hortensius de BeJIo Gee, 
nan. ap. Scard. vol. li. 496. Descript Pugnae Mulberg. \hM^ 
y. 509* 9. Heater. R«f. Aastr. lib. ;iii. o. 19« p. 298. 


Witteii4ierg, tbftt he might tenninate the war 
Bt once, by the pedttc^i(m irf tbat city. The 
iififortuiiate Elector wan curried mlotig in a § ert '^''* 
pf triumph^ wd cxpe^ed 4»very where* as a capr 
five, to hii» owo subjects; aspectade ei^tremely 
afflicting to thmi» who botii honmired and loved 
him i though the insult was so for from sidi>duiiig 
his firm spiritt that it did not even raflle the 
wonted tranquiUity and composure oi his mind« 

. As Wittemberg, the residence, in that age, im<^ 
of the electoral branch of the Saxon family, was bei^. 
ifne of the strongest eities in Germany, and 
couid not be taken, if properly defended, with- 
out great difficulty, the Eoiperor marched thi* 
ther with the utmost dispatch, hoping that 
while the consternation occasioned by his vie* 
tory was stiU recent, the inhabitants might imir 
tate the eammj^e of ihdr countrymen, and sub- 
mit to his power, as soon as he appeared befiore 
their walls. 'But SyUlla of Qeires, ihe Elector's 
wife, a woman no less distinguished by her abi* 
Uties than her virtue, instead of abandoning 
hemelf to tears and lamentations npon her hus- 
band's misfortune, endearoiired, by ber exam* 
pie as well as exhortations, to animate the etti* 
aens. She inspired them with such resolution, 
that; when summoned to surrender, they re- 
turned a Tigorotts answer, warning the Empe- 
ror to behave towards their sovereign with the 
respect di^ to his rank, as they were determtn* 
ed to treat Albert of Brandenburg, who was 
still a prisoner, precisely in the same manner 


that be treated the Elector, The spirit of the^ 
inhabitants, no less than the strength of the 
city, seemed ifow to render a siege in form ne- 
cessary. After such a signal victory it would 
have been disgraceful not to have undertaken it, 
though at the same time the Emperor was des- 
titute of every thing requisite for carrying it on. 
But Maurice removed all <lifficulties, by engag- 
ing to furnish provisions, artillery, ammunition, 
pioneers, and whatever else should be needed* 
Trusting to this, Charles gave orders to open 
the trenches before the town. It quickly ap- 
peared, that Maurice's eagerness to ' reduce the 
capital of those dominions, which he expected 
as his reward for taking arms against his kins- 
man, and deserting the Protestant cause, had 
led him to promise what exceeded his {iower to 
perform. A battering train was, indeed^ carri- 
ed safely down the Elbe from Dresden to Wit- 
temberg; but as Maurice had not sufficient 
force to preserve a secure communication be^ 
twcen his own territories and the camp of the 
besiegers, Coimt Mansfeldt, who commanded a 
body of electoral troops, intercepted and des- 
troyed a conx'oy of provisions and military stores, 
and dispersed a band of pioneers destined for 
the service of the Imperialists. This put a stop 
tO: the progress of the siege, afid convinced the 
Emperor, that as he could not rely on Man- 
rice's promises, recourse ought to be had to 
some more expeditious as well as more certain 
method of getting possession of the town. 


The unfortunate Elector was in his hands» *?^k 
Charles v^as ungenerous and hard-hearted ^^^^^m^ 
enough to take advantage of this, in order to xJ^Ej^qie- 
make an experiment whether he might not «»»9iuige. 

* ' " o nerous 

bring about his design, by working upon the treatment 
tenderness of a wife for her husband, or upon tor. ^ 
the piety of children towards their parent. 
With this view, he summoned Sybilla a second 
time to open the gates, letting her know that if 
she again refused to comply, the Elector should 
answer with his head for her obstinacy. To 
convince her that this was not an empty threat, 
he brought his prisoner to an immediate trial. 
The proceedings against him were as irregular 
as the stratagem was barbarous. Instead of 
consulting the states of the Empire, or remit- 
ting the cause to any court, which, according 
to the German constitution, might have legally 
taken cognizance of the Elector's crime, he sub* 
jected the greatest Prince in the Enipire to the 
Jurisdiction of ^ a court-martial, composed of 
Spanish and Italian officers, and in which the 
'unrelenting Duke of Alva, a fit instrument for 
any act of violence, presided This strange tri- Uxf lo. 
bunal founded its charge upon the ban of the 
Empire, which had been issued against the pri- 
soner by the sole authority of tl^e Emperor, and 
ivas destitute of every legal formality which 
could render it vsdid. But the couit-martial, 
presuming the Elector to be. thereby manifest- 
ly convicted of treason and rebel! iop, condemn- 
ed him to suffer death by being beheaded* 
This decree was intimated to the Elector while 

414 tllE ttSlOM Of ttffc 

* rit^* hi? was aintisiiig hiitiiKdf in playittg At Cfte« 

^s^-*^ with Ettlest of HrumWick^ Ws feHo^-ptisotfer: 

****• He p&tii»ed fof it nidmertt^ Ihotrgtir ttith(Mii dis^ 

edvering' toy sy tnptom ^itti^i- 6f dtttprt^e or tw- 

for ; ttfid after taking tiotiw 6f th6 titegtikrity 

kd well &s ittjtt«tldfe of the fifttper6/« proceed- * 

TbeEiec- h^gji t *' It h ca*//' doiitlttued he, ** to compre- 

«ti^^' hefid bi!^ stcfhetne. I iha^t die, because Witteitr* 

berg will ti(W surrender J and I shall lay down 

my life with pleajjurcf, if, by that sacriflcejf I c^n 

pneserye the dignity ctf toy house, ^tid tratiiSfttit ' 

M my ponterity the inheritance which belong* 

to them. Would to God, th^t this Mittenetf 

may not affect my Wife and children more thAn 

H intimidates me ! and that they, for the i^aker 

of adding a ftw days to A life already t6(t long, 
m^y not renounce honotirs and territdries which 
they Were born to po^sess^ f" He then tum^ 
to his antagonist, whom he challenged to con- 
tinue the game. He played with bis uisual aU 
tention and ingenuity, and having beat Emesf, 
expressed all the satisfaction which is common- 
ly felt on gfiitting j«uch victortes. After this, 
he withdret^ to hid own apartment, that he 
might employ the rest of his time in sudi reli- 
gious ciereises ai§ were proper in bis gituationt. 

rfhiffe'^ It w4rf nat with the same indifference, or 

9Mi^ " composure, that the account ct the Elector** 

danger was received in Wittembcrg. Sybilla< 

Who hdd supported with such undantited forti^ 

* titrtit. I. t4i?. f SihiVtt CofptW, 1050. 


%iide Ikbt httMbsulid'9 iiiiafdfttiiies^ while she not^ *?i^* 

gjmed ib»t tbey c^Hm peaek w> fortbeF thaa to 

fliiAinish htii {towav or lerriiof tds^ fdit aU her rtf^ 

tfiriiition fiiil m soon Us hii^ life WHs tbreateneiL 

Solicitoiiu» ta Mve tHat, she d»E^istd every otbtc 

tfoMderMioii; s^ was wiUmg t6 make atqr 

BlM^t'ilieef in ordef to appease an meensed eow 

ffmetm. At Ihe sMae tiia<i; Ibe Dake of Clev^ 

tlae Ekefior of Brandenboig^ am} Maiiricte» ta 

aone of irkom Charter bed coBtmuiBieated the 

tone iiiotive$» of his violeftt ptdoeedings against} 

tlte Elettor» interseddd warmly with kim lo 

ilgmre toi& Ufe; Tb^ firai was prompted to do so 

imttely bjp eontpaaston for his sister^ astfd regiii4 

ftnr hia broCbair^in-taw. The two otbera dreaded 

tiie oniyerdal re^roaeb that thcrjr woiihi iodNr^ 

i^ after taaving boasted so often of tbe ample 

fHcarity wbiob Ike Bndperor had premised them 

with respedi to their rrtigioit^ the first efiect oi 

tbeir unton ti^h hiB» skoold be the pilbtte elat^ 

oofiom of a Pruae^^ wild was justlj b^d in reV6'^ 

fence sls< the toosi jieatoas protectee of the Pro- 

testaoit oaaacL MoaFiee, in partiealeffy fotetaw 

that. be must become the object of detestation 

to the Saxdiks^ and coold never hepe tiO' gotena 

them with tran<|(mHitjr^ if he w^r6 conshlereA 

b;;^ them ae actesaafy te» the death of his near* 

est kn»niali» ki order tb£^ he migfa* ebtam poii* 

idssicta of bis diftniadons* 

His troAf 

WaiLU tbey^ froro sack rifbvB nolireil^ soH* J^^^ 
^ed Chartesv ^tith the aaoM eafn^t impottum- ^^hieh ha 
1^^ not to ejttolite the sentemtei Sy ntta^ am the Ekcv 



bis children, conjared the Elector, by letters M 
well as messengers, to scruple at no concessiaii 
that would extricate him out of the present^ 
danger^ and deliver them from their fears and 
anguish on his account. The Emperor, per- 
ceiving that the expedient which he had tried 
began to produce the effect that he intended, 
fell by degrees from his former rigour, and al- 
lowed himself to soften into promises of clemen- 
cy and forgiveness, if the Elector would shew 
himself worthy of his favour, by submitting to 
^ reasonable terms. The Elector, on whom the 
consideration of what he might suffer himself 
had made no impression, was melted by the 
tears of a wife whom he'^loved, and could not 
ifoy 19. resist the intreaties of his family. In compli- 
ance with their repeated solicitations, be agreed 
to articles of accommodation, which he would 
otherwise have rejected with disdain. The 
chief of them were, that he should resign the 
Electoral dignity, as well for himself as for his 
posterity, into the Emperor's hands, to be dis-^ 
posed of entirely at his pleasure; that he should 
instantly put the Imperial troops in possession 
of the cities of Wittemberg and Gotha ; that he 
should set Albert of Brandenburg at liberty 
without ransom ; that he should submit to the 
decress of the Imperial chamber, and acquiesce 
in whatever reformation the l^peror should 
^ make in the constitution of that court ; that he 
should renounce all leagues against the Empe- 
ror or King of the Romans, and enter into no 
alliance for the future, in which they were not^ 


toifiprehended. In return for these important 
concemons, the fimperor not only promised to 
spare his life, but to settle on him and his po»- ^^''* 
terity the city of Godia and its territories, to* 
gether with an annual pension of fifty thou; 
sand florins, payable out of the revenues of the 
Biectorate ; and likewise to grant him a sum in 
ready money to be applied towards the dis^- 
char^te of his debts. Even these articles of *»!«- 
grace were clogged with the mortifying condi<- prisoner. 
tion of his remaining the Emperor^ prisoner 
during the rest of his life*. To the whole, 
Charids had subjoined, that he should silbmit 
to^ the decrees of th^ Pope and council with re* 
gard to the controverted points in religion ; but 
the Elector, though he had been persuaded to 
sacrifice all the objects which men commonly 
hold to be the dearest and most valuable, was 
inflexible with r^^rd to this point ; and neither 
threats nor intreaties could prevail to make him 
renounce what he deemed to be truth, or per- 
suade him to act in opposition to the dictates 
of his <:ionscience. 

As soon as the Saxon garrison marched out Maiiric9 
of Wittemberg, the Emperor fulfilled his en- ^i'<!lli^^ 
gagements to Maurice 5 and in reward for his Sraf'^ii- 
merit in having deserted the Protestant cause, ^^^ 
ernd having contributed with such success to^ 
Wards the dissolution of the Smalkaldic league, 

^ * Sleid. 427. Tbuan. 1. 14«. Da Mont, Corps Diplom. 
iv. p. 1 1. 3S2» 

VOL. III. D d 


be. gave him possession of that city, together 
with all the other towns in the Electorate. It 
^^''' was not without reluctance, however, . that he 
made such a sacrifiGe.;* the extraoordinary suc- 
cess of bis arms bad beigun to operate, in its 
usual manner, . upon Im ambitious mind^ sug- 
gesting new and vast projects for: the aggrai> 
disement of his £auni]y, towards the accomplish- 
ment of which the retaining of Saxony would 
have been of ;the utmost conlsequence. But as 
this scheme was not then ; rtpe for executipoj 
he durst.. not yet venture to disclose it; nor 
would it have been either' safe or prudent to of** 
fend Maurice^ at that jutictore, by such a ma- 
nifest violation, of all the promises, Which had 
seduced him to abandon bis natural allies. 

Negocia- . The Lindgrave, ; Maurice's father-in*law, 
tbTuLi- ^*s Still in arms ; and though now left ^k)ne 
s^^«- to maintain .the Protestant cause, was neither 
a feeble nor contemptible enemy. His do* 
minions were of considerable extent; his sub- 
jects animated with zeal for the Reformation j 
and if he could have held the Imperialists at 
bay for a short time, he had much to hope from 
a party, whose strength was still unbroken^ 
whose union as well as vigour might return, 
and which had reason to depend, with certain- 
ty on being effectually supported by the King 
of France. The Landgrave thought not of 
any thing so bold or adventurous; but being 
seized with the same consternation which had 
taken possession of his associates, he was in* 


EBitEROti CtiA&LES V. 419 

tent only on the means of procuring favourable * *J^ f^ 
terms from the Emperor, whom he viewed as a* \»^sr^m/ 
conqueror, to whose will there was a necessity ^^'^' . 
of submitting. Maurice encouraged this tamis 
and pacific spirit, by magnifying^ on the one 
hand, the Emperor's power; by boastings on 
the other, of his own interest with .his victo- 
rious ally;, and by representing the advanta* 
geous conditions which he could not fail of ob- 
taining by his intercession for * a friend, whom 
he was so solicitous tp save. Sometimes the 
Landgrave was induced to place ' such un^ 
bounded confidence in his promiseSj( that he 
was impatient to bring matters to a final ac-* 
commodation. On other occasions, the Em* 
peror's exorbitant ambition, restrained neither 
by the scruples of decency, not the maxims 
of justice, together with the recent and shock- 
ing proof which he had given of this in his 
treatment of the Elector of Saxony, came so 
full into his thoughts, and made such a lively 
impression on them, that he broke off abruptly 
the negociations which he had begun ; seeming 
to be convinced that it was more prudent to 
depend for safety on his own arms, than to cour 
fide in Charles's generosity. But this bold re- 
solution, which despair had suggested to an 
impatient spirit, fretted by disappointments, 
was not of long continuance. Upon a more 
deliberate survey of the enemy's power, as well 
as his* own weakness, his doubts and fears re- 
turned upon him, and together with them the 
spirit of negociatihg, and the desire of accom- 



Maurice^ a«d the Elector of Brancknburg, 
acte^ as mediates between him and the £m« 
Thi ai^i- pcTor ; and after all that the former had vaunted 
tiom pre- ^f jjj^ influencc, the conditions prescribed to the 
the Empe. Landgravc were extreme}/ rigwous. The ar- 
ticles with regard to his renouncing the league 
of Smalkalde^ acknowledging the EmperorV 
authority, and submitting to the decrees of the 
Imperial chamber, were the same which had 
been in^posed on the Elector of Saxony* Be- 
sides these, he was required to surrender his^ 
persoii and territories to the Emperor; to im- 
plore for pardon on bis knees ; to pay an hun* 
dred and fifty thousand crowns towards defraying 
the expences of the war; to demolish the for- 
tifications of all the towns in his dominions^ 
except one ; to oblige the garrison which be 
placed in it to take an oath of fidelity to the 
Emperor ; to allow a free passage through his 
territories to the Imperial troops as often as it 
shall be demanded; to deliver up all his artil- 
lery and ammunition to the Emperor ; to set at 
liberty, without ransom, Henry of Brunswick, 
together with the other prisoners whom he had 
taken during the war; and neither to take 
arms himself, nor to permit any of ^is subjects 
to serve, against the Emperor or his allies for- 
the future *. 


To which Th e Landgrave ratified these articles, though 

he submits. . , , ^ , , . . v 

With the utmost reluctance, as they contained 
* Sbid. 4i0. Tboati. 1. if. 14^ 



no j^ipttlation with regard to the manner in ^\^^ 
which he was to be treated, and left him en^ v^^^^^^ 
tirely at the Emperor's mercy. Necessity, how- ^^*^' 
«ver, compelled him to give his assent to^them. 
Charles, who had assumed the haughty and 
imperious tone of a conqueror, ever since the * 
reduction of Saxony, insisted on unconditional 
submission, and would permit nothing to be 
added to the terms which he had prescribed, 
that could in any degree limit the fulness of. 
iii$ power, or restrain him from behaving as he 
5aw meet towards a Prince whom he regarded 
as absolutely at his disposal But though he 
would not vouchsafe to negociate with the 
Laiidgrave, on such a footing of equality, as to 
suffer any articl%to be inserted among those 
which he had dictated to him^ that could be con- 
sidered as a formal stipulation for the security 
and freedom of his person; he, or his ministers 
in his name, gave the Elector of Brandenburg 
and Maurice such full satisfaction with regard 
to this point, that they assured the Landgrave, 
that Charles would behave to him in the same 
way as he had done to the Duke of Wurtem- 
berg, and would allow him, whenever he ha4 
made his submission, to return to his own ter- 
ritories. Upon finding the Landgrave to be 
«tin possessed with his former suspicions of the 
Emperor's intentions, and unwilling to trust 
verbal or ambiguous declarations, in a matter 
of such essential concern as his own liberty, 
they sent him a bond signed by them both, 
containing the most solemn obligations, that 


^ ^x ^ if my violence. whatsoe?er was offered to his 
-'9^-Yi^ person,. during his interview with the ElDperor,. 
*^*^' they would instantly surrender themselves to 
his sons, and remain in their hands to be treat- 
ed by them in the same manner as the £mpe^ 
ror should treat him*, 


mh^tot This, together with the indispensable obliga- 
^iiicouit tion of performing what was contained in the 
articles of which he had accepted, removed his 
doubts apd scruples, or made it necessary to get 
over them. He repaired, for that purpose, to 
the Imperial camp at Hall in Saxony, where a 
cil'cuinstance occurred which revived his suspi- 
cions and increc^ed his fears, Just as he was 
about to enter the chamber o^presence, in order 
to make his public submission to the Emperor, a 
copy. of the articles which he had approved of 
was put into his hands, in order that he might 
ratify them s^new. Upon perusing them; he 
perceived that the Imperial ministers had added 
two new articles; one importing, that if any 
dispute should arise concerning th^ meaning of 
the former conditions, the Emperor should have 
t^e right of putting what interpretation upctn 
them he thought most reasonable; the other, 
. that the Liandgrave was bound to submit im- 
' plicitly to the decisions of the council of Trent 
This unworthy artifice, calculated to surprise 
him into fm approbation of articlesj» to which be 
had not the n^ost distant idea of assenting, by 

* Du-MoDt Corps Diplom. iv. p. 11. 336. 


proposing thetn: to him : at a time wfafen his mind ^ ^^ ^ 
was engros&ed and disquieted with the thoughts wv^w 
of that thumiltating ceremony which he had to 
perform, filled the Landgrave with indignation, 
and made him break out into all those violent 
expressions of rage to which his temper was 
prone. With sotae difficJulty, the Elector of 
, Brandenburg^ and Maurice prevailed at length 
on the £mpefor's minidtecs. to drop the former 
article as unjust, and to • explain the latter in 
such a manner, that he could agrae to it, with- 
out openly renouncing • the Protestant religion. 

This ^obstacle being sunnoiinted, the Land* The man- 
grave was impatient to finish a ceremony which, Xkh the 
bow mortifying soever, had been declared ne- f^"^ 
cessary towards his obtaining pardon. The ^«^ 
Emperor was seated on a magnificent throney 
with all the ensigns of his dignity, surrounded 
by a numerous train of the Princes of the £m^ 
pire, among whom was Henry of firunswick> 
lately the Landgrave's prisoner, and now, by a 
sudden reverse of fortune, a spectator of his hur' 
miliation. The Landgrave was introduced with 
great solemnity, and advancing towards the 
throne, fell upon his knees. His chancellor, 
who walked behind him, immediately read, by^ 
his mast^'s command, a paper which! contain^ 
ed an humble confession of the crime whereof 
he had been guilty; an acknowledgment* that 
.he had merited on that account the most severe 
punishment ; an absolute resignation of himself 
and his dominions to be diisposed of at' the Em«^ 



^ ^ ^ peror*s pleasure ; a submissiTe {netitioii for par- 
^^^ir^^^ doDy his hopes of vrhich were founded entirely 
^^^' pn the Emperor's clemaney ; and it conclndecl 
with promises of behaving^ for the fntiire, like 
a subject whose principles of loyalty and obe^* 
dience would be oonfirmed, and would even de- 
rive new force frcon the sentimenta of gratitude 
which must her^fter fiil and animate his heart; 
While the ch^cellar was reading this abject 
declaration, tl^e eyes pf all the spectators were 

_ I 

fixed on the un^tunate Landgrave; few could 
behold a Prince, so powerful / as well as high^ 
spirited, suing for mercy in the posture of a sup- 
plicant^ without being tpuohed with commisera- 
tk>n, and perceiving serbus reflections arise in 
their minds upon the instability and emptiness 
of human grandeur. The Emperor viewed the 
whole transaction with anf haughty unfeeling 
tDOtttposure^ and preserving a pmfoudid silence 
himself, made ^ sign to one of his secretaries to 
read his answer; t^e> tenor of which was. That 
though he might have justly inflicted on him 
^be grievpus^ punishment which his crimes de* 
fteryed, yet, . prompted by his owii genero^ty, 
moved by the solicitations of several Princes in 
behalf of the Landgrave^ aod influenced, by his 
penitenM^l acknowledgments, he would not 
deal with him aocoiding to the rigour of jus^ 
tiee, and ^oiild subject him/to no penalty that 
was not specified in the articles which be had 
already subscribed. Thei momeiit the secretary 
had finished, Charles tiimdd away abruptly, 
without deigning to give ike unhappy suppliant 


^y ^gti of €pmpassloii or recoooitement. He '^ ^ 
did 11^ evaa desire him to rise frcno his kx^e$ ; \^^y^^ 
which the LaiMigraYO having veotured to do uii- ^^'* 
biddeo, advanced towards the Emperor with an 
mtention to kis^ his hand, flattering himself, 
that his guilt being now folly expiated, be 
might presume to take that liberty^ But the 
Elector of Brandenburg^ pero^viug that this 
famiUarity would be ofl^esnaire to the Emperor, 
interposed, and demred the Landgrave to go 
along with him: and Maurice to the Duke of 
Alva's apartments in the castle* 

He waa received and entertained by that 
nobleman with the respect waA courtesy due to 
sudb a gu^t, I J But after supper, while he was 
a^gaged in playi the Duke took the Elector 
and Maurice aside, and communicated to them 
the Emperor's orders, that the Landgrave must He » €i«. 
TMnaln a prisoner in. that place uinder the cu9^ ^^, 
tody of a Spanish guard; As. they had not 
)iitherto entertain^ the most, distant suspicion 
of the Emperor's sincerity <>r i^ectitude of in- 
tention, their surprise was excessive, and their 
indignation not inf<^ior to it, on discovering 
how greatly tliey. had been^ deceived tbenff^ 
fselves, and how infamously abused, in having 
been made the mstruments of deceiving and 
ruining, their friend. They had Recourse to 
complaints, to arguments, and to intreaties, in 
Older to eave themselves from that disgrace, 
^nd to extricate him out of. the wretched ditus^ 
tion into which he had been betrayed by too 


'^ct^ great confidence in them. Bat the Duke of 
v^v^^>^ Alva remained inflexible, and pleaded the ne- 
• cessity of executing the Emperor's commands. 
By this time it grew late, and the Landgrave, 
who knew nothing of what had passed, nor 
dreaded the snare in which he was entang- 
led, prepared for departing, when the fatal or- 
ders were intimated to him. He was strock 
^nmb at first with astonishiiient, but after be^ 
ing silent a few moments, he broke out into all 
the violent expressions which horror, at injus- 
tice accompanied with fiaud, naturally sug- 
gests. He complained, he expostulated, he ex- 
claimed ; sometimes inveighing against the Em- 
peror's artifices as unworthy of a great and 
generous Prince ; sometimes censuring the cre- 
dulity of his friends in trusting to Charles's in- 
sidious promises ; sometitnes charging them 
with meanness in stooping to lend their assis- 
tance towards the execution of such a perfidi- 
ous and dishonourable scheme ; and in the end 
tie required them to remember their engage^ 
ments to his children, and instantly to fulfil 
them. They, after giving way for a little to 
the torrent of his fiassion, solemnly asserted 
fheir own innocence' and upright intention in 
the whole transaction, and encouraged him to 
hope, that as soon as they saw the Emperor, 
they would obtain redress of an injury, which 
aifected their own honour, no less than it did 
his* liberty: At the same time, in order to 
soothe his rage and hnpatience, Maurice re* 


mained with him daring the night, in the ^ ^ ^ 
apartment where he was confined ^. ^«i»vw 


Next mc^ming, the Elector and Maurice ap- ^^^^ 
plied jointly to the Emperor, representing the burg and 
infamy to which they would be exposed through- soUclt^ 
<mt Germany, if the Landgrave were detained JJJ^ ^ 
in custody; that they would not have advised, 
nor would he himself have consented to an in- 
terview, if they had suspected that the loss of 
his liberty was to be the consequence of his 
submission ; that they were bound to procure 
his release, having plighted their faith to that 
effect, and engaged their own persons as sure- 
ties for his. Charles listened to their earnest 
remonstrances with the utmost coolness. As 
he now stood . no longer in need of their servi- 
ces, they had the mortification to find that 
their former obsequiousness was forgotten, and 
little regard paid to their intercession. He* 
was ignorant he told them,' of their particular 
or private transactions with the Landgrave", 
nor was his conduct, to be regulated by any en- 
gagements into which they had thought fit to 
enter; though he knew well what he himself 
had promised, which was n9t that the Land- 
grave should be exempt from all restrai^it, but 
that he should not be kept a prisoner during 
life f . Having ^id this, with a peremptory 

^ * Sleid. 433. Thuan. 1. i?, 147. Struv. Corp. Hist. Germ. 
ii. 1052. 

t According to several historians of great name, the Em- 
peror, in his treaty with the Landgrave, stipulated that he 


'^x^^ and decisive tonef, he put an end to the €oa£9- 

rence ; and they seeing no probafailityy at that 
time, of making any impression upon the Em- 
peror, who seemed to have taken this resolu* 
lion deiibemtely, and to be obstinately bent on 
adhering to it, were oUtged to acquaint the 
.unfortunate prisoner with. the ill sucGess of 
their endeavours inr his behall- The disap- 
pointment threw him into , a^ new ; and more 
violent transport of rage, so that to prevent his 
proceeding to some desperate extremity, the 
Elector and Maurice promised that they would 
not quit the Emperor, until^ by the frequency 
and fervour of their intwcessionsy they had exr 
tmted his consent to set him free. They ac* 
cordingly renewed their soliciiatUms a few days 
afterwards, but found .Charles more haoghty 

would not detain him in any prison. But in executing tbe 
deed^ which was written in the German tongue, the Imperial 
ministers fraudulently substituted the word etoiger instead o^ 
einiger, wad tiitis the Ireaiy, in f^oce of apromiae that he 
dhould not be doUived io any prison, contained only an en- 
gagement that he should not be detained \n perpetual imprison- 
ment. But authors, eminent for historical knowledge and cri- 
tical accuracy, have called in qnestioti the truth of this con^ 
mon story. The silence of SItidaD with regatd to* ity as weK 
jts its not being mesitioBC d in thi^ yatf^us menaoriak which hit 
has published concerning the Landgrave's ioiprisonmenti 
greatly favour this opinion. But as several books which con- 
' tain the information necessary towards discussing this poiiit 

with accuracy, are written in the German langnage, whidi -l 
do not understand, I cannot pretend to inquire into this matter 
with the same precision' wherewith I have end^voured tor 
settle some otliier controverted facts which have occurred in 
the course of this history. See Strur. Corp. 1052, Mosheim^ 
Bccles. Hist, vol. ii. p. 16!, 162. Engl, edition, ; 



and intract^e thatn before, aiid were warned ^^^ 
tiiAt ii they touched again upmL a subject ^ 
disagreeable^ and with regard to whi<^ he had 
determined ! to bear nothiiig farther, hewnutd 
ixtstatitljr give orders to convey the piisan^. in- 
to Spain. Afraid of hurting the Landgrave by 
an officious or ill-timed zeal to serve him> they 
not only dei^Uted, but left the €oitrt» and as 
they did tiot idiUse to xwet the,<first sallies of 
tbe Landgrave's^ ri^e upon his learning the 
cause of thei;r departure, they informed him of 
it by a letter, whetein tliey eachorted him to 
fulfil all that be had promised to the Emperor 
as the most certaia means of proourinjg; a 
speedy release* 

Whatever violent emotions their abandon- Hisimpa- 
ing his cause II). this manner occasioned, the de^ re. 
Landgrave's impatience to recover liberty made *****^* 
him follow their advice. He paid the sum 
which had been imposed upon him, "ordered his 
fortresses to be nued, and renounced all alliaii^ 
ces which could give offence. This prompt 
compliance with the will of the conqueror pro- 
duced no effect. He was still guarded with the 
same vigilant severity ; and being carried about, 
together with the degraded Elector of Saxoi^y, 
wherever the Emperor went, their disgrace and 
his triumph were each day renewed. The for- 
titude^ as well as equanimity, with which the 
Elector bore these repeated insults, were not 
more remarkable than the Landgrave's fretful- 
x^ess and impatience^ His active impetuous 


tctions ID 


^^^ teind could ill, brook restraint; and reflection 
upon the shameful artifices, by which he had 
been decoyed into that sitnation, as well as in-' 
dignation at the ^ injustice with which he was 
still detained in ity drove him often to the wild<^ 
est excesses' of passion. 

• • * 

The rigour The pcoplc of the different cities; to whoul 
^^jj^J" Charles thus wantonly exposed those illustrious 
prisoners as a publtc^ spectacle, were sensibly 
touched with such an insult offered to the Grer* 
manic body, and murmured loudly at this inde^ 
cent treatment of two of its greatest Princes. 
Th^ had soon other causes of complaint, and 
such as affected them more nearly. Charles 
proceeded to add oppression to insult, and ar- 
rogating to himself all the rights of a conque- 
ror, exercised them with the utmost rigour* 
He ordered his troops to seize the artillery and 
military stores belonging to such as had been 
niembers of the Smalkaldic league, and having 
collected upwards of five hundred pieces of can- 
non, a great number in that age, he sent part 
of them into the Low-Countries, part into Italy, 
and part into Spain, in order to spread by this 
means the fame of his success, and that they 
might serve as monuments of his having sub- 
dued a nation hitherto deemed invincible. He 
then levied, by his sole authority^ large sums 
of money, as well upon those who had served 
'him with fidelity during the war, as upon such 
as had been in arms against him; upon the for- 
mer, as their contingent toward^ a war^ which^ 


li^Aving been . undertaken^ as he pretended, for ^^' 
the . common benefit, ought to be carried on ^^^v<i^ 
a.t . the Qommon charge ; upon the latter, as a ^^'^' 
fine by way of punishment for their rebellion. 
Sy these exactions, he amassed above ooe milr 
lion six hundred thousiand crowns,, a sum which 
.appeared prodigious in the sixteenth centuiy. 
^But so general was the consternation which 
had seized the Germans upon hi^ rapid success 
and such their drejad of his victorious troops, 
that all implicitly obeyed hiscommands; though, 
at the same time^ these extraordinary stretches 
of power greatly alarmed a people jealpus of 
their privileges, and habituated, during severad 
ages, to consider the Imperial authority as 
neither extensive nor formidable. This dis- 
content, and resentment, how industriously sor 
ever they conce^-Ied them, became universal; 
and the more these passions were restrained 
and kept down for the present, the more likely 
were 4hey to burst out soon with* additional 

While Cha;rles gave law to the Germans like Fen&uurfni 


a conquered people, Ferdinand treated his suh- oMBtsoit 
jects in Bohemia with still greater rigour. That JJ^Jf****^ 

kingdom possessed privileges and immunities ^^^ 
^s extensive as those of any nation in which the 
feudal institutions were established. The pre- 
rogative of their kings was extremely limited, 
and the crown itself elective. Ferdinand, when 
raised to the throne, had confirmed their liber- 
ties with every solemnity prescribu^d by their 



excessive solieitude for the seeurity of a oonitl* 
tution of govefftment to which they were ex- 
tremely attached* He sfoon l»egan> however, t^ 
be weary of a jtirtsdictioii so itoioh circuitikrib^ 
ed/and to despise a sceptre which he could not 
transmit to his posterity; and tuotwithstanding 
all his former engagements, he attempted lo 
overturn the oonstitntion from its foundations ; 
ihat, instead of an elective kingdom, he might 
render it hereditary. But the Bohemians were 
*oo high-spirited tswiely to relinquish privileges 
which they had long enjoyed. At the same 
thne many of them having embraced the doc^ 
trines of the Reformers, the seeds of which John 
Huss and Jerome of Prague had planted in 
their country about the beginning of the pre- 
ceding centuty, the desire of acquiring religious 
liberty mingled itself with their zeal for their 
civiJ rights; and these two kindred passions 
heightening, as usual, each other's force, preci- 
pitated them immediately into violent m^asurei^. 
They had not only refused to serve their sove- 
reign against the confederates of Smalkklde, 
but having entered into a close alliance with the 
Elector of Saxony, they had bound themselves, 
%y a solemn association, to defend their ancient 
constitution; and ^ to persist^ until they should 
obtain such additional privileges as they thought 
necessary towards perfecting the present model 
of their governmenjt, or rendering it more per- 
manent They chose Caspar Phlug, a noble- 
man of distinction, to be their general; and 
raised an army of thirty thousand meh to en- 


^orce their petitions. But either from the weak- * ^^ * 
ness of their leader^ or from the dissensions in ^^^^v^w^ 
a great unwieldy body> which, having united ^^'^* 
hastily, was not thoroughly compacted, or from 
some other unknown cause, the subsequent 
operations of the Bohemians bore^no proportion 
to the 2eal and ardour with which they toobtheir 
first resolutions^ They suffered themselves to 
be amused so long with negociations and over^ 
tures of different kinds, that before they could 
enter Saxony, the battle of M uhlberg was fought^ 
the Elector deprived of his dignity and territo- 
ries, the Landgrave confined to close custody^ 
and the league of Smalkalde entirely dissipated. 
The same dread of the Emperor*s power which 
had seized the rest of the Germans^ reached 
them. As soon as their sovereign approached 
with a body of Imperial troops, they instantly 
dispersed, thinking of nothing but how to atone 
for their past guilt, and to acquire some hope 
of forgiveness by a prompt submission. But 
Ferdinand, who entered his dominions full of 
that implacable resentment which inflames Mo- 
narchs whose authority has been despised^ was 
not to be molified by the late r,epentance and 
involuntary return of rebellious subject? to their 
duty. He even heard unmoved, the entreaties 
and tears of the citizens of Prague^ who appear- 
ed before him in the postnre of suppliants^ and 
implored for mercy. The sentence which he 
pmnouneed against them was rigorous to ex- 
tremity i he abolished many of their privileges, 
he abridged others, and neW-mbdelled the con- 

VOL. III. £e 


434 THE REIGN OP TfiE . 

B«oK stitution according' to his pleasure. Me con- 
\i«»S'-«4^ demned to death many of those who had been 
^^*''* most active in forming the late association 
agai^ist hiniy and punished stiil a greater nnm^ 
' ber with confiscation of their goods, or perpe- 
tual banishment. He obliged all his subjects, 
bf every condition, to give up their s^rms^ to be 
deposited in forts where he planted garrisons ; 
and after disarming his people, he loaded them 
with new and exorbitant taxes. Thus by an ill- 
conducted and unsuccessful effort to extend 
their privileges, the Bohemians not only enlarg- 
ed the sphere of the royal prerogative^ When 
they intended to have circumscribed it, but 
they almost annihilated those liberties which 
they aimed at establishing on a broader and 
more secure foundation*. 

A^^^^ The Emperor, having now humbled, and, as 
he imagined, subdued the independent and stub- 
born spirit of the Germans by the terror of 
arms and the rigour of punishment, held a diet 
at Augsburg, in order to compose finally the 
controversies with regard to religion, which had 
so k)ng disturbed the Empire. He durst not, 
however, trust the determination of a mattCTSO 
interesting to the free suffrage of the Germans, 
broken as thei^r minds now were to subjection. 
Me entered \he city at th0 he;ad of his Spanish 
troops, and assigned then: ^quarters there. The 

rest of his soldiers he cantoned in the adjacent 

' ' ■ • ■ ■ . ■-'.'. 

. * Sleid. 40^. 419. 434. Thuwi. 1. ir, 129. 150. Strut. 
Corp. ii. 



villages ; so that the members of the tJiet, while * ^^ * 
they carried on their deliberations, were sur- v^*^»^ 
rounded by the same army which had overcome *^^' 
their countrymen: Immediately after his pub* 
lie entry, Charles gave a proof of the violence 
with which he intended to proceed. He took 
possession by force of the cathedral, together 
with one of the principal churches; and his 
)>riests having, by various ceremonies, purified 
them from the pollution with which they sup* 
posed the unhallowed ministrations of the Pro-* 
testants to have defiled them, they re-establish* 
ed with great pomp the rites of the Romish 

Th£ concourse of members to this diet was The Empe- 
extraordinary ; the importance of the affairs con* Jhem^*^ 
cerning which it was to deliberate, added to the ^e'^J^ 
fear of givinj; offence to the Emperor by an cwtocu. 
absence which lay open to misconstruction^ 
brought together almost all the Princes, nobles^ 
and representatives of cities who had a right to 
sit in that assembly. The Emperor, in the 
speech with whidi he opened the meeting, cal- 
led their attefntion immediately to that pointy 
which seemed chiefl/to merit it. Having men- 
tioned the f^al effects of the religious dissen* 
sions which had arisen in Germany, and taken 
notice of his own onwearied endeavours to pro* 
cure a General Council, which alone could pro- 
vide a remedy adequate to those evils, he exhort- 

* Slejd. 4354 437. 



^ DC * ^ fheni f o recognise its authority^ a^d to ac^ 
V>* y ^^»/ quiesce in the decisions of an assembly to which 
^^*^' they had originally appealed, as having the sole 
right of judgment in the case. 

variwure- BUT the couQCil, to which Charles wished 
the couflcii. them to refer all their controversies, had, by this 
time, undergone a violent change. The fear 
and jealousy, with which the Emperor's first 
successes against the confederates of Smalkalde 
had rfispired the Pope, continued to increase. 
Not satisfied with attempting to retard the pro^ 
gress of the Imperial arms, by the sudden recal 
of his troops, Paul began to consider the £nv« 
peror as an enemy, the weight of whose power 
he must soon fee), and against whom he could 
not be too hasty in taking precautions. He 
foresaw that the immediate effect of the Em*r 
"^ peror's acquiring absolute power in Germany, 
would be to render him entirely master of all 
the decisions of the council, if it should continue 
to meet in Trent. It was dangerous to allow a 
' Monarch, so ambitious, to get the comtvand of 
this formidable engine, which he might employ 
at pleasure to limit or overturn the papal au-^ 
thority. As the only method of preventing' this, 
he determined to remove the council to some 
city more immediately under his own jurisdic* 
tion, and at a greater distance from the terror 
of the Emperor's arms, or the resu^h of bis in-, 
fluence^» An incident fortunately occurred, 
which gave this measure the appearance of be- 
ing necessary. One or two of the fathers of the 


council, together with some of their domestics ^^^.^ 
happening to die suddenly, the physicians, de- v-^v-**' 
ceived by the symptoms; or suborned by the ^^'^' 
Pope's legates, pronounced the distemper to be 
infectious and pestilential* Some of the prelates, 
struck with a panic, retired ; others were imr 
patient to be gone ; and after a short consulta- 
tion, the council was translated to Bologna, a Hudi a. 
city subject to the Pope. All the bishops in 
the Imperial interest warmly opposed this reso- 
hition, as taken without necessity, and founded 
en false or frivolous pretexts. AH the Spanish tv»Miated 
prelates, and most of the Neapolitan, by the t»jM(^wh 
Emperor's express command, remained at Trent ;. 
the rest, to the number of thirty-four, accom* 
panying the legates to Bologna. . Thus a schism 
eommenced in that very assembly, which had 
been called to heal the divisions* of Christen* 
46m ; the fathers of Bologna inveighed against 
those who staid at Trent, as contumacious aiid 
regardless of the Pope's authority; while tlie 
other accused them of being so far intintiidated 
by the fears of imaginary danger, as to remove 
to a place where their consultations could prove 
of no service towards re*establishing peace and 
order in Germany*. 

The Emperor, at the same time, employed symptoms 
all his interest to procure the return of the conn- betweep\he 
cil to Trent. But Paul, who highly applauded g^^ 
his own sagacity in having taken a step which 

* F; Paul, 24S, &a 



^^^ put it out of Charles's power to acquire the di- 
rection of that assembly^ paid no regard to a 
requei^t, the object of , which was so extremely 
obvious. The summer was consumed in fruit- 
less negociations with respect t(> this point, 
the importunity of the one and obstinacy of 
the other daily increasing. At last an event 
happened which widened* the .breach trceparar 
bly, and rendered the Pope utterly averse from 
listening to any proposal that came from the 
Enlperor. Charles^ as has been already ob- 
served, had so violently exasperated Peter 
Ijewis Famese, the Pope'b son, by refusing to 
grant him the investiture, of Parma and Placen- 
tia, that be had watched ever since that time 
with all the:. vigilance of resentment for an op- 
portunity -of revenging that itijury. He had 
endeavoured to precipitate the Pope itlto opeu 
h6stilitiej& against the Emperor, and had earnest^ 
ly solicited the King of France to invade Italy. 
His hatred and resentment extended to ail those 
whom lie knew that the Emperor favoured; he 
did every ill office in his power to Gonzaga, 
governor of Milan, and had encouraged Fiesco 
in his attempt upon the life of Andrew Doria, 
because both Gonzaga and.Doria, possessed a 
great degree of the Emperor's esteem and con- 
fidence. His malevolence and secret intrigues 
were not unknown to the Emperor, who could 
not be more desirous ,to: take vengeance on 
him, than Gonzaga and Doria were to be em- 
ployed as his instruments in inflicting it. Far- 
nese, by the profligacy of his life, and by enor- 


laities Of every kmd, equal to those committee} 
by the worst Tyrauts who have disgrs^ced 
liuman nature, had rendered himself so odious» ^^^* 
that it was thought any violence whs^tever 
might h:e lawfully attempted against him^ 
Gonzaga and Doria soon found, among his ow9 
subjects, persons whQ were eager, alid.even 
deemed it meritorious, to lend their bands ii» 
«uch 4 iserVice. As Farn'ese, animated vn^th the 
jealousy which usually possesses petty fy^e^ 
reigns, had employed all the cruelty and.frauck 
whereby they endeavour to supply their defect 
of power, in order to humble and extirpate the 
nobility subject to his govemmtot,: &ve noble- 
men of the greatest distinction in ;PJaQentia 
combined to avenge the injuries Which they 
theihselves had suffer^ed, as well as those; which 
he had offered to their ojder. They , formed 
their plati in conjunction with Gonzaga; but it 
remains uncertain whether be originaUy sug- 
gested the scheme to them, or only approved 
of what they proposed, and co-operated in carr 
rying it on. They concerted all the pteivtous 
steps with such foresight, conducted their in^ 
trigues with such secrecy, and displayed such 
courage in the execution of their design, that 
it may be ranked among the mo^t audacious 
deeds of that nature mentioned in history: 
One body of the conspirators surprised^ at mid- sept iL 
day, the gates of the citadel of Placentia where 
Farnese resided^ overpowered his guards, and Theassassi- 
murdered him. Another party of them made ?hep"^> 
themselves masters of the town, and called up* '»"• 



• ^«^ * on their fellow-citizens to take arms> m order 
to recover their liberty. The multitude ran 
towards the citadel, from w^iich three great 
guns, a signal concerted with Gonzaga, had 
been fir^d; and before they could guess the 
cause or the authoi*s of the tumult, they saw 
the lifeless body of the tyrant hanging by 
the heels from one of the windows of the cita- 
del. But so universally detestable had he be- 
come, that not one expressed any sentiment of 
concern at such a sad reverse of fortune, or dis- 
covered the least indignation at this ignomi- 
niouii treatment of a sovereign Prince. The 
exultation at the success of the conspiracy was 
general, and all applauded the actors in it^ 
us the deliverers. of their country. The body 
was tumbled into the ditch that surrounded the 
citadel, and exposed to the insiilts of the rab« 
/ ble ; the rest of the citizens returned to their 
usual occupations, as if nothing extraordinary 
liad happened, 

STtS"** Before -next morning a body of troops ar- 
takepcMies- riviug from the frontiers of the MilanesCj where 
^lacentia. they had been posted in expectation of the 
event, took possession of the city in the Empe- 
ror's name, and reinstated the inhabitants in 
the possession of thcfir ancient privileges. Par^ 
roa, which the Imperialists attempted likewise 
to surprise, was saved by the vigilance and fide- 
lity of the officers whom Farnese had intrusted 
with the command of the garrison. The death 
of a son whom» notwithstsmding his infamous 



Ttxces, Paul loved with an excess of parental 
tenderness, overwhelmed him with the deepest 
affliction ; and th^ loss of a city of such con- 
quence as Placentia, greatly embittered his 
sorrow. * He accused Gonzaga, in open con- 
sistory, of having committed a cruel murder, 
in order to prepare the way for an unjust usur* 
pation, and immediately demanded' of the Em* 
peror satisfaction for both ; for the former, by 
the punishment of Gonzaga ; for the latter, by 
the restitution of Placentia to his grandson 
Octavia, its rightful owner. But Charles, who, 
rather than quit a prize of such value, was wil- 
ling, not only to expose himself to the imputa- 
tion of being accessary* to the crime which had 
given an opportunity of seizing it, but to bear 
the infamy of defrauding, his own son-in-law of 
the inheritance which belonged to him, eluded 
M his solicitations, and determined to keep pos* 
session of the city, together with its territories^. 

This resolution, flowing from an ambition so ThePdpc 

, ^ • 1 1 • • courts the 

rapacious, as to be restrained by no considera- alliance of 
tion either of decency or justice, transported Kng^'rad^* 
the Pope so far beyond his usual moderation and |^® Y^^\ 
prudence, that he was eager to take arms against 
the Emperor, in order to be avenged on the 
murderers of his son, and to recover the inheri- 
tance wrested from his family. Conscious, 
however, of his own inability to contend with 
juch an enemy, he warmly solicited the French 

* F. Paul. 257, Pallavic 41, 42. Thuan. i?. 156. Mem. 
ifi Eibier, 59. 67« Natalis Comitis Histor. lib. iii. p. 64. 


^ Dc^^ Kmg and the republic of Veiiice to join in ^n 
v^v^^w offensive league against Cb^ii^s. ^m Henry 
^^* was intent at th^ time on- other objects. Hi« 
ancient alli^ the Scots, h^'Ving been defeated 
by the English* in one of the greatest battles 
ever fought between these two rival nations, he 
was about to send a numerous body of veteran 
troops into that country, as well to preserve it 
from being conquered* as to gain the acquisi- 
tion of anew kingdom to the Er^ncb monarchy^ 
by marrying his son the I>auphin to the young 
Qiieen of Scotland. An undertaking accom> 
panied with such manifest advantages^ the $uc:- 
cess of which £lppeared to be so ; certain* wa$ 
not to be relinquished for the re<no)b$ prospect 
of benefit from an alliance depending upon tb? 
precarious life of a Pope of fourscore, who had 
nothing at heart but the gratification of his own 
private resentment. Instead* therefore* of rusbt- 
ing headlong into the. alliance proposed, Henry 
amused the Pope with such general professions 
and promises, as might keep hitn from any 
thoughts of endeavouring to accommodate his 
differences with the Emperor, but at the same 
time he avoided any such engagement as might 
occasion an immediate rupture with Charles^ 
or precipitate him into a war for which he was 
not prepared, The Venetians, though muc^ 
alarmed at seeing Placentia in the hands of the 
Imperialists, imitated the wary conduct of the 
French King, as it nearly resembled the spirijt 
which usually regulated their own conduct*. 

* Mem. de Ribier, ii. 63. 71. 78. $5. 95, Paruta, Istof . 
di Venez. 199. 203. Thuau. iv. 160. 


BtJT, though the Pope found that it was not book 
in his power tb kiadle immediately the flames v^w-^mT 
of war, he did not forget the injuries which he ^^e^Jt of 
was obheed for the present to endure ; resent- Augsburg 

. '. petitions roc 

ment settled deeper in his mind, and became theretum 
more rancorous in proportion, as he felt the ^t-^. 
difficulty of gratifying it It was while these 
sentiments of enmity were in full force> and the 
desire of vengeance at its height, that the dieb 
of Augsburg, by the Emperor's command, petk 
tioned the Pope^ in the name of the whole Geni 
manic body, to ffnjoin the prelates who had 
retired to Bologna to return again to Trent,* • 
and to renew their deliberations in that place^ 
Charles had been at great pains in bringing the 
members to join in this request Having ob^ 
served a cotisiderable variety of sentimenls 
among the Protestants with respect to the sub4 
mission which he. had required to the decreed 
of the council, some of them being aitogetbep 
intractable, while others were ready to acknow-^ 
ledge its right of jurisdiction upon certain con^ 
ditions, he employed all his address in order to 
gain or to divide them. He threatened and 
overawed the Elector Palatine, a weak Princ^ 
and afraid that the Emperor might inflict on , 
him the punishment to which he had made him-* 
self liable by the assistance that he had given 
to the confederates of Smalkalde. The hope 
of procuring liberty for the Landgrave, toge- 
ther with the formal confirmation of his own 
electoral dignity, overcame Maurice's scruples^ 
pr prevented him from opposing what he knew 



would be agreeable to the Emperor. .The 
Elector of Brandenburg, less influenced by re- 
ligious zeal than any prince of that age, was 
easily induced to imitate their example, in as- 
seating to all that the Emperor required. The 
deputies of the cities remained still to be brought, 
over. They were more tenacious of their prin- 
ciples, and though every thing that could ope- 
rate either on their hopes or fears was tried, the 
utmost that they would promise was, to ac- 
knowledge the jurisdiction of the council, if ef- 
fectual provision were made fpr securing to the 
« divines of all parties free access to that assem- 
bly, with entire liberty of debate s and if all 
points in controversy were decided according 
to^^scriptUI1B and the usage of the primitive 
: church. But when the memorial containing 
this declaration was presented- to the Emperor,, 
he ventured to put in practice a very extraori- 
dinary artifice. Withdut reading the paper, 
. or taking any notice of the conditions on which 
they had insisted, he seemed to take it for grant- 
Oct 9. ed that they had complied with his demand, 
and gave thanks to the deputies for their full 
and unreserved submission to the decrees of the 
council. The deputies, though astonished at 
what they had heard, did not attempt to set 
him right, both parties being better pleased that 
the matter should remain under this state of 
ambiguity, than to push for an explanation, 
which must have occasioned a dispute, and 
would have led, perhaps, to a rupture*. 

* F. Paul, 259. Seid. 440. ' Thuan. torn. i. 155. 




Having obtained this seeming submission 
from the members of the diet to the authority: 
of the councilj^Charles employed that as an ar- The p^ 
gumentto enforce their petition for its return ^^^^^ 
to Trent. But the Pope, from the satisfaction 
which he felt in mortifying the Emperor, as well 
as from his own aversion to what was demand- 

• ed» resolved, without hesitation^ that his petition 
should not be granted, though, in order to avoid 
the imputation of being influenced wholly by re- 
sentment, he had the address to throw it upon 
the fathers at Bologna, to put a direct negative 
upon the request With this view he referred 
to their consideration the petition of the diet, 
and they, ready to confirm by their assent what- l>«eui. to.' 
ever the legates were pleased to dictate, declar- 
ed, that the council could not, consistently with 
its dignity, return to Trent, unless the prelates 
who, by remaining there, had discovered a schis- 
matic spirit, would first repair to Bologna, and 
join their brethren; and that, even after their 
junction, the council could not renew its con- 
sultations with any prospect of benefit to the 
church, if the .Germans did not prove their in- 
tention of obeying its future decrees to be sincere, 
by yielding immediate obedience to those which 

, it had already passed*. 

This answer was communicated to the Empe- ^« ^p«- 

I- ^i_ Tfc 1 1 . 1 ror protests 

ror by the rope^ who at the same time exhort- against tke 
ed him to comply with demands ^^hich appear- mpSp^ 

* F. Paul, 250. Pallav. ii, 49. 



ed to be SO reasonable. But Charles was beUer 
acquainted with the duplicity of the Pope's cha- 
racter than to be deceived by such a gross arti^ 
iice ; he knew that the prelates of Bologna durst 
utter no sentiment but what Paul inspired; and 
therefore, overlooking them as mere t(M>ls in the 
hands of another^ he considered their reply as 
a ftiU discovery of the Pope's interitions. As • 
he could no longer hope to acquire such an as* 
cendant in the council as to render it subsef*- 
vtent to his own plan, he saw it to be necessary 
that Paul ishould not have it in his power to 
turn against him the authority of so venerable 

janlw^'ie. ^^ assembly. In order to prevent this, he sent 
two Spanish lawyers to Bologna^ who, in the 
presence of the legates, protested. That the 
translation of the council to that place had been 
unnecessary, and founded on false or frivolous 
pretexts ^ that while it continued to meet tbere^ 
it ought to be deemed an unlawful and schis- 
matical conventicle ; that all its decisions ought 
of course to be held as null and invalid ; and 
that since the Pope, together with the corrupt 
ecclesiastics who depended on him, had abaa* 
doned the care of thje church, the Emperor, aa 
its protector, would employ all the power which 
God had committed to him, in order to preserve 
it from those calamities with which it was threa- 
tened. A few days after, tlie Imperial ambas- 

Jaimary83. sador at Romc demanded an audience of the 
Pope, and in presence of all the Cardinals, as 
well as foreign ministers, protested against the 


proceedings of thie prelates at Balogna, in terms * ^ * 
equally harsh and'disrepedtfuP. ^^p' v W 

It was not long before Charles proceeded to thc Empe- 
carry these threats, which greatly alarmed both' ITy'^t^l^ 
the Pope and council of Bologna^ into execa- ^of &nh 
tion. H6 let the diet know^ the ill success of i«fi«i««>y- 
his endeavours to procure a favourable answer 
to their petition^ and that the Pope, equally 
regardless of their entreaties, and of his servi*- 
ces to the church, had refused to gratify them 
by allowing the council to meet again at 
Trent ; that^ though all hope of holding this ats^ 
sembly in a place, where they might look for 
freedom of debate and judgment, was not to 
be given up, the prospect of it was, at present, 
distant and uncertain ; that, in the mean time, 
Germany was torn in pieces by religious dis- 
sensions, the purity of the faith corrupted, and 
the minds of the people disquieted with a mul- 
tiplicity of new opinions and controversies, 
formeriy unknown among Christians; that, 
moved by the duty which he owed to them as 
their sovereign^ and to the church as its pro- 
tector, he had employed some divines, of known 
abilities and learning, to prepare a system of 
doctrine, to whifch all should conform, until a 
council, such as they wished for, could be con- 
vocated. This system was compiled by Pflug, 
Helding, and Agricola, of whom the two former 

< ' * • 

* K Panl 204. Palfev. 51. Steid 446. GoldartiConstR.^ 
Imjptrta]. i. 561. 




were dignitaries in the Romish church, but re< 
markaKle for their pacific and healing spirit^ 
the last was a Protestant divine, suspected, not 
without reason, of having been gained, by 
bribes and promises, to betray or mislead his 
party on this occasion. The. articles^ presented 
to the diet of Ratisbon in the year one thou* 
sand five hundred and forty-one, in order to re- 
concile the contending parties, served as a mo- 
del for the present work. But as the Emperor'^ 
situation was much changed since .that time^ 
and he found it no longer necessary to manage 
the Protestants with the same delicacy as at that 
juncture, the concessions in their favour were^ 
not now so numerous, nor did they extend to 
points of so much consequence. The treatise 
contained a complete system of theology, con- 
formable in almost every article to the tenets 
of the Romish church, though expressed, for 
the most part, in the softest words, or in scrip- 
tural phrases, or in terms of studied ambiguity. 
Every doctrine, however, peculiar to Popery^ 
was retained, and the observation of all the 
rites which the Protestants condemned as in* 
YCAtions of men introduced into the worship of 
God, was enjoined. With riegard. to two points 
only, some relaxation in the rigour of opinion 
as well as some latitude in practice were ad- 
mitted. Such ecclesiastics as had married, and 
would not put away their wives, were allowed, 
nevertheless, to perform all the functions of 
their ^^red. office ; and those, provinces. which 
had been accustomed to partake of the cupr ^s 

SMPEtatlCBARLBS V. |||0 

wett as of t^e bread in the sacranient of the ^^^ 
Lord's Supper, were BtiU indulged in the pri* vi^»yW 
vilege of receiviiig both. Even these were de- ^^^* 
dared to be concessions for the mke of peace, 
and granted only for a seasson, in compliance 
lyith the weakness or prejudices of their eoun-* 


i ' '- - • 

This BVstem of doctrine, known aHeswaink This, whkK 
by the name of the /nform, because it contain- theinterii^ 
ed temporary regulations, which were to con- ^J*^^* 
tinue no longer in force than until a free ge- *«*» 
neral council could be heldi the Emperor pre- ^ . ' ^ 
eehted to tlie diet, with a pompous declamAibn of 
his sincere intention to re-establish tranquillity 
and the church, as well as of his bopes 
that their adopting these mgdation&i would! 
oon tribute greatly to bring about that desirable 
event. It was read in presence ol the .diet ac- 
cording to form. As soon as it was iinishedl, 
tiie archbishop of Menl^, pi^esidefit. hi the 
electoral college, rbse up hastily, ai^l, ^having . 
tiianked the Empelrot for \k% unwearied aod 
pious endeavours in order to restore peace to 
the church, he, in name of the diet, signified 
their apptt>hation of -the systeii^ ^ of doctrine 
which had be^i read, together with their resoi- 
lution of conforming to it in every particular. 
The whole assembly was amaaed iat a declara* 
tion so unprecedented and unconstitutional, as 

* F. Paul, 276. Pallay. ii. 60. Sleid. 453. 457. Struv. 
Corp. 1054. Cr<)Ulast. CoQ^it. Iinp^rri. 518. 
VOL. III. Ff , 


BOOK ^^1} as at the Ejector's ' presiifbp(&on in pre^ 

K^-s^^^j tending to deliver the sense of. the. diet, tip to a 

^***- point which had not hitherto been the subject 

andnhorti of coHsUltation Of debate^ But not one mem* 

batkmofit ber had the courage to ccmtradict ^^hat the 

Elector had said ; some being overawed by fear, 

others remaining silent through Cothplaisanoe. 

The Emperor held the archbishop's declaration 

to be a fbll constitutional ratification of the In^ 

teriin^ and preparckl to enforce the observance 

of it, as a decree of the Empire^* 


^efw «^ Qunmo this diet^ the wife and childreii of 
KcTtetiotig the Landgrave, warmly, seconded by Maurice 
Sli^mve'f ^f Sax33ny, endeavoured to interest the mem- 
liberty. |jg,.g {jj behalf of that unhappy prince, who still 
languished in confinement. But Charles^ whor 
did not' bboose to be brought under the: heces^ 
sity 4>f rejierciling any request that caiae from 
such ' a respectable body, in order to prevent 
their representations^ laid before the diet alt 
accounlt . of his ' transactions with the > Isand- 
grave, together wilh the motives which, had at 
first induced him to detain- that Prince in cus^ 
fody, and. which rendered it prudent, as he al- 
lodged^ to keep him still under restraint. It was 
no easy matter to give any good reason for 
an actk)n, incapable of being justified. But 
he thovight the most frivolous pretexts might 
be produced in an assembly the members of 
which were willing to be deceived, and afraid 

* Sleid. 460. F. Paul, 2^3. Pallar. 63. 




I , 

t)f nothing so much as of dtsoovering that they ^^^ 
saw hid conduct in its trae colours* His ac*- 
count of his own conduct was accordingly ad« 

mitted to be fully satisfactory^ and after some 
feeble entreaties that he would extend his cle* 
mency to his unfortunate prisoner^ the Land* 
grare*s concerns were no more mentioned *• 

In oirder to counterbalance the unfavourable 
impression which this inflexible rigour might 
XQBke, Charles, as a proof that his gratitade 
was no less permanent and unchangeable thaa 
his resentment, invested Maurice in the electo 
ral dignity, with all the legal formalities. The 
ceremony was performed, with extraordinary 
pomp, in an open court, so near the apart 
ment In which the degraded Elector was kept 
a prisoner, that he could view it from his win** 
dbws. Even this insult did not ruffle his usual 
tranquillity; and turning his. eyes that way, 
he beheld a prosperous rival receiving those 
ensigns of dignity of which he had been strip* 
ped^ without uttering one sentiment unbecom* 
ing the fortitude that he had preserved amidst 
all h is. cal amities f. 


Immediately after the dissolution of the Th«fe«« 

equally dit* 

diet, the Emperor ordered the Interim to be nppvivtd^ 
published in the German as well as Latin Ian- ^its anA 

* Sleid. 441- 

t Thuan. Hist. lib. v. 176. Struv. Corp. 1054. Investitum 
Mauritii, a Mammtrano Lucembergo de»cripta> ap* Scardittso, 
ii. 508. 


^ EC ^ giw^ge. ^ It joi^t with tl^ iisiial iteeeptiofli ^t 
G^ncilifiting scbem^t wben proposed to m^n 
heated with dispulatioB ; b^tb parties deoliiija>* 
^ agakisl it mth equisd vkd^noe. The i^rotes^ 
4aiits ooitdemndd it as 4 syatem c0ti»ifiiiniiig the 
-grossest lecrors of Piqpary^ dl0^i$ed with sa 
little jart^ tbatii could impwe orAy m the most 
ignorant^ or on those who, by wilfully shutting 
Ihieir eyee, ^faroured the deoep^ioiK The Pa- 
!pists iDiveighed agaimt lib as a W4^rk iwi which 
j^ome doclrmes of the char eh were impioiiiily 
•given up;^ others meanly. i»ake£alect> ilod all of 
them delivered m iterixid calculated rather to 
ideceive 4he iiintwai^y^ than to iiisti^uct tke igao- 
Tant, or to.reetaim siKrh as wei?e. enemi^ to 
ttie troth. While the Lutk^rfkB divines fiercif* 
?ly attacked it on Mie hand, the genecal iff the 
Bonlunioans with no tesi» v)ehi9me»re impfigned 
it on the other. Bat at;Bomey .ub soim as the 
,9onteM;siof the Interitt. came :to 'be: hpoiirn, 
sthe dni^gnatian (jf the couirtieirs and eddiiesaiS- 
tics ro^ to the grieatest height They* ^siglaitt- 
ed \agaiast the Emperor's pr<tfane faioraaol]^ 
ment on the sace]?dotal function, in qi^resiiiaiingy 
with the co^ncurrence of an Asseml% d laj^ 
men, to define articles of faith, and to regulate^ 
jnodes :cf worship. They compared this tash 
deed to that of tJzziah, wfroy with an unhal- 
lowed :hat)d, had touched the ark of God $ or tfx 
the bold attemipts of those Emperors, who^ had 
rendered their memory detestable^ by endea- 
*youring tb model the Ghristian church accord- 
ing to their pleasure. They even aft'ect^ i^ 

find out Ik resemblance between ike Emperor's ^^^ 
oonduct and thatof Heorry VI£L and expressed v.^^^.«/ 
their fear of bi« inti tail irig tbe: exaih pie of t^bat *^*** 
$tpostateyby usurping the title as weRasjxirtsdic- 
tion belongiDg to the he^d of the church. AII'^ 
therefore, contended with one voice, th&t as: 
the fotindations^f ecclesiastical authority were 
aow shaken, and the whole fabric ready to be 
overturned by a new: enemy, somd powerful 
method of defence must be provided, and a vi- 
gofMis resistance must be made, in the begih^ 
oing, before he grew too formidaUe tb be op* 

The Pope, whose judgment was improred '^^J^" 
hy lotsgei experience' in great^ transactions, as the Pope 
ivell as by a more extensivie observation of hu- toV* 
man aiffairs, viewed? tim matter with more acute 
discemm>ent, and derived eom£9rt from the very 
circumstance which frlledf them with apprehen* 
f;ion. He was astonished that a PriAce of such 
{Superior sagacity as the £mperor, shiould be so 
intOHic^ted with af single victory, as to imagine 
thaft he might give law to mankind, and decide 
evei^ i>n those matters, with regard to which ' 
they are most impatient of dominion. He saw 
that, by joining any one of the contending par- 
ties icii Germsmy, Charles might have had it in 
his power to havse oppressed^ the other, but that 
ihe presumptioti of success bad now" inspired 
him with the vain thought of bis being; able to 
domineer over both. He foretold that a sys- 
tem which aU attackedv and none defended, 


^ ?x^ ^ could not be of long duration ; and that, for this 
reason, there was no need of his .interposing 
in order to hasten its fall; for as soon as the 
powerful hand which now upheld it was vvith^ 
^rawn, it would sink of itis own accord, and be 
forgotten for ever*. 


The Snpe* 
tor wforoes 

with the 

The Emperor, fond of his own plan, adhered 
to his resolution of carrying it into full execu- 
btotDDu tion. But though the Elector Palatine, the 
Elector of Brandenburg, and Maurice, influ- 
enced by the same considerations as formerly, 
seemed ready to yield implicit obedience to 
whatever he should enjoin, he met not every 
where with a like obsequious submission* John 
Marquis of Brandenburg Anspach, although he 
had taken part with great zeal in the war 
against the confederates of Smalkalde, refused 
to renounce doctrines which he held to be sa- 
cred ; and reminding the Emperor of the repeat- 
ed promises which he had given his Prqtestant 
allies, of allowing them the free exercise of their 
religion, he claimed, in consequence of these, 
to be exempted from receiving the Interim. 
Some other Princes, also, ventured to mention 
the same scruples, and to plead the same indul- 
gence. But on this, as on other trying occa- 
sions, the firmness of the Elector of Saxony was 
most distinguished, and merited the highest 
praiset Charles, well knowing the authority of 
his example with all the Protestant party, labour^ 

^ JSIeid.,469. R Paul, 271. 277. Pallar. iL «♦. 



edU with the utmost earnestniess^ to gajn his ap- 
probation of the Interim^ and by employing 
sometimes promises o£ setting him at liberty^ 
sometimes threats of treating him with greater 
harshness, attempted alternately to work upon 
his hopes and his fears. But he was alike re-> 
gardless of both. After having d eclared his fixed ' 
belief in the doctrines of the Reformation, *' I 
pajQnot now," said he, ** in my old age, aban^ 
don the principles, for which I early contend- 
ed ; nor, in order to procure freedom during a 
few declining years, will I betray that good 
cause, on account of which I have suffered so 
much, and am still willing to suffer. Better for 
me to enjoy, in this solitude, the esteem of vir- 
tuous men, together with the approbation of 
my own conscience, than to return into the 
worlds with the imputation and guilt of aposta^- 
cy, to disgrace and embitter the remainder of 
my days." By this magnanimous resolution, 
he set his countrymen a pattern of conduct, so 
very different from that which the Emperor 
wishjsd him to have exhibited to them, that it 
drew upon him fresh marks of his displeasure. 
The rigour of his confinement was increased ; the 
number of his servants abridged; the Lutheran 
clergymen, who had hitherto been permitted to 
attend him, were dismissed ; and even the books 
of devotion, which had been his chief consola-; 
tion during a tedious imprisonment, were taken 
from him*. The Landgrave of Hesse, his com^ 

* Sleid. 469. 


* DL ^ paiiiori in misfortune, did not maintain the same 
v-p-v-^i^ constancy. His patience iind foHitude were 
^**'* both 50 much exhausted by. the length of his 
confinement, that, willing to purchase freedom 
at any price,ihe wrote to the Emperor, offering 
not xftAy to approve bf the Interim, but to yield 
an unreserved submisiion to his will in every 
other particuflir. But Charles, who knew that 
whatever course the Landgrave might hojdji 
neitiicr his example nor authority would prevail 
on his children or subjects to receive the Inte^ 
rim, paid no regal*d td his oflFers. He was kept 
confined as strictly as eter; and while he suf- 
fered the cruel mortification of having his con* 
duct eet in contrast to that of the Elector^ he 
derived not the smallest benefit froni the mean 
step which exposed him to much deserved cent 

^hcfrte But it was ju the Imperial cities that Charlea 
gletgainst Ki^t With the most violent ppposition to the In* 
receiving tcrfm. Thesc Small commonwealths, the citi- 

tbe Interim. , 7 . 

^ens of which werfe accustomed to liberty and 
indepeiidence, had ehibraqed the doctrines of 
the Keformation when they were first publishedj, 
with remarkable eagierness j the bold spirit of 
innovation being peculiarly suited to the genius 
of frefe government. ' Among them, the Protes- 
tant teachers had made the greatest number of 
proselytes, Th^ most eihiaent diviufi of the 
party wfere settled in them as pastors. By hav- 

* Sleid. 462. 


kig tha directioti of the schools and other semi* ^ ^ ^ 
liaries oi l^arnifig, they had traiiied up discir ^.#^v^^ 
pies, who were as well instriicted in the articles ^^^ 
of their faith> as they were a^ei^ous to defend 
them. Such f)ersons were not to be gukjed by 
example, or swayed by aiiithority ; bm haring 
been taugjit to employ their own understanding 
in ^xsunit^tng imd deciding with respect to the 
points in controvert, they thought that they 
were both qualified atid entitled to judge for 
themselves. As soon as the contents of the In^ 
tefim were known, they, with one voice, joined 
in refusing to admit it Augsburg, Ulm, Stras* 
burg, Constaiice, Bremen, Magdeburg, together 
with maiiy other towns of less note, presented 
remonstrances to the Emperor^ setting forth tha 
irregular and unconstitutional manner in whicl\ 
the Interim h^ been enacted, and beseeching him 
not to offer such violence to their consciences, 
$s to require their assent to a fonn of doctrine 
^d worship^ which appeared to them^ i^epug<» 
nant to the expt^ss precepts of the divine ^w, 
ButChar]ei9 haying prevailed on somanyprindes 
of the Empii*^ to approve of his new model, 
was not much tnoved by the representations of 
those cities, which, how formidable soever they 
might have ph>ved, if they could have been 
formed into Ode body, lay so remote from each 
other, tbit it was easy to oppress them sepa- 
rately, before il was possible for them to unite. 

In order to accomplish this, the Emperor ^Sfl*^ 
saw it to be requisite tbat his measures should ^ ^^^' 

4S8 TH£.B£16N OF THE 

^^' be vigorousy and executed with such rapidity 
v^^N^w' as to allow no time for ooncerting imy common 
^^^' plan of opposition. Having laid down this 
maxim as the rule of his proceedings, his first 
attempt was upon tbecity of Augsburg, which, 
though overawed with the presence of the Spa* 
nish troops, he knew to be as much dissatisfied 
with the Interim as any in the Empire. He 
ordered one body of these troops to sieize the 
gates; he posted therbst in different quarters 
^'«*»^^ of the city; and assembling all the burgesses in 
the town-hall, he, by his sole absolute author!-' 
ty, published a decree abolishing their present 
form of government, dissolving all their corpora* 
tions and fraternities, and nominating a small 
number of person^, in whom he vested for the 
future all the powers of government. Each of 
the persons, thus chosen, took an oath to ob-r 
9crve the Interim. An act of power so unpre- 
cedented as well as arbitrary, which excluded 
the body of the inhabitants from any share in 
the government of. their own community, and 
subjected them to men who had no other merit 
than their : servile devotion to the Emperor *s 
will, gave general disgust y but as they durst not 
venture upon resistance, they were obliged to 
submit in silence*. From Augsburg, in which 
he left a garrison, he proceeded to Ulm, and 
new-modelling its government with the same 
violent hand, he seized such of their pastors a^ 
refused to subscribe the Interim, committed 

* SIcid. 409. 

• -« 



them to prison, and ftt, his departure carried 
them along with him in chains^. By this seve- 
rity he not only secured the reception of the 
Interim in two of the most powerful cities, but 
gave warning to the rest what such as continu* . 
cd refractory bad to expect. The effect of the 
example was as great as he coiild have wished; 
and many towns, in order to save themselves 
from the like treatment, found it necessary to 
com ply with what he enjoined. This obedience 
extorted by the rigour of authority, produced 
uo change in the sentiments of the Germans, 
and extended no farther than to make them 
conform so far to what he required, as was bare- 
ly sufficient to screen them from punishment. 
The Protestant preachers accompanied those re- 
ligious rites, the observation of which the Inte- 
irim prescribed, with such an explication of their 
tendency, as served rather to confirm than to 
remove the scruples of their hearers with regard ' 
to them. The people, many of whom had 
grown up to mature years since the establish- 
tftevkt of the reformed religion, and had never 
knpwn any other form of public worship, be- 
held tl^ie pompous pageantry of the popish ser^ 
vice with contempt or horror; and in most 
plapes the Romish ecclesiastics who returned to 
take possession of tjheir churches, could hardly 
be protected from insult* or their ministrations 
from interruption. Thus, notwithstanding the 
ippareat oompltance of so xp^ny cities, the io- 

460 THK RE!GK dF THE- 

^^ix.^ Iiabitants being accustomed to freedom, stttM 
»iy y ^*^ mitted mth reluctance to the poorer wbicto noM^ 
****• oppressed them. Their ai^^rstandinlg ^ ^elt 
as inctination revoHed against the doctirifie^and 
ceremonies imposed on thern^ ; aAd though, for 
the present, they conceated their diisgust aac{ 
resentmentj it was erident thait Khesd passions' 
could not always be kept under restraint, %np 
woutd break out at t^st in efSects^ proportiosfal- 
to their violence*^ 

TiiePop« Charles, however, highly pleased with havv 

tbeCoanetl ^^S '^^* ^^^ StobbOTB Spirit 6{ the Gei'ttians tO" 

JJ'^^I^ such general sobmission-, departed for the Low- 
Countries, fully determined to compel the cities^ 
which stilt stood out, to receive the Interim? 
He carried his two prisonersi tho Elector of 
Saxony and lyandgtare of KleSae, along wiiU 
him, either because he durst ^t leave tliem* be- 
' fiind him in Germany, or because h$ wished to^ 
give his countrymen the PkMirtgs this illu^tri** 
ous proof of the silcces^ of his afftis dnd" tbe eX- 

11^17. t^nt of his power. Before Charles arriTcd- a* 
Brussels, he was informed thai the Pope's le- 
gates at Bologna had dismissed thi^ cdnr^cil by^ 
^ an ittdefinite prorogation, and that the prelates 
d^entbled there had rfeturned!' to thek" respee* 
' fire countrres. Kecessiiy had drWen the Pop© 
into this measure. By the secession of those 
who had toted against «he transfcitioii, together 
with the departure of others^ who* grew wfearj^ 

* Mem. de Ridief, H. 218. Sleid. 491, 

iftjopnUinmng'in.A plape wher^ tjb^jf were m^t '^^^ 

^lif&red to proceed t^ businesstf so few and 
such iacpnaide^fible 7nember$ remained, that the ^^ 
|>0i9i^€fu^ appelUtion of a General Coaincil could 
^t^ wHh deceni:y, be be^tpwed a^ny longer u|i- 
on them. Pgul had no choipe but to diasol?e 
Wk assembly wfeich iva3 be^oa^^ the object of 
^qonfeeinpti and exhibited to ^11 Christeadotn a 
m^ gWmg pf opf of the impotence of the JRo- 
mish Se$« But unavoidable as tl>e n^fi^isqre waOi 
it Jay open to bp unfavourably infterpretad^ and 
Itad ^he itppie^xaiioe of withdrawing the reme^ 
dy, %t the yer;y time when those, for whose re- 
-O^v^ry it was pnovided, w*ere {prevailed on to flic* 
)(nowlie4g^ Us virtue^ asid to make trial of il;8 
afficaey, Charles did not fail tp piM; this OQn- 
fitFueftion pn th^ oonduct pf the Pop^ n and bjr 
an arliul oom.pari$pn of bis own effprts to sup- 
press beppsyj with Paul's scandalous vnjq^teiitk>p ' 
4o a p^int SQ ep^eijiibiaU he endeavoured to rai^ 
der t^e Ponftiff odious to all zealous C^itbolie^^ 
.At the same time he oonimaiided the prdatas 
of his faptienn to remain at Trent, tfa^t the Cotii)- 
cil mighl; still appear to have a being, and might 
beiready whenever it was thought expedient to 
resume its deliberations for the good of the 

The motive of Charleses JQurney to the Low- *^ ^^' 


Countries, beside gratifyilig hi^ favourite pas- ws.sjm 
sion of travelling fVom one part of his dorni* ^''i!^- 

* fallar. p, 11.72. 




* c^ ^ tftens to another^ was to recei t^ Philip, bk 6nlf 
son, who was now in the twenty-fir^t jear of 
his age, and whom he had called thither^ tiot 
only that he migKt be recognized by the Stat^ 
of the Netherlands as heir-apparent, but in or- 
der to facilitate the execution of a vast scheme^ 
the object of which, and the reception it met 
with, shall be hereafter explained. Philip^ 
having left the government of Spain to MaXK 
xnilian, Ferdinand's eldest son, to whom the 
Emperdr had given the PrincesS Mary his 
daughter in marriage^ embarked for Italy, at- 
tended by a numerous retinue of Spanish nobles^. 
The squadron which escorted him, was x^otOr 
manded by Andrew Doria, who, notwithstand- 
ing his advanced age, insisted on the honour of 
performing in. person, the' same duty to the 
son, which he had often discharged towards 
)iov. 95. / the father. He landed safely at Genoa ; from 
1549. thence he went to Milan, and proceeding 
Apriii. through ' Germany, arrived at the Imperial 
court in Brussels. The States of Brabant, in 
the first placci and thpse of the other provinces 
in their order, acknowledged his right of suc« 
cession in common form, and he took the cus- 
tomary oath to preserve all their privileges in- 
violate f. In all the towns of the Low-Coun- 
tries through which Philip passed he was re- 
ceived with extraordinary pomp. Nothing 
that could either express the respect of the 
people, or contribute to his amusement, was 

* Ochoa, Carolea, 362. 

t Hanei Aunal. Brabant. Q52. 

. • Jf 



glected I pSLgeantSf tourbam^nts^ and public 
spebtactes of every kind, were exhibited ivith 
that expensive magnificence which commer- 
cial nations are fond of displaying^ when^ on 
dny occa3ioil> tfa^y depart from their, mual 
maxims of frugality. But amidst these' sceiies 
of festivity and pleasure, Philip*s natural seve- 
rity of temper was discernible. Youth itself 
could not render him agreeable, nor his being 
a candidate for power form him to courtesy. 
He maintained a haughty reserve in his beha- 
viour, and discovered such manifest partiality 
towards his . Spanish attendants^ together with 
such an avowed preference to the manners of 
their country^ as* highly disgusted the Fle- 
mings, and gave rise to that antipathy, which 
afterwards occasioned a revolution fatal to him 
in that part of his dominions^. 

Charles was long detained in the Nether- 
lands by a violent attack of the gout, which 
returned upon him so frequently, and with 
such increasing violence, that it had broken, to 
a great degree, the vigour of his constitution. 
He nevertheless did not slacken his endeavours 
to enforce the Interim. The inhabitants of 
Strasburg, after a long struggle, found it neces- 
sary to yield obedience ; those of Constance, 
who had taken arms in their own defence, were 
compelled not only to conform to the Interim, 
but to renounce their privileges as a free city, 

* Mem. it Ribier, iu 29. L'Evesque Mem. de Card. Gran* 
Telle, i. 21* 





BOOK to do homage to Ferdinand as Archduke c^ 
Austria^ aad» as hi3 vassab^ -to admit an Aua^ 
triaa gonrernor and garrison^. Magdeburg^ 
Bremen* Hamburg^ and Lubeck> were the on- 
ly Imperiai cities of note that 9tiU continued 

* Sleid. 474. 4^1. 


i. ]^ttirliea4 PrinUir, 



-V '■■ •■ 


« *